Page 605

INDEX.

A

Acid pollution, 64, 341, 474, 517

Aesthetics, 72, 105, 112

Africa

agriculture,

geospatial information, 278, 279

tropical invertebrates, 204, 205, 209-210

Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 469

economic organization, 408

exotic species, 326

geospatial information, 277-280

human population growth, 307

indigenous hunter-gatherers, 421, 424, 425

insects, tropical, 204-212

preserves, 375

systematics science, 378

trade relations, 398-399

see also specific countries

African Regional Postgraduate Programme in Insect Science, 208, 209

Agriculture, 64, 65, 73, 76, 414, 515

geospatial information, 278, 279

tropical invertebrates, 204, 205, 209-210

CGIAR, 359, 389, 508

Colombia, 489, 490

Costa Rica, 575

countryside biogeography, 109-112

crop diversity loss, 64, 65, 414, 415-416

exotic species, 327, 328-329

fungal damage, 157

global warming, 340

historical perspectives, 13, 64, 65, 73, 407, 415-416, 424-430

human population growth, 304-305

insects, environmental services, 67-68, 75, 436

maize, 65, 209-210

mites, 195

nematodes, 179, 181, 182, 184

pollution, 472, 553

seeds and seed banks, 358-373, 509

slash-and-burn, 426-427, 522-523

soil factors, 226, 234, 235, 236, 245, 246, 472, 553

systematics research, 376

UN Food and Agricultural Organization, 351, 359, 389, 491

U.S., 75, 325, 329, 553

food globalization, 65-66

wheat, 64, 65

see also Rural areas



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OCR for page 605
Page 605 INDEX. A Acid pollution, 64, 341, 474, 517 Aesthetics, 72, 105, 112 Africa agriculture, geospatial information, 278, 279 tropical invertebrates, 204, 205, 209-210 Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 469 economic organization, 408 exotic species, 326 geospatial information, 277-280 human population growth, 307 indigenous hunter-gatherers, 421, 424, 425 insects, tropical, 204-212 preserves, 375 systematics science, 378 trade relations, 398-399 see also specific countries African Regional Postgraduate Programme in Insect Science, 208, 209 Agriculture, 64, 65, 73, 76, 414, 515 geospatial information, 278, 279 tropical invertebrates, 204, 205, 209-210 CGIAR, 359, 389, 508 Colombia, 489, 490 Costa Rica, 575 countryside biogeography, 109-112 crop diversity loss, 64, 65, 414, 415-416 exotic species, 327, 328-329 fungal damage, 157 global warming, 340 historical perspectives, 13, 64, 65, 73, 407, 415-416, 424-430 human population growth, 304-305 insects, environmental services, 67-68, 75, 436 maize, 65, 209-210 mites, 195 nematodes, 179, 181, 182, 184 pollution, 472, 553 seeds and seed banks, 358-373, 509 slash-and-burn, 426-427, 522-523 soil factors, 226, 234, 235, 236, 245, 246, 472, 553 systematics research, 376 UN Food and Agricultural Organization, 351, 359, 389, 491 U.S., 75, 325, 329, 553 food globalization, 65-66 wheat, 64, 65 see also Rural areas

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Page 606 Air pollution acid pollution, 64, 341, 474, 517 forests, 341-343 ozone depletion, ultraviolet radiation, 64, 341, 508, 5654 see also Climate change Alaska, 343 Albright, Madeleine, 512 Alexander von Humboldt Institute, 487-488 Algae classification, 143-144, 147-148 marine, 92 number of species, 35, 37, 38, 143-146, 232 soil, 232 see also specific species Alien species, see Exotic species All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory, 288 Allen, Melody, 204-212 Allison, Allen, 281-290 Allopatric speciation, 48 Amazon Basin, 28, 343, 421, 427, 471, 509-510, 512, 534 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1-2 American Museum of Natural History, 60, 379, 462, 463-464 Apicomplexa, 142, 143, 148 Archaea, 23, 31, 118-126 (passim), 141 Archamoebae, 139 Area de Conservation Guanacaste, 521-528 Arid lands, see Deserts and desertification Arroyo, Mary T. Kalin, 530-542 Arthropods, number of species, 35, 38, 77, 232-233 see also Insects ASCEND 21, 347-348 Ascetospora, 142, 143 Asia human population growth, 305 knowledge-based economies, 408 systematics science, 378 see also Southeast Asia; specific countries Australia exotic species, 75, 326 fungi, 163 insects, 216 mites, 194-195 soil, 236 systematics science, 378 B Bacon, Francis, 12 Bacteria, 3, 23, 118-124, 508 biological control, 243 oil-eating, 544-545 marine, 92 photosynthesis, 121, 124 soil, 228, 232 species defined, 31 Baker, A. S., 192-203 Baldwin, J. G., 176-191 Bamboo, 164, 171, 428 Bangladesh, 382, 384 Bean, Michael, 493-499 Belize, 565 Bemis, Ronald, 596-603 Benthos, 87-88, 89, 93-94, 95, 98, 139 corals, 88-89, 99, 304, 414 nematodes, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184 Berry, Thomas, 12 Bicosoecae, 140, 145 Biodiversity Project, 461 Biogeography, see Geographic factors Biological control and remediation, 75, 242-249 exotic species, 330-331 fungi, 156 nematodes, 244-245 protists, 132 tropical invertebrates, 205, 207 Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments, 54 Biological Survey for the Nation, A, 292 BioNET-INTERNATIONAL, 353, 354, 355 Biosphere 2 Research Center, 464 Biopolymers, 546, 547 Bioremediation, see Biological control and remediation Biotechnology, 65, 242, 376 biopolymers, 546, 547 environmental services via, 76, 107-108 fungi, 156-157 oil-eating bacteria, 544-545 soils, 242-249 see also Biological control and remediation; Medical applications Birds classification, 32 countryside biogeography, 111 exotic species, hybridization, 328 extinction, 47, 48-49, 50-51, 57, 58, 435 municipal parks, 588

