(DoD) practice differs substantially from best practice, to the detriment of effective operational test and evaluation.

We focus on operational (rather than developmental) testing, especially for ACAT I systems. However, many of the issues raised and recommendations made apply to developmental (or other forms) of testing, and to systems in other acquisition categories.


Test Planning and Design

Test planning consists of collecting specific information about various characteristics of a system and the anticipated test scenarios and environments and recognizing the implications of this information for test design. Test planning is crucial to a test's success. Test planning comprises several elements (see, e.g., Hahn, 1977; Coleman and Montgomery, 1993).

Defining the Purpose of the Test Operational tests often have multiple objectives, for example: to measure "average" or "typical" performance across relevant scenarios, to identify sources of the most important system flaws and limitations, or to measure system performance in the most demanding scenario. Each of these objectives could be applied to several performance measures. Different objectives and measures can require different tests. Some test designs that are extremely effective for one purpose can be quite ineffective for others; therefore, agreeing on the purpose of the test is necessary for test design. One must also identify those performance measures that are most important (however defined) so that the operational test can be designed to effectively measure them.

Handling Test Factors Test factors include the defining variables for: environments of interest (temperature, terrain, humidity, day/night, etc.), tactics and the use of countermeasures, the training and ability of the users, and the particular prototype used. Clearly, how a system's performance varies across different values of some factors (e.g., in day or night, or against various kinds of enemy tactics) is crucial to an informed decision about procuring the system. Some test factors are under the control of the test planner and some are not, and some test factors are (or are not) influential in that varying them can cause substantial changes in system performance. Considering each test factor with respect to whether or not it is controllable and/or influential, may require different approaches to its use in testing. A serious problem arises from the failure to consider some influential factors in the test design: such a failure can make the test ineffective since those factors may vary during the test, causing performance differences.

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