. "4 Upgrading Statistical Methods for Testing and Evaluation." Statistics, Testing, and Defense Acquisition: New Approaches and Methodological Improvements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1998.
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the model-test-model approach is to test the system again, but on new, possibly randomly selected scenarios and then, without refitting the model, measure the average distance between the model's predictions and the observed performance of the system. This approach could be given the name model-test-model-test, and it may be appropriate to use in augmenting some operational tests. (For more details on use of modeling and simulation for test design and evaluation, see Chapter 9.)