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Page 607 number of species, 77, 590-591 speciation, 48 Bolivia, 565 Botanical Gardens Conservation International, 359 Bowker, Geoffrey, 291-300 Brazil, see Amazon Basin Brooks, Thomas, 46-62 Brown, Lester, 337 Brunei, fungal diversity, 159 Butman, Cheryl Ann, 84-103 C CAB INTERNATIONAL, 353 Canada, 16-17, 74, 402 mites, 197-198 NAFTA, 328, 366-367, 593 Carbon and carbon cycling, 4, 66, 67, 74, 75-76, 91, 107, 108, 122, 124, 132, 235, 398, 414, 525, 527, 533-534, 540, 541 Costa Rican policy, 503-505 knowledge-based economies, 400, 408 see also Climate change Carson, Rachel, 14 Castro, René, 500-505 Cattle, see Ranching Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 462-470 Center for Plant Conservation, 367 Central America, see Latin America; specific countries Charophyta, 145 Chemical prospecting, 543-550 see also Medical applications Chichilnisky, Graciela, 398-410 Chile, 535-542 China fungi, 163 human population growth, 310, 321 Chlorophyta, 144-145 Choanozoa, 141-142, 148 Chromista, 134-135, 140, 141, 143, 145-146, 149, 150 Chrysophyta, 143, 144, 145, 146 Chytridiomycota, 147, 148 Ciliophora, 142-143, 148 Cincotta, Richard, 303-314 Cities, see Urbanization Classification, 413-414 algae, 143-144, 147-148 bacteria, 31, 413 conservation biology, 24 conservation genetics, 265, 266-267 Costa Rican rain forests, 528, 577-578, 580-581 databases, 32, 380-384, 589-592 ecosystems, 23, 288 environmental services, 107 ethnobotany, 438-441 extinction of species and, 51 eukaryotes, 30-45, 130, 131, 133, 134, 136 sequencing, 118, 120, 121, 124 fungi, 32, 140, 146, 160, 166-167, 169 genetic sequencing, 24, 85, 118-126, 183 Hawaii Biological Survey, 282, 285, 286, 288 historical perspectives, 31-32, 130 insects, 32, 33, 213, 215-217 mites, 192-196, 198-199 international programs, 351-353 marine species, 84-86, 415 microorganisms, 31, 117-118, 130, 413 nematodes, 32, 176-177, 179-183, 186-188 population diversity, 77 public policy, 417 protists, 130, 131-135, 139, 140-151 seed banks, 370 soil, 228, 232, 235 synonyms, 32-34, 37, 136, 180, 214 systematics science, 376-377, 380-384 taxonomists, number of, 32 tropical invertebrates, Africa, 206-208 see also Inventories, species; Morphology; Systematics science Climate change, 73, 74, 96, 99, 106, 303, 304, 235, 339-340, 343, 474, 491, 533-534, 570 Convention on Climate Change, 399-400, 491, 503-504, 505, 511, 567 Costa Rican policy, 503-505, 524, 525, 527 national security policy, 508 see also Carbon and carbon cycling Coastal areas, 92, 95, 98-100, 101 bioremediation, 246 coral reefs, 88-89, 99, 304, 414 global warming, 343 mites, 195, 196 Cohen, J., 316 Colombia, 58, 311, 424, 483-492, 565 Columbia Earth Institute, 464-465 Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, 382, 383, 384, 579, 586

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Page 608 Commercial applications Africa, tropical insects, 210-211 bioremediation, 248 see also Biotechnology; Medical applications The Coming Plagues, 552-553 Communications Consortium Media Center, 456, 457 Computer technology, 14-15 Africa, tropical invertebrates, 206 Colombia, 491 education, 583 extinction models, 54 fungal diversity, imaging, 161 Hawaii Biological Survey, 281-290 knowledge vs information technology, 401 intellectual property issues, 409-410 Mexico, 586-595 National Biological Information Infrastructures, 291-300 SPECIES 2000, 351-353 systematics science, 380-381 see also Databases; Internet Conference on Nature and Human Society, 516 Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO), 211, 288, 382, 383, 384, 586, 587, 588, 592-594 Conservation biology, 24, 35-36, 255-263, 521-542 Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 466, 467-468 Chile, 536-542 Colombia, 486, 488-489 conservation medicine, 551-556 Costa Rica, 500-505, 521-529, 573-585 defined, 22, 255-257, 258, 266 ethnobotany, 439-441 evolution and, 256, 258, 266 genetics, 264-275, 489, 588 population diversity, 73, 80-81, 258, 279 U.S. efforts, 388, 389, 395-396, 557 utilitarian benefits of, 65-69, 73, 256, 264, 265, 524-526 see also Sustainable development Conservation medicine, see Medical applications Conservation strategies, other Africa, tropical invertebrates, 205-211 conservation biology and, 258-259, 260 Endangered Species Act, 81, 493-499, 602-603 incentives, 414, 416-417, 502 indigenous peoples, 431-432 land preservation, 17 national parks and preserves, 52, 54, 59, 276-280, 375, 396, 436, 502, 521-529, 562-566, 575-577, 596-603 marine species, 100-102 public support for, 31 see also International agreements; Policy Conservation value, 65-69, 73, 256, 264, 265, 524-526 see also Ecosystem services Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research, 359, 389, 508 Convention on Biological Diversity, 329, 331, 348-349, 359-360, 387-397, 418, 439-440, 457, 566-571 Colombia, 485, 486, 490, 491-492 Costa Rica, 528, 573, 583 DIVERSITAS, 347, 349, 349-356, 379, 380, 384, 394 funding, 392, 561, 564-571 genetics, 561 Global Environment Facility, 348, 360, 382, 383, 557-558 Internet access, 387 Kew Seed Banks, 359, 365 property rights, 406-407 standards, 393-394 structure, 391-395, 560-561 systematics science, 374, 382 U.S. involvement, 388, 389, 395-396, 557 Convention on Climate Change, 399-400, 491, 503-504, 505, 511, 567 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, 268, 436, 588, 593 Cost and cost-benefit factors Africa, training, 209 agricultural crop diversity decline, 414 Climate Change Convention, 504 developing countries, export dumping, 399 environmental services, 67 exotic species control, 328-329 fungal diversity assessment, 163 insect diversity assessment, 216-217 knowledge market, 404-405 nematode diversity assessment, 183, 187 seed banks, 358, 359 soil diversity assessment, 233 see also Funding Costa Rica, 381-382, 500-505, 521-529, 573-585 Africa, tropical invertebrates, 206, 207

