new view of the process of system development in which the role of operational testing and evaluation as a late series of tests for go/no go decisions is broadened to a role of continuous information gathering to support the development of effective and suitable systems. We do not presume to offer a blueprint for such a process. Instead, we discuss key ideas and principles for such a paradigm, and draw conclusions with respect to improvements that can be made within that paradigm, trusting details of their adoption and implementation to the defense acquisition community.
A new and more effective paradigm for the use of testing and evaluation as part of defense system development should possess four essential characteristics:
A continuous process of information gathering and decision making in which operational testing and evaluation plays an integral role. This orientation is consistent with contemporary trends in industrial practice, deemphasizing ''inspecting defects out" in place of integrated development processes and "building quality into" a product.
An environment of more systematic data collection, archival, and documentation. All sources of data and information should be archived and clearly documented and the process made consistent across the military services so that development teams are able to identify and learn from all relevant studies and findings. To create this environment, DoD could institute multiservice operational test and evaluation standards similar to those contained in ISO 9000 (see Appendix D).
The use of efficient statistical methods for decision making. An environment of continuous assessment and systematic data collection would facilitate the use of efficient statistical methods, including decision-theoretic methods, yet would still allow the decision maker to be held accountable for judgments on system procurement.
Reductions in the life-cycle costs of acquiring and maintaining new military capabilities. Integrating operational testing and evaluation in a process involving more systematic data collection, analysis, and documentation plus continuous assessment (and improvement) means that problems of consequence will be discovered earlier in the development process, when they are easier and cheaper to solve. A system would therefore not be likely to enter the final, confirmatory stages of operational testing until it is clearly ready for that stage, and, therefore, also more likely to be ready for full-rate production. The production of higher quality and more reliable systems will reduce the amount of logistic support required to maintain the system in the field, a major contributor to total cost over the lifetime of the system.