Index

A

Aflatoxin, 31

African Americans, 12, 13, 15, 20-21, 27, 29

Age factors, 12, 35, 41

see also Children

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 3, 16, 35

Agricultural areas, 5, 13, 34

Air pollutants, 19, 54, 56, 95

allergies and allergens, 28

asbestos, 19, 27, 31

asthma and, 19, 20-21, 27, 28, 29, 33, 57, 83, 86, 95

EPA data, 25

EPA standards, 19

lung diseases, 19, 29, 33

ozone, 19, 86

particulate matter, 19, 20, 29

residential (indoor) exposures, 17, 19, 21, 28, 29, 80

Alaskan Natives, 13-14, 17, 37, 39

Alcohol use and abuse, 18

Allergies and allergens, 28

see also Asthma

Allied health sciences, see Nursing and allied health sciences

American Anthropological Association, 35, 36

American Chemical Society, 54

American Indians, 12, 13, 16, 39, 117

Alaskan Natives, 13-14, 17, 37, 39

Animal studies, 31

Area data, see Small-area analysis

Aromatic amines, 31

Asbestos, 19, 27, 31

Asians/Pacific Islanders, 12, 13, 14

Asthma, 19, 20-21, 27, 28, 29, 33, 57, 83, 86, 95

B

Baselines, 11-21, 41

Behavioral factors, vii, 12, 17, 18, 80

alcohol use and abuse, 18

nutrition and diet, 6, 12, 21, 27, 37, 39, 64;

see also Food contamination

smoking, 13, 27, 89

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 80

Biological markers, viii, 4, 27, 29-33, 35, 42

defined, 29-30, 32

Biostatistics, viii, 33

Birth weight, 13

C

Cancer and carcinogens, 12, 13-14, 29, 56, 80-81, 83, 95



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OCR for page 131
--> Index A Aflatoxin, 31 African Americans, 12, 13, 15, 20-21, 27, 29 Age factors, 12, 35, 41 see also Children Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 3, 16, 35 Agricultural areas, 5, 13, 34 Air pollutants, 19, 54, 56, 95 allergies and allergens, 28 asbestos, 19, 27, 31 asthma and, 19, 20-21, 27, 28, 29, 33, 57, 83, 86, 95 EPA data, 25 EPA standards, 19 lung diseases, 19, 29, 33 ozone, 19, 86 particulate matter, 19, 20, 29 residential (indoor) exposures, 17, 19, 21, 28, 29, 80 Alaskan Natives, 13-14, 17, 37, 39 Alcohol use and abuse, 18 Allergies and allergens, 28 see also Asthma Allied health sciences, see Nursing and allied health sciences American Anthropological Association, 35, 36 American Chemical Society, 54 American Indians, 12, 13, 16, 39, 117 Alaskan Natives, 13-14, 17, 37, 39 Animal studies, 31 Area data, see Small-area analysis Aromatic amines, 31 Asbestos, 19, 27, 31 Asians/Pacific Islanders, 12, 13, 14 Asthma, 19, 20-21, 27, 28, 29, 33, 57, 83, 86, 95 B Baselines, 11-21, 41 Behavioral factors, vii, 12, 17, 18, 80 alcohol use and abuse, 18 nutrition and diet, 6, 12, 21, 27, 37, 39, 64; see also Food contamination smoking, 13, 27, 89 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 80 Biological markers, viii, 4, 27, 29-33, 35, 42 defined, 29-30, 32 Biostatistics, viii, 33 Birth weight, 13 C Cancer and carcinogens, 12, 13-14, 29, 56, 80-81, 83, 95