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Page 609 climate change policy, 503-505, 524, 525, 527 countryside biogeography, 111 databases, 591 fungal diversity, 159 government policy, 500-505, 521-529, 573-585 inventories, 525, 577-578, 580-581 pharmaceuticals, INBio-Merck contract, 503, 527-528, 581-582 pollutants, 472 prescribed burning, 601 systematics science, 381-382 tropical forests, Costa Rica, 500-505, 521-529, 573-585, 601 tropical invertebrates, 206 Coral reefs, 88-89, 99, 304, 414 Corliss, John, 130-155 Cox, Paul, 435-442 Cracraft, Joel, 374-386 Cryptomonada, 140, 145 Cultural factors, human societies, 11-12, 18, 455-462 aesthetics, 72, 105, 112 Colombia, 490 conservation biology, 260-261 countryside biogeography, 112 ecopsychology, 20 ethical issues, 46, 72, 104, 105, 256, 258, 259,262,265, 312,406,415,461, 467-468, 557, 573, 583, 597 ethnobotany, 435-442 human population growth, 318-319 indigenous peoples, 420-434, 562, 563 Colombia, 490 ethnobotany, 422-434, 436-441, 465 language extinction, 437-438, 515 media, 13, 14-15 religion, 20, 112, 429, 443-454, 458, 461 tropical rain forests, indigenous peoples, 420-434 D Daily, Gretchen, 71-83, 104-113 Daly, H. E., 478-479 Databases Africa, tropical invertebrates, 206, 208 CONABIO, 211, 288, 382, 383, 384, 586, 587, 588, 592-594 Convention on Biological Diversity, 392 exotic species, 331-332 geographic information systems (GISs), 282, 283,292,581, 587,592, 593, 594 geospatial information, 277 Global Resource Information Database, 277 Hawaii Biological Survey, 282-283 inventories, 588-594 Mexico, 587-594 National Biological Information Infrastructures, 291-300 priority areas, geospatial information systems, 276-280 seed banks, 370 systematics science, 380-384 taxonomic, 32, 380-384, 589-592 see also Internet De Leij, Frans, 242-251 Defense, see National security Demographic factors, see Population factors, human; Rural areas; Urbanization Deserts and desertification, 234, 235, 337 Kew Seed Bank, 351-367 Malpai Borderlands Group, 596-603 nematodes, 184 Developing countries, general, 5-6, 51, 557-572 Africa, tropical invertebrates, 204-212 coastal areas, mega-cities, 99-100 developed countries, relations with, 398-399, 409, 483-492, 500-505 human population growth, 304, 306, 322 Kew Seed Bank, 362 patent licensing to low-income groups, 404, 405 population factors, human, general, 304, 306,322 sustainable development, 322, 534-535, 557-572 systematics science, 378-379 technological development, 315-316; see also Technology transfer see also Africa; Nongovernmental organizations; Latin America; World Bank; specific countries Diatomae, 146, 150 Dictyochae, 140, 145 Dinozoa, 141, 145, 148 Diversa Corporation, 527 DIVERSITAS, 347, 349, 349-356, 394 systematics science, 353, 379, 380, 384 DNA, 6, 23 conservation genetics, 268-269 insects, 215

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Page 610 microorganisms, 118 bacteria, 31, 118 mutation, 25 nematodes, 179, 182-183, 188 number of species, estimation, 31, 43 sequencing, 24, 85, 182-183, 215, 243 Drugs, see Medical applications E Earth Summit, 6, 347, 348, 484 see also Convention on Biological Diversity Economic factors, 5-6, 7, 8, 63, 74-75, 337-338, 514-518 Africa, 408 trade relations, 398-399 tropical invertebrates, 204-205, 206, 209-211 benefits of biodiversity, 65-66, 67-68, 74, 81, 105, 106, 107-108, 112, 401, 414-415, 489-490, 564 classification, 23, 288 Colombia, 489-490 Costa Rica, 500, 501 conservation biology, 65-69, 73, 256, 264, 265, 524-526 employment, 20, 337, 402, 458, 566 exotic species control, 328-329, 330 fisheries, 74, 471-472 fungi, 157 globalization, 12, 16, 17-19, 63, 398-400, 514-516 Gross Domestic Product, 18 Gross National Product, 490, 575 human population growth, 318-319 incentives, 414, 416-417, 502 indigenous peoples, 420-434 intellectual property rights, 400, 401-402, 404-408, 415 knowledge markets, 400-410, 476 marine ecosystems, 89 mites, 195, 198, 199 national security policy, 509-510 natural capital, 471-480 nematodes, 179-180, 182 property rights, 399, 400, 401-402, 403, 404-408, 415, 430, 570 service economies, 402-403, 475-476 taxation, 414, 502, 504, 570, 571 tourism and recreation, 68, 102, 530, 535, 539, 564, 582, 589 see also Agriculture; Commercial applications; Cost and cost-benefit factors; Biotechnology; Developing countries; Funding; Globalization; Medical applications; Poverty; Sustainable development Ecosystems, 18, 22-23, 337 Africa, tropical invertebrates, 206 conservation biology and, 257, 258, 262, 264 conservation medicine, 551-556 Convention on Biological Diversity, 390-391 defined, 22, 31 biotechnology, 242 exotic species, impact on, 326-327, 330 international programs, 351 knowledge markets, 400 marine, 89-91 National Biological Information Infrastructures, 291-300 soil biodiversity and, 225-230, 233-241 threatened, 80 see also Deserts and desertification; Forests and forestry; Freshwater species; Geographic factors; Habitats; Marine species Ecosystem services, see Environmental services Ecuador, 565 Education and training Africa, tropical invertebrates, 207-209 Colombia, 491 Costa Rica, 524-525, 580-581 conservation biology, 260, 261, 262 conservation genetics, 273 conservation medicine, 552 Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 462-470 Convention on Biological Diversity, 560-561 ethnobotany, 440-441 fungal diversity assessment, 160, 166-167, 169 Hawaii Biological Survey, 284-285, 286 intellectual property rights, 405 nematode diversity assessment, 186-187 seed banks, 367, 370-371 soil habitats, 235 wildland habitats, 524-525 see also Information dissemination; Public education; Technology transfer Ehrlich, Paul, 71-83 Eisner, Thomas, 543-550 Elder, jane, 455-461

