Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 117
APPENDIX F The PNGV Technology Selection Announcement PNGV NARROWS FOCUS IN NATIONAL EFFORT TO DEVELOP ADVANCED, AFFORDABLE AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGIES January 1998 - The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) has completed its selection of technologies considered to be the most promising for achieving the ambitious goals of the Partnership, and will now focus its research and technology development efforts in four key system areas: hybrid-electric vehicle drive, direct-injection engines, fuel cells, and lightweight materials. When this historic partnership was announced by President Clinton and the CEO's of Chrysler Corp., Ford Motor Co., and General Motors Corp. in September 1993, the participants recognized that the development of a new generation of vehicles with up to three times the fuel efficiency of conventional cars was a challenge requiring a national initiative. To improve the probability of achieving needed technology breakthroughs, a large number of promising technologies were initially identified for simultaneous research and development. A major milestone was to narrow the technology development efforts by the end of 1997 and focus resources on the most promising research and development. Four years into the 10-year partnership, PNGV researchers report solid progress toward developing enabling technologies for affordable, midsize, family sedans capable of achieving up to 80 mpg with very low emissions. The advanced concepts recently unveiled by Chrysler, Ford and GM at the 1998 North American
OCR for page 118
International Auto Show in Detroit reflect this continued progress toward PNGV goals. "The remarkable, new, fuel efficient, experimental cars rolled out at the Detroit auto show prove that our partnership with the Big Three auto makers is showing results," said Vice President Al Gore, "and that we can protect our environment and meet challenges such as global warming in a way that creates jobs and strengthens our economy. PNGV's selection of these technologies for focused research brings us one step closer to the next-generation cars that will both meet the needs of American families and help us reduce pollution and protect our environment." Under PNGV, teams of scientists and engineers from 19 federal government labs have been working with their counterparts at Chrysler, Ford, GM (under their U.S. Council for Automotive Research umbrella organization), automotive suppliers, and universities. The backbone of the Partnership—created to provide significant energy security, environmental and economic benefits to the nation—is a coordinated portfolio of hundreds of research projects underway at government, auto company, supplier and university research facilities. HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE (HEV) DRIVEToday, almost every vehicle in the world is powered solely by an internal combustion engine. Hybrid propulsion systems have two power sources on board a vehicle. One (such as a fuel cell, internal combustion engine, or gas turbine) converts fuel into useable energy. The second power source, an electric motor powered by an advanced energy storage device, lowers the demand placed on the first power source. When the two HEV power sources are arranged in parallel, one or both can be used depending on the situation. The electric motor often can power the HEV alone in city driving or over flat terrain. When the hybrid is accelerating and climbing hills, the two power sources can work together for optimal performance. Another advantage is that the electric motor can operate as a generator to slow or stop the vehicle; this captures energy normally lost during braking and "regenerates" it into electricity for later use. High-power batteries with either nickel metal hydride or lithium-ion technology are the most promising devices to store this energy for later use in powering the electric motor. Hybrids require advanced high-power batteries that are designed for repetitive discharge and recharge over 10,000 times a year as the HEV accelerates, climbs hills, and slows or stops using the brakes. DIRECT-INJECTION ENGINESPNGV researchers believe highly-fuel efficient, direct-injection (DI) engines—where the fuel is injected directly into each engine cylinder—show the
OCR for page 119
greatest promise for near-term hybrids. Because the DI engine works in concert with an HEV's electric motor, the engine can be smaller and turned off automatically when not needed, thus increasing mileage and reducing emissions. Vehicles with today's internal combustion engines are very clean - emitting an average of 95 percent less hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen than vehicles of the mid-1960s. Nonetheless, PNGV researchers are aiming for even lower emissions from next generation vehicles. Important progress has been demonstrated, and the challenges that remain are being addressed from a full systems perspective, with additional research and development in advanced fuel injection, electronic controls and sensors that optimize engine efficiency, advanced catalysts, advanced emissions traps, and fuels. Already-efficient DI engines can get better mileage when combustion is triggered by highly-compressing the air-fuel mixture so it self-ignites (i.e. compression-ignition), instead of using spark plugs (i.e. spark-ignition) at lower compression ratios. These compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) engines become an especially attractive primary power source for HEVs when operated with either reformulated fuels (for example, low sulfur fuel now available in California) that help catalytic converters work better at cleaning up pollutants, or new fuels (for example, dimethyl ether or "Fischer Tropsch" synthetic fuels made from natural gas) that produce almost no particulates. Because the integration of DI engines and new fuels is an important element of the PNGV research portfolio, the Partnership will, in the coming months, be working to ensure an ongoing productive dialogue with the fuels industry to achieve the most workable and affordable solutions for the next generation transportation systems. FUEL CELLSOver the longer term, fuel cells could offer the auto industry near-zero emission vehicles with long range, good performance, and rapid refueling. Fuel cells generate electricity directly from a chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, triggered by a catalyst. The required hydrogen can be either carried on the vehicle as a compressed gas, or extracted ("reformed") from a fuel, such as gasoline, methanol, ethanol or propane, carried on-board the vehicle. The electricity produced is used to power a traction motor that drives the wheels. Current research is focused on improving fuel cell size, lowering costs, and developing efficient, compact, and responsive on-board fuel reformers that would provide the needed hydrogen. LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALSTomorrow's vehicles will contain a mix of aluminum, steel, plastic, magnesium and composites (typically a strong, lightweight material comprised of fibers
OCR for page 120
in a binding matrix, such as fiberglass). To make these materials affordable and durable, research is intensifying on vehicle manufacturing methods, structural concepts, design analysis tools, sheet-manufacturing processes, improved material strength, and recyclability. Since 1975, the weight of a typical family sedan has dropped from 4,000 pounds to 3,300 pounds. To achieve the Partnership's up-to-80 mpg goal, researchers are working to reduce overall vehicle weight by yet another 40 percent to 2,000 pounds. To achieve this, researchers must reduce the mass of both the outer body and chassis by half, trim powertrain weight by 10 percent, and reduce the weight of interior components. PNGV'S AGGRESSIVE LONG-TERM GOALThe Partnership's long-term goal is the development of technologies for new generation, midsize family sedans that get up to 80 mpg; carry up to six passengers and 200 pounds of luggage; meet or exceed safety and emissions requirements; provide ample acceleration; are at least 80 percent recyclable; and provide range; comfort and utility similar to today's models. The Partnership expects American consumers will buy these vehicles only if they cost no more to own and operate than today's models. Because U.S. gasoline prices are among the lowest in the world, few consumers are willing to pay more for advanced technologies even if they provide greatly increased fuel economy. CONTINUING TECHNICAL ADVANCEMENTSWhile the new concepts recently unveiled in Detroit are impressive, significant additional technology breakthroughs and advancements will be required to achieve the ambitious PNGV goals. Chrysler, Ford and GM are all working on high-mileage concept vehicles to debut in 2000, to be followed by production prototypes in 2004. The government partners and their laboratories will continue to participate in high risk, cooperative research and development with the auto industry to advance critical enabling technologies for possible use in these vehicles. The research and commercial applications resulting from the ambitious PNGV timeframe are stepping stones to the next technological breakthroughs that could yield even greater benefits for the nation's energy security, environment, and economic well-being. For more information about the PNGV, call John Sargent, U.S. Department of Commerce, 202-482-6185; or Ron Beeber, USCAR, 248-223-9011. Also, check out two sites on the World Wide Web: www.uscar.org and www.ta.doc.gov/pngv.
Representative terms from entire chapter: