for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington, Seattle. He is president-elect of the American Educational Research Association and is a past president of the National Council for the Social Studies. Professor Banks has written or edited 16 books in multicultural education and in social studies education, including Teaching Strategies for Ethnic Studies; Multiethnic Education: Theory and Practice; and Multicultural Education, Transformative Knowledge, and Action. He is the editor of the Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education, the first published research handbook in this field. Professor Banks has received four research awards from the American Educational Research Association and an honorary doctorate of humane letters (L.H.D.) from the Bank Street College of Education. He has a Ph.D. in social studies education from Michigan State University.

DONNA CHRISTIAN is president of the Center for Applied Linguistics in Washington, D.C., where she is active in research, program development and evaluation, and teacher education. She has also taught at the university level, including two years as a Fulbright senior lecturer in Poland. Her work has focused on the role of language in education, including second language education, dialect diversity, and policy issues. Dr. Christian has consulted and written extensively on these topics, including recent publications on issues of language and culture in school reform, the integration of language and content for immigrant students, and two-way bilingual education. She has an M.S. in applied linguistics and a Ph.D. in sociolinguistics from Georgetown University.

RICHARD DURÁN is professor in the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Previously, he served as a research scientist at Educational Testing Service in Princeton. His fields of expertise include assessment and instruction of language minority students, and design and evaluation of interventions assisting language minority students. He is a member of the Technical Design Committee of New Standards and a member of various national technical panels that advise the National Center for Education Statistics on the conduct of surveys, including those on language-minority children. Professor Durán has a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of California at Berkeley, specializing in quantitative and cognitive psychology.

CARL F. KAESTLE is university professor of education, history, and public policy at Brown University. He is also senior fellow at the Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University. Previously,



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