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Page 611 El Niño, 343, 514 Employment, 20, 337, 458, 566 knowledge sector, 402 Endangered Biodiversity Act (proposed), 81 Endangered species, see Threatened and endangered species Endangered Species Act, 81, 493-499, 600, 602-603 Endemism, 23, 28, 51-52, 87, 281, 587 Colombia, 488 exotic species, impact on, 327 geospatial information systems, 279 nematodes, 182, 185 soil, 233 Endophytes, 162-163, 170 Energy resources, 2, 3-4, 20, 27, 60, 304, 322, 323, 523, 567, 575, 576 bioenergy, 65, 66 efficiency, 416, 421, 472-478 (passim), 504 forests, 343 fossil fuels, 398, 478; see also Climate change hydroelectric power, 503 marine environment, 87, 91, 92 metabolic processes, 2, 20, 120, 121-126, 127 soil-based organisms, 227, 246-247 photosynthesis, 4-5, 91, 92, 125-126, 141 savannah, 342 urban areas, 13 Engelman, Robert, 303-314 Environmental Defense Fund, 497 Environmental services, 64, 65, 66-68, 74-76, 80-81, 105-107, 303 chemical prospecting, 543-549 conservation biology, 260, 265, 526, 528 countryside biogeography, 109-113 forests, 74, 75-76, 502, 509-510, 517, 526, 528, 530 fungi, 156, 157 insects, 67-68, 75, 208 marine ecosystems, 89, 91-92 mites, 193 national security policy, 509-510 pollution control, 132, 156, 157, 544-545 soil, 225, 226-227, 230, 235 see also Carbon and carbon cycling; Climate change; Nitrogen and nitrogen cycling Epstein, Paul, 551-556 Ethical issues, 46, 72, 104, 105, 256, 258, 259, 262, 265, 312, 344-345, 406, 415, 461, 467-468, 557, 573, 583, 597 Ethnobotany, 465 endangered species, 436-441 indigenous peoples, 422-434 Euglenozoa, 141, 143, 145, 148 Eukaryotic species, 30-45, 122, 123 classification, 30-45, 130, 131, 133, 134, 136 genetic sequencing, 118, 120, 121, 124 pathogens, 122, 132 protists vs, 130, 131 see also specific species Europe Africa, technology transfer, 208-209 countryside biogeography, 110 human population growth, 305, 307 systematics science, 378 see also United Kingdom European Union, 566-567 Evolution, 22-29 allopatric speciation, 48 birds, 48 Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 466-467 conservation biology defined, 256, 258, 266 evolutionary distance, 120-121 extinction and, 47-48 host races, 27 marine species, 95-96 nematodes, 180 polypoidy, 26-27 protists, 131-132 speciation, 3, 24, 25-27, 47-48, 64 sympathetic speciation, 27, 28, 47-48 systematics science, 376-377 vertical, 24-25 see also Endemism; Mutation Exotic species, 75, 325-334, 436-437, 526, 535, 554 conservation biology, 258 countryside biogeography, 109 fish and fisheries, 327, 328, 329, 331, 414-415 insects, 330-331 Malpai Borderlands Group, 599-600 marine, 96, 99 nematodes, 179, 181, 233-234 plants, 75, 326-327, 330, 436-438 public education, 328-329 soil, 233-234 tourists transporting, 325, 328 Expert Center for Taxonomic Identification, 589

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Page 612 Extinction, 3, 4, 5, 63-64, 71, 78-80, 276, 304, 414, 435, 554 Africa, tropical invertebrates, 205 birds, 47, 48-49, 50-51, 57, 58, 435 countryside biogeography, 110 deforestation and, 19, 50-51, 54, 78, 436 ecosystem services, 64 ethnobotany, 435-442 fisheries, 414, 471-472 fossil record, 42, 47, 49 protists, 132, 136, 137, 139, 140-150 (passim) Hawaii, 281, 326, 327, 436 historical perspectives, 40-43, 48, 50-51, 58, 59 islands, oceanic, 48, 49, 50, 52, 436-437 language extinction, 437-438, 515 models, 52-54, 55-56 next major event, 46-62, 303, 414, 455, 456 North America, 50-51, 54 plants, 64, 358, 435-442 protists, 132, 136, 137, 139, 140-150 (passim) species alive today, total number of, 41-43 statistical methodology, 157-158, 166-167 U.S., 325-329, 331 see also Threatened and endangered species F FAO, see UN Food and Agricultural Organization Federal government Canada, 16-17 Chile, 535-542 Colombia, 483-492 Costa Rica, 500-505, 521-529, 573-585 geographic information systems, 292 Malpai Borderlands Group, 596-597 Mexico, 586-594 National Biological Information Infrastructures, 291-300 national security, 506-513 seed banks, 366-367 sustainability, general, 514-518 see also United States; terms beginning “U.S.” Fire, 259, 326, 343, 431, 436, 471, 495, 497, 512, 514, 522, 525, 527, 528 lichen, 162 Malpai Borderlands Group, 597, 601, 602 slash-and-burn agriculture, 426-427, 522-523 Fish and fisheries, 90-91, 93, 94, 96, 97-98, 304, 337, 414 economic value, 74, 471-472 exotic species, 327, 328, 329, 331, 414-415 freshwater, 328, 329, 414-415, 509 global warming, 339 international policy, 510 political factors, 17 Food and nutrition, 20, 108, 338, 389, 415 Africa, tropical insects, 204-205, 210 benefits of biodiversity, 65, 67-68 exotic species, impact on, 327, 328-329 fungal damage, 157 global warming, 340 indigenous hunter-gatherers, 304, 305, 401, 422-432 marine species, 87-88, 92 microorganisms, general, 118 protists, 132 sympathetic speciation, 27 see also Agriculture Food chain human population growth, 319 marine, 89-90, 93-94, 98 Foraminifera, 139 Foreign trade, see International trade Forests and forestry, 22-23, 414, 515, 537, 570 bird speciation, 48 bird extinction, 50-51, 57 deforestation, 19, 50-51, 54, 55-57, 58, 78, 111, 235, 339-340, 341-343, 414, 436, 521-522, 589 Costa Rica, 502-503, 504 extinction and, 19, 50-51, 54, 78, 436 indigenous peoples, 424, 426, 430-431 endangered species, 498 environmental services, 74, 75-76, 502, 509-510, 517, 526, 528, 530 exotic species, 326-327 ionizing radiation, 341 mites, 193, 196, 197-198 nematodes, 184, 326-327 park preserves, 59, 521-529, 537-541, 570 sustainability, 483-492, 500-505, 521-542, 573-585 see also Tropical forests Framework Convention on Climate Change, see Convention on Climate Change Freshwater species, 515 exotic, 328, 329, 414-415 fish, 328, 329, 414-415, 509 fungi, 164-165, 171