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--> biomarkers, 31, 33 children, 29, 80-81 Case studies, 4, 20-21, 29, 38, 39, 56 Cell occupancy approach, 89 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ix, 3, 35, 80 Chemical Manufacturers Association, 53 Children birth weight, 13 cancer, 29, 80-81 education of, 53-57 hazardous waste site proximity, 18 infant mortality, 13, 29 lead poisoning, 17 Civil Rights Act, 119 Clean Air Act, 120 Clinton, William, 1, 111-120 Commission for Racial Justice, see United Church of Christ Communities of concern, 9 baseline data, 11 characteristics of, 6 committee approach, 4 economic development vs health protection, 8, 9, 68, 113, 115 educational efforts, 7-8, 52-57, 59 defined, 2 multiple exposure, 28, 29 participatory research, 1, 5, 7, 23, 26, 34, 36-40, 41, 42, 43, 50, 52, 55-57, 65, 68 political disenfranchisement, 2, 6, 9, 36, 45, 64 sources of environmental health hazards, 14 stakeholder collaboration, 5, 7, 42, 43, 65, 68; see also ''participatory research" supra susceptibility, 26-27 Community Outreach and Education Program (COEP), 52, 53-54, 56-57 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, 18 Cost and cost-benefit factors, 65, 95-96, 117 committee approach, 4 Cultural factors, 12, 117 researchers vs subjects, 6, 37, 39, 40, 68 subsistence consumption of food, 17, 37, 39, 59, 115 D Databases, 24-26, 28, 41 Death rates, 5, 12, 13, 56 asthma, 21 Deep South Center for Environmental Justice, 54 Department of Energy, ix, 4, 112 Department of Health and Human Services, 112 databases, 25 Departments of federal government, other, 112 see also Federal government Diet, see Nutrition and diet Dimethylformamide, 18 Disease cluster analysis, 34-35, 56, 81-82, 84-94 Disease prevention, general, 4, 9, 23, 51 Diseases and disorders, general, 29, 62 biomarkers, 29-30, 32, 42 birth weight, 13 death rates, 5, 12, 13, 21, 56 infant mortality, 13, 29 lead poisoning, 17, 19, 27, 29, 37 susceptibility, 2, 7, 26-27, 30, 31-32, 33, 42, 62-63, 64-65, 80; see also Behavioral factors; Genetic factors see also Cancer and carcinogens; Etiology; Occupational exposures and injuries; specific diseases and disorders DNA adducts, 30, 32 E Ecologic studies, 18 Economic factors, 16 cost and cost-benefit factors, 4, 65, 95-96, 117

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--> employment and unemployment, 3, 16, 41, 64 health protection vs development, 8, 9, 68, 113, 115 see also Poverty; Socioeconomic status Ederer-Myers-Mantel, 91 Education, 3, 45-59 children, 53-57 professional, viii, 4, 7-8, 9, 46-52, 57-58 public, viii, 7-8, 9, 42, 43, 46, 52-58, 59, 68, 116; see also Participatory research; Stakeholders Educational attainment, 1, 3, 12, 13, 41 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, 115, 120 Employment and unemployment, 3, 16, 41, 64 recruitment of health specialists, 51-52, 58, 59 see also Occupational exposures and injuries Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Center, 54 Environmental and occupational medicine air quality standards, 19 data and site visits, 5 defined, 2 see also Occupational exposures and injuries Environmental justice, defined, 1 Environmental Protection Agency, ix, 3, 4, 24, 29, 65, 119-120 databases, 25-26 environmental justice defined, 1 Executive Order 12898, 3, 111, 112 Epidemiology, general, viii, 11-21, 34-37 barriers to, 79-97 biostatistics, viii, 33 conventional, 6 death rates, 5, 12, 13, 21, 56 disease cluster analysis, 34-35, 56, 81-82, 84-94 health professionals, education, 49 life expectancy, 11-12, 21 methodologies, 23-43, 56, 79, 81-97 preepidemiologic methods, 34-35, 56, 79, 81-97 sampling, 33, 34, 62, 79, 80-81, 85 small-area analysis, 81, 82, 92-93 see also Biological markers Ethical issues, 4, 51 Ethylene oxide, 31 Etiology, 7, 27, 28, 43, 93 asthma, 21, 28, 29 biomarkers, 29-30, 31, 32, 33 health professionals, education, 46-49 Executive Order 12250, 116 Executive Order 12856, 115 Executive Order 12875, 116 Executive Order 12898, 3, 111-120 Exposure, viii, 7, 41, 64-65, 80, 95-96 biomarkers, 30-31, 32-33, 42 databases, 24-26, 28-29, 41 disparities in, 11, 14-17 food contamination, 17, 37, 39, 59, 115 health status, links to, 18-21 multiple hazards, 18, 21, 27, 28, 62, 64, 80 public education, 53 research methodologies, 24-26, 28-31, 32-33, 41, 42, 80 see also Behavioral factors; Biological markers; Occupational exposures and injuries F Federal government, ix, 3, 6-7 databases, 24-26, 28, 41 Executive Order 12250, 116 Executive Order 12856, 115 Executive Order 12875, 116 Executive Order 12898, 3, 111-120 interagency strategies, 4, 111-112, 115, 116 state/local coordination with, ix, 6, 41 see also Funding; Legislation; Regulatory issues; specific departments and agencies Food contamination, 17, 37, 39, 59, 115

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--> Freedom of Information Act, 129 Funding health professionals, education, 47, 49, 58 research, viii, 40-41, 49-50, 62 G Gender factors, 41 General Accounting Office, 3 Genetic factors, 21, 27, 35, 36, 42 biomarkers, 30-31, 32 DNA adducts, 30, 32 Geographic barriers, neighborhoods, 6 Geographic information systems, 35 Government role, see Federal government; Local government; State government H Health policy, see Public health approach Health professionals education of, viii, 4, 7-8, 9, 46-52, 57-58 links to, 41 nursing and allied health sciences, 50-51 physicians, 1, 47, 48, 49, 50, 58 recruitment of specialists, 51-52, 58, 59 Health status, general, 24 access to health care, 2, 6, 9, 12, 21, 49, 58 defined, 2 disparities in, general, 11-14 exposure, disparities in, 11, 14-17 exposure, links to, 18-21, 27 sentinel health conditions, 47-48 see also Diseases and disorders, general; Genetic factors; Public health approach Health Surveillance and Communities of Color, 35 Hispanics, 12, 13, 15-16, 20 I Income, see Poverty; Socioeconomic status Infant mortality, 13, 29 see also Birth weight Interactions of Drugs, Biologics, and Chemicals in U.S. Military Forces, 28 Interagency Environmental Health Information Program, 25 Inventory of Exposure-Related Data Systems Sponsored by Federal Agencies, 24 L Landfills, see Treatment, storage, and disposal facilities Lead poisoning, 17, 19, 27, 29, 37 Legislation, general environmental justice defined, 1 professional education on, 51 Legislation, specific Civil Rights Act, 119 Clean Air Act, 120 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, 18 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, 115, 120 Freedom of Information Act, 129 National Environmental Policy Act, 119-120 Privacy Act, 114 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 18 Sunshine Act, 120 Life expectancy, 11-12, 21 Liver disease, 18 see also Lead poisoning Living Is for Everyone, 56 Local government committee approach, 5 federal coordination, ix, 6, 41 public education, 55 public health education, professional, 50, 58

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--> Low income, see Poverty Lung diseases, 19, 29, 33 M Managed care, 49, 58 Medicaid, 49 Medical science, see Environmental and occupational medicine; Health professionals; Health status, general Medicare, 49 Methodology, see Research methodologies Minority groups, 1, 2, 3, 6, 27, 30, 62 African Americans, 12, 13, 15, 20-21, 27, 29 Alaskan Natives, 13-14, 17, 37, 39 American Indians, 12, 13, 16, 39, 117 Asians/Pacific Islanders, 12, 13, 14 asthma, 20-21 classification of, 35-36, 41 committee approach, 4, 5 educational efforts, 46, 51-52, 56-57, 68 epidemiological studies, general, 28, 34-36, 79 Executive Order 12898, 3, 111-120 (passim) exposure and susceptibility factors, 7, 14-17, 20-21, 26-27, 29, 31, 34-36, 62 health professionals, minority group recruitment, 51-52, 59 health professionals serving, education of, 46, 56-57 health status, general, 11, 12-14, 27, 29, 62 Hispanics, 12, 13, 15-16, 20 occupational exposures, 34 participatory research, 39, 41 sampling, 80-81; see also "classification of" supra Model Plan for Public Participation, 65 N National Cancer Institute, 26 National Environmental Justice Advisory Council, 65, 68 National Environmental Policy Act, 119-120 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 26 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, ix, 3-4, 26 Community Outreach and Education Program, 52, 53-54, 56-57 National Institutes of Health, 3 National Library of Medicine, 26 National Minority Health Conference: Focus on Environmental Contamination , 3 Native Americans, see American Indians Nitrosamines, 31 Nursing and allied health sciences, 50-51 Nutrition and diet, 6, 12, 21, 27, 37, 39, 64 food contamination, 17, 37, 39, 59, 115 subsistence consumption of food, 17, 37, 39, 59, 115 O Occupational exposures and injuries, 2, 18, 27, 62, 64 asbestos, biomarkers, 31 committee approach, 4 data on, 5, 20 health professionals, education, 46-49 monitoring systems, 17 multiple exposures, 28, 62 socioeconomic factors, 34 Office of Management and Budget, 36 Ohio Outreach Strategy for Equity in Environmental Issues, 52-53 Ozone, 19, 86