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Page 613 human impacts on, 304, 414-415, 509 nematodes, 179, 181 mites, 194, 196 soil diversity and, 230 Fossil record, 42, 47, 49 protists, 132, 136, 137, 139, 140-150 (passim) Funding, 564-569 Africa, tropical invertebrates, 206 Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 469 conservation genetics, 273 Convention on Biological Diversity, 392, 561, 564-571 Costa Rica, forest preservation, 504, 521, 524-535, 527-528 endangered species, land acquisition, 495 Global Environment Facility, 557-558 insect inventories, 213 international programs, 353 Kew Seed Bank, 359, 371 national parks and preserves, 521, 566-567 NGOs, 564-567, 569, 571 protists research, 151 systematics science, 375, 376, 382, 383-384 World Bank, 416 Fungi, 134, 135, 146-147, 156-175, 531, 548-549 classification, 32, 140, 146, 160, 166-167, 169 education for diversity assessment, 160, 166-167, 169 environmental services, 156, 157 exotic species, 326 freshwater, 164-165, 171 habitat, general, 157, 158, 163-164, 170, 171 microhabitat predictors, 160 insect hosts, 159, 160 medical applications, 156-157 mites, feeding on, 193 number of species, 35, 37, 38, 39-40, 146-148, 149, 232, 531 tropical, 40, 157-175 palms, 157, 158, 163-164, 170 pathogens, 157, 163, 164, 165 soil, 229-230, 232, 234, 244 see also specific types of fungi The Future Population of the World: What Can We Assume Today?, 316 G Gámez, Rodrigo, 573-585 Gardens, 23, 378, 381, 462, 489, 591 ethnobotany, 440-441 Kew Seed Bank, 358-373 wildlands as, 521-529, 576, 579 GATT, see General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Gemmill, Barbara, 204-212 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade exotic species control, 328 WTO, 491 Genetics, 24, 264-275 conservation genetics, 264-275, 489, 588 Convention on Biological Diversity, 561 crop diversity loss, 64, 65, 414, 415-416 global climate change, 73 diversity, general, 17-18, 23-25, 73, 414 exotic species, hybridization, 328 genomes, 6, 25, 120, 124, 292, 380, 508, 528 historical perspectives, 13-14 marine biodiversity, 96 plant variability, 73, 75 population differentiation, 72-73, 77 RNA sequencing, 118-126 seed banks, 358-373 sequencing, 24, 85, 118-126, 182-183, 215, 243 soil bioremediation, 247 uniformity, dangers of, 64 value of population diversity, 72-73 see also Biotechnology; DNA; Evolution; Mutation Genomes, 6, 25, 120, 124, 292, 380, 508, 528 Genuine Progress Indicator, 18 Geographic factors conservation genetics, 265-272 country-side biogeography, 109-113 extinction, 49-54 fungi, 157-158 geographical information systems (GISs), 279, 282, 283, 292, 581, 587, 592, 593, 594 Hawaii Biological Survey, 281-290 insects, number of, 38-39 isolated populations, 24 marine species, 91, 96 nematodes, 180-184, 187 plankton, 91

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Page 614 population diversity, 77-78 priority areas, geospatial information systems, 276-280 soil biodiversity, 227-228, 232 speciation, 25-28; see also Endemism threatened and endangered species, 52 see also Ecosystems; Islands and archipelagos; Regional issues; specific countries and regions Glaucophyta, 144 Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 464 Global Biodiversity Assessment (UNEP), 276, 277, 349, 355, 356, 378, 394 Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems, 349-350 Global climate change, see Climate change Global Environment Facility, 348, 360, 382, 383, 557-558 Globalization, 12, 16, 17-19, 63, 398-400, 514-516 Global 2000 Report to the President of the United States, 389 Global Resource Information Database, 277 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 447-449 (passim) Government role, 338, 417 conservation biology, 258-259 see also Federal government; Legislation; Political factors; Policy Great Britain, see United Kingdom Greenhouse effect, see Global climate change Gross Domestic Product, 18 Gross National Product, 490, 575 Guatemala, 565 H Habitats, 31, 104 Colombia, 487 Costa Rica, 503 countryside biogeography, 109, 110 destruction/fragmentation, 54-58, 414 global warming, 339 fungi, 157, 158, 163-164, 170, 171 microhabitat predictors, 160 human population threats to, 303-304, 323 nematodes, 180-186 see also Agriculture; Deserts and desertification; Forests and forestry; Freshwater species; Geographic factors; Marine species; Soil and sediment; Threatened and endangered species Halliday, R. B., 192-203 Hammond, P. M., 33-38 (passim), 40 Haptomonada, 140, 145 Hawaii, 28 bird extinctions, 38, 51, 436 exotic species, 281, 326, 327, 436 Hawaii Biological Survey, 281-290 Hawken, Paul, 471-480 Hawksworth, D. L., 156-175, 347-357 Hay, David, 242-251 Heliozoa, 140 Henne, Gudrun, 387-397 Herren, Hans, 204-212 High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative, 292 Historical perspectives, 4-5, 347 agricultural biodiversity, 13, 64, 65, 73, 407, 415-416, 424-430 biodiversity, concept of, 22-29 classification of species, 31-32, 130 Costa Rica, 575-576 deforestation, 50-51, 58, 502 indigenous peoples, 424, 426, 430-431 economic benefits of biodiversity, 66-67 economic development, 338, 398 Endangered Species Act, 493-494 exotic species, 327 extinction, 40-43, 48, 50-51, 58, 59 globalization, 18, 398 Hawaii Biological Survey, 286 human population growth, 305-306, 308, 309, 310, 315, 318, 319-320 knowledge revolution, 398 Malpai Borderlands Group, 599 microorganisms, 117-118 mite species recorded, 199 national security policy, 506-507, 509, 510-511 natural capital destruction, 471 religion and sustainability, 446-454 scientific method, 11-14 species alive presently, number of, 40-43 urbanization, 13 Ho, W. H., 156-175 Honeycut, Rodney, 264-275 Hong Kong, fungal diversity, 157, 158, 166-167, 514 How Many People Can the Earth Support?, 316 How to Grow a National Park, 521 Hughes, Jennifer, 71-83 Human Genome Project, 292, 508 Human rights, 344-345

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Page 615 Hunting, 522 indigenous hunter-gatherers, 304, 305, 401, 422-423 whales, 85, 98 Hyde, K. D., 156-175 I Imaging techniques, 587, 589 fungi, 161 INBio (Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad), 211, 288, 525, 527-528, 576, 577-579, 580-583 INBio-Merck, 503, 527-528, 581-582 India, 73, 321, 323 Indigenous peoples, 420-434, 562, 563 Colombia, 490 ethnobotany, 436-441 Indonesia, 382, 563, 566-567 Information dissemination, 14-15, 291-300 Africa, tropical invertebrates, 206, 207, 208 Colombia, 487 Convention on Biological Diversity, 392, 561 ethnobotany, 440-441 exotic species, 328-329, 331-332 Hawaii Biological Survey, 284-288 knowledge markets, 400-410 Mexico, 586-595 National Biological Information Infrastructure, 291-300 see also Computer technology; Databases; Education and training; Gardens; Internet; Media; Museums; Public education; Technology transfer Information science, see Computer technology Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, 381-382 InterAmerican Biodiversity Information Network, 491 Interfaith Center, 453-454 Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of Resources of the Biosphere, 388 International agreements, 387-396, 418 Amazon Basin, 509-510 Convention on Climate Change, 399-400, 491, 503-504, 505, 511, 567 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, 268, 436, 588, 593 Colombian biodiversity, 485, 487, 490-491 Costa Rican biodiversity, 528 exotic species control, 328-329, 331 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/WTO, 328, 491 investment, 19, 570, 571 NAFTA, 3660367, 328, 593 see also Convention on Biological Diversity International Biodiversity Group, 526 International Botanical Congress, 506 International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology, 207-208, 209, 210 International Conference on Population and Development, 516 International Cooperative Biodiversity Group, 528 International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), 347, 349, 355-356 International Geosphere Biosphere Programme, 349 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 316 International organizations and programs, 288-289, 347-357, 387-396 Africa, technology transfer, 209 Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 462-470 classification, 351-353 Colombia, 491 Kew Seed Banks (UK), 358-373 national security policy, 511 systematics science, 377-385 trade relations, 398-399 see also Nongovernmental organizations; specific organizations and programs International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, 359 International Rice Research Institute, 73 International trade, 18, 268, 570 Africa, 398-399 carbon dioxide, trade offsets, 504, 505 developing/developed countries, 398-399, 409, 483-492, 500-505 endangered species (CITES), 268, 436, 588, 593 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/WTO, 328, 491 globalization, 12, 16, 17-19, 63, 398-400, 514-516 NAFTA, 328, 366-367, 593 International Union for the Conservation of Nature (World Conservation Union), 268, 271, 347, 350, 359, 388, 389, 390, 400, 436

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Page 616 International Union of Biological Sciences, 347 Colombia, 488 DIVERSITAS, 347, 349, 349-356 International Union of Microbiological Societies, 349 Internet, 14 Africa, tropical invertebrates, 208 Area de Conservation Guanacaste, 521, 524, 525 CONABIO, 586, 593 Convention on Biological Diversity, 387 Costa Rica, forest conservation, 527-528, 587 Gap Analysis Program, 589 Hawaii Biological Survey, 285 High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative, 292 Mexico, conservation ministry, 586, 587, 589 National Spatial Data Infrastructure, 292, 299 Nature Conservancy, 589 nematodes, 188 soil, 236-237 SPECIES 2000, 352 various, 589 World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 587 Ireland, mites, 195-196 Insecticides, see Pesticides Insects Africa, tropics, 204-212 agriculture, environmental services, 67-68, 75, 436 biological control, 243, 330-331 classification, 32, 33, 213, 215-217 mites, 192-196, 198-199 endemism, 28 environmental services, 67-68, 75, 208 exotic species, 330-331 fungal hosts, 159, 160 insecticides, 14, 207, 330, 472, 475, 546, 548 inventories, 35, 36, 38-39, 42, 213-222, 232, 531 mites, 192-203 nematode hosts, 179, 243-244 nocturnality, 111 oil-eating bacteria and, 544-545 soil, 232-233, 235 mites, 193, 199 sympathetic speciation, 27, 28 Islands and archipelagos endemism, 23, 28 extinction of species, 48, 49, 50, 52, 436-437 geographic speciation, 25, 27 see also specific islands Intellectual property, 400, 401-402, 404-408, 415 Inventories, species, 14, 415, 422 Africa, tropical invertebrates, 205-206 algae, 35, 37, 38, 143-146, 232 arthropods, 35, 38, 77, 232-233 birds, 77, 590-591 Colombia, 486, 487-488 Costa Rica, 525, 577-578, 580-581 databases, 588-594 endangered species, 52 eukaryotes, 30-45 fungi, 35, 37, 38, 39-40, 146-148, 149, 232, 531 tropical, 40, 157-175 Hawaii Biological Survey, 281-290 insects, 35, 36, 38-39, 42, 213-222, 232, 531 Mexico, 588-594 microorganisms, general, 117 mites, 194-200 nematodes, 35, 36-37, 38, 176-191, 232 plankton, 93, 141-142, 144 plantae, 35, 38, 39, 143, 144-145, 147-148, 149 protists, 35, 37, 38, 131, 138-143, 148, 149, 150, 232 soil, 227-233 see also Classification; Systematics science IUBS-SCOPE-UNESCO Programme on Biodiversity, see DIVERSITAS J. Jacob, Francois, 11 Janzen, Daniel, 521-529 Japan, 436, 511 human population growth, 311 nematodes, 179, 326-327 Juma, Calestous, 387-397 K Kapitza, Sergey, 315-324 Kenya, 55 Kew Foundation, 358-373 Keynes, John Maynard, 18, 19