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--> P Participatory research, 1, 5, 7, 23, 26, 34, 36-40, 41, 42, 43, 50 , 52, 55-57, 65 cultural factors, researchers vs subjects, 6, 37, 39, 40, 68 defined, 37 Particulate matter, 19, 20, 29 Physicians, 1, 47, 48, 49, 50, 58 Political factors, 8, 63-64, 68 disenfranchisement, 2, 6, 9, 36, 45, 64 poverty, attitudes toward, 63-64 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 31 Poverty, 1, 3, 21, 36, 68 as risk factor, viii, 2, 6, 7, 12 asthma, 20 committee approach, 4, 5 epidemiological studies, general, 28, 34-35, 38, 69 Executive Order 12898, 3, 111-120 (passim) exposure and susceptibility factors, 7, 15, 16 health professionals serving, education of, 46 health status, general, 11-12 sampling, 80-81 sociopolitical attitudes toward, 63-64 Privacy Act, 114 Professional education, viii, 4, 7-8, 9, 46-52, 57-58 funding, 47, 49, 58 Professional organizations American Anthropological Association, 35, 36 American Chemical Society, 54 Chemical Manufacturers Association, 53 Professionals, see Health professionals; Public health approach Public education, viii, 7-8, 9, 42, 43, 46, 52-58, 59, 68, 116 see also Participatory research; Stakeholders Public health approach, 6-9, 23, 61-68 education of professionals, 8, 49-50 funding, 49-50 see also Epidemiology, general R Race/ethnicity, see Minority groups Radiation hazards, 16, 39 Regulatory issues, vii-viii environmental justice defined, 1 interagency strategies, 4, 111-112, 115, 116 professional education on, 51 see also Legislation; Standards; terms beginning "Executive Order" Research methodologies, viii, 23-43 biostatistics, viii, 33 case studies, 4, 20-21, 29, 38, 39, 56 databases, 24-26, 28, 41 ecologic studies, 18 exposure, 14-17 public policy, general, 68 report at hand, approach, 3-5 researchers vs subjects, cultural factors, 6, 37, 39, 40, 68 sampling, 33, 34, 62, 79, 80-81, 85 uncertainties, general, 62, 63 see also Biological markers; Epidemiology, general; Etiology; Participatory research; Surveillance systems, general Research recommendations, viii-ix, 3, 4, 6-9, 33-42, 94-97 biomarkers, 32-32 Executive Order 12898, 113, 114-115 funding, viii, 40-41, 49-50, 62 public health education, 49-50 Residential (indoor) exposures, 17, 19, 21, 28, 29, 80 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 18 Responsible Care: A Public Commitment, 53 Rural areas, see Agricultural areas S Sampling, 33, 34, 62, 79, 80-81, 85 Sentinel health conditions, 47-48 Small-area analysis, 81, 82, 92-93

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--> Smoking, 13, 27, 89 Social factors, general, 113 contamination stigma, 8 research context, viii risk factors, viii, 6 see also Behavioral factors; Cultural factors Socioeconomic status, 41 committee approach, 4, 5 communities of concern, 6 educational attainment, 1, 3, 12, 13, 41 environmental justice defined, 1 epidemiologic studies, general, 34-35 health status, general, 11-12, 20, 27 see also Minority groups; Poverty Stakeholders, 5, 7, 42, 43, 65, 68 see also Participatory research Standards air quality, EPA, 19 databases, 25, 26, 42 participatory research, 40 State government cancer studies, 80 committee approach, 5 federal coordination, ix, 6, 41 public health education, 50, 58 Subsistence consumption of food, 17, 37, 39, 59, 115 Sunshine Act, 120 Superfund, see Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act Surveillance systems, general, 4, 41 radiation hazards, 16 see also Epidemiology, general Susceptibility, 2, 7, 26-27, 30, 31-32, 33, 42, 62-63, 64-65, 80 Symposium on Health Research and Needs to Ensure Environmental Justice , 3 T Tobacco, see Smoking Toxic Chemical Release Inventory, 25-26 Toxic materials, general, 14, 17 pathways of migration, 16-17 siting of facilities, 5 see also Exposure; Treatment, storage, and disposal facilities; specific chemicals Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program, 26 ToxRAP, 54 Treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, 5, 14-16, 18, 29, 81 EPA data, 25 Trichloroethylene, 38 U United Church of Christ, 14, 16 Urban areas, 5, 13, 18, 20-21, 29, 34, 52, 56-57 W Waste, see Toxic materials, general; Treatment, storage, and disposal facilities Water pollutants, 29, 38, 83 EPA data, 25 World Health Organization, 2, 17