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Page 617 Koleff, Patricia, 586-595 Kyoto Protocol, see Convention on Climate Change L Labyrinthomorpha, 140, 147 Lamont Doherty Earty Observatory, 464 Land and Water Conservation Fund, 495 Land management, 17, 375, 414, 521-542 conservation biology and, 258-259, 260 Costa Rica, 501-502 endangered species, 495, 497-498 human rights and, 344-345 Malpai Borderlands Group, 596-603 national parks and preserves, 52, 54, 59, 276-280, 375, 396, 436, 502, 521-529, 562-566, 575-577, 596-603 see also Sustainable development Lane, Meredith, 291-300 Language extinction, 437-438, 515 Latin America Amazon Basin, 28, 343, 421, 427, 471, 509-510, 512 economic organization, 408 endemism, 52 exotic species, 326, 327 fungi, 40 global warming, 343 human population growth, 305, 308 indigenous peoples, 421, 424, 425 insects, 207 nematodes, 182 systematics science, 378 trade relations, 398-399 see also specific countries Legislation, 5, 460 Colombia, 486, 490=491 Costa Rica, 577 Endangered Biodiversity Act (proposed), 81 Endangered Species Act, 27, 493-499, 602-603 exotic species control, 328-329 Indonesia Conservation Act, 566 Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 11 Library of Congress, 1 Lichen-forming fungi, 160, 161, 162, 164, 168-169, 341 Linares, Olga, 420-434 Linnaeus, Carl, 438-439 Lovejoy, Thomas, 401, 506-513 Lynch, James, 242-251 M MacArthur Foundation, 273 Macromycetes, 161, 168 Maize, 65, 209-210 Malpai Borderlands Group, 596-603 Malthus, Thomas, 318 Mammals extinction rates, 59 marine, 86-87, 90, 93, 94-95, 98 Marine species, 84-103, 126, 144, 415, 515 benthos, 87-88, 89, 93-94, 95, 98, 139 nematodes, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184 classification, 84-86, 415 conservation strategies, 100-102 corals, 88-89, 99, 304, 414 deep-sea, 85-86 Endangered Species Act, 494 energy needs, 87, 91, 92 environmental services, 89, 91-92 exotic, 326, 328, 329 food chain, 89-90, 93-94, 98 foraminifera, 139 geographical factors, 91, 96; see also Coastal areas mammals, 86-87, 90, 93, 94-95, 98 mites, 196 number of species, general, 35, 38, 40 photosynthesis, 91, 92 plants, 88, 91-92 plankton, 88, 91-94, 99 number of, 93, 141-142, 144 pollution, 472 public education, 101, 102 turtles, 95, 98, 494 see also Fish and fisheries Mass media, see Media May, Robert, 30-45 McDonald, William, 596-603 McNeely, Jeffrey, 557-572 Media, 13, 14-15 Medical applications, 65, 66, 73, 106, 376, 415, 475, 507-509, 510, 527-528, 543-544, 571, 587 conservation medicine, 551-556 Costa Rica, INBio-Merck contract, 503, 527-528, 581-582 ethnobotany, 465 fungi, 156-157 genomes, 6, 25, 120, 124, 292, 380, 508, 528 human population growth, 304, 305, 311-312

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Page 618 mites, 198 plant-based, 66, 415, 508, 587 soil biodiversity, 226 Mediterranean region, 34, 471 Meffe, Gary, 255-263 Melnick, Don, 264-275, 462-470 Merck, 503, 527-528, 581-582 Metabolic processes, 2, 20, 120, 121-126, 127 soil-based organisms, 227, 246-247 Metamonada, 141, 148 Methodology, see Research methodology Mexico, 382 biological information system (CONABIO), 211, 288, 382, 383, 384, 586, 587, 588, 592-594 Malpai Borderlands Group, 596-603 nematodes, 182 mites, 197 NAFTA, 328, 366-367, 593 systematics science, 382, 383, 384 Microorganisms, general, 117-129 classification, 31, 117-118, 130, 413 soil, 139, 229-230, 246-248 see also Archaea; Bacteria; Eukaryotic species; Fungi; Viruses Microspora, 142, 147, 148 Miller, Scott, 204-212, 281-290 Millennium Seed Bank, 358-373 Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia, 523, 525, 576 Ministerio de Recursos Naturales, Energía y Minas, 575-577 Mites, 192-203 coastal areas, 195, 196 economic impacts, 195, 198, 199 freshwater, 194, 196 Models and modeling biotic impoverishment, 344-345 countryside biogeography, 110 databases, species, 592 extinction, 52-54, 55-56 forest ecosystems, 534-535 human population growth, 317-321 RNA sequencing, 118-126 service economies, 402-403, 475-476 soil, 236 speciation, 47-48 see also Statistical methodology Molecular biology, 14 fungi, measuring presence, 156, 161 nematodes, measuring presence, 188 soil, 228, 229-230, 246-247 see also Genetics Morales, Juan Carlos, 264-275 Morphology conservation genetics, 267 microorganisms, 117-118 mites, 192, 193 nematodes, 178 systematics science, 376-377 Morton, James, 443-454 Moscow Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders, 448-450 Mound, Laurence, 213-222 Multilateral Agreement on Investments, 19 Municipal parks, 588 Kew Gardens, 358-373 Museums, 206, 208-209, 218, 378, 379-381, 462 American Museum of Natural History, 60, 379, 462, 463-464 Hawaii Biological Survey, 281-290 seed banks, 358-373, 509 Mutation, 24, 25 insecticide resistance, 14 Mycetozoa, 139 Mycota, see Fungi Myxomycetes, 147 Myxozoa, 135, 142, 148 Myers, Norman, 63-70 Myxomycetes, 147 N Nadler, S. A., 176-191 National Biological Information Infrastructure, 291-300 National Biological Survey, 284, 287 National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, 497 National Forum on BioDiversity, 1, 6, 22, 456 National parks and preserves, 52, 54, 59, 276-280, 375, 396, 436, 502, 521-529, 562-566, 575-577, 596-603 funding, 521, 566-567 National security, 506-513 National Spatial Data Infrastructure, 292 Nature and Human Society: The Quest for A Sustainable World, 514 The Nature Conservancy, 281, 284, 457, 521, 566, 598, 599 Nematodes agriculture, 179, 181, 182, 184 benthic, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184 biological control, 244-245 classification, 32, 176-177, 179-183, 186-188

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Page 619 DNA, 179, 182-183, 188 education for, 186-187 desert species, 184 economic impacts, 179-180, 182 endemism, 182, 185 evolution, 180 exotic species, 179, 181, 233-234 forest species, 184, 326-327 freshwater, 179, 181 geographical factors, 180-184, 187 habitat, 180-186 insect hosts, 179, 243-244 Internet, 188 North American, 179, 180, 233 number of species, 35, 36-37, 38, 176-191, 232 parasites, 177, 179-180, 181, 182-183, 184, 185, 243-245 plant, 177, 179, 243-245, 326-327 pathogens, 177, 179-180, 181 soil and sediment, 176-185 (passim), 232, 233-235, 236, 243-245, 246 benthic, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184 Neomonada, 139, 142 Nepal, 567 New York Botanical Gardens, 285, 462, 464 New Zealand, 18, 169, 328, 329, 437, 530, 531-532, 559 NGOs, see Nongovernmental organizations Nicaragua, 563 Nielsen, Ebbe, 213-222 Nitrogen and nitrogen cycling, 66, 107, 122, 226, 235, 245, 303, 326, 342, 344, 362, 414, 533, 540 Nixon, Richard, 5 Nocturnality, 111 Nongovernmental organizations, general, 417, 463, 466, 469, 503, 559, 563, 564, 567, 569, 571, 576, 578-579 funding, 564-567, 569, 571 see also International organizations and programs; specific organizations Nonindigenous species, see Exotic species North America, 197-198 Africa, technology transfer, 208-209 bird speciation, 48 bird extinction, 50-51 exotic species, 325-329, 331 extinction, 50-51, 54 forests, air pollutant impacts, 342-343 management, 375 fungi, 39 human population growth, 305 mites, 197-198 nematodes, 179, 180, 233 soil arthropods, 232-233 systematics science, 378 threatened ecosystems, 80 see also Canada; Mexico; United States North American Biodiversity Information Network, 594 North American Free Trade Agreement, 593 exotic species control, 328 seed banks, 366-367 Norway, 413-414 O OConnor, B. M., 192-203 Organizational factors, 417 Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 463-470 Colombian biodiversity, 485-486 conservation biology, 258-261 Convention on Biological Diversity, 391-395, 560-561 countryside biogeography, 108, 112 nematode classification, 179-180 see also Government role; Policy; Religion Organization for Biodiversity Information, 289 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 19 Opalinata, 140-141, 148 Our Common Future, 6, 17, 389-390 Our Stolen Future, 516 Ozone layer depletion, see Ultraviolet radiation P Pace, Norman, 117-129 Pacific islands bird extinctions, 48 global warming, 343 Paleobiology, see Fossil record Palms, fungal habitat, 157, 158, 163-164, 170 Panama, 565 Pandanus, 164, 171 Papua New Guinea, 563-564 Parabasala, 141 Parasites, 131, 132, 135, 139-143 (passim), 148, 552-553 nematodes, 177, 179-180, 181, 182-183, 184, 185, 243-245 plant, 177, 179, 243-245, 326-327

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Page 620 soil, general, 227, 235 tropical invertebrates, 205 see also Mites Parks, see Municipal parks; National parks and preserves Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy, 384 Patents, see Intellectual property Pathogens eukaroytes, 122, 132 exotic species, 327 fungal, 157, 163, 164, 165 mites, 192-193 nematodes, 177, 179-180, 181 protists, 141, 148, 149 soilborne, 229-230 Pearl, Mary, 462-470, 551-556 Percolozoa, 140 Peru, 28, 76, 563 Pesticides, 14, 207, 330, 472, 475, 546, 548 Phaeophyta, 146 Pharmaceuticals, see Medical applications Philippines, 563, 565-566 Photosynthesis, 4-5, 125-126, 141 bacterial, 121, 124 marine, 91, 92 Phytoplankton, see Plankton Pimm, Stuart, 46-62 Plankton, 88, 91-94, 99 number of, 93, 141-142, 144 Plantae, 147-148 bamboo, 164, 171, 428 databases, 589, 591-592 environmental services, 75-76 ethnobotany, endangered species, 438-441 indigenous peoples, 422-434 exotic species, 75, 326-327, 330, 436-438 extinction, 64, 358, 435-442 genetic variability, 73, 75 indigenous hunter-gatherers, 422-427 ionizing radiation, 341 marine, 88, 91-92 medicines, plant-based, 66, 415, 508, 587 Mexico, 589, 591-592 mite parasites, 193, 195 nematode parasites, 177, 179, 243-245, 326-327 number of species, 35, 38, 39, 143, 144-145, 147-148, 149 palms, fungal habitat, 157, 158, 163-164, 170 photosynthesis, 4-5, 91, 92, 125-126, 141 protists, 134, 135, 143, 144-145 seeds and seed banks, 358-373, 509 systematics science, 378, 382-383, 384; see also Ethnobotany see also Agriculture; Forests and forestry PLANTS National Database, 589 Pokras, Mark, 551-556 Political factors, 16-17, 104-105, 337, 338, 339, 388, 460, 461, 601 land preservation, 52, 576 Policy, 481-603 classification, 417 Colombia, 483-492 conservation biology, 258-259, 262 conservation genetics, 273 conservation medicine, 554 Costa Rica, 500-505, 573-585 countryside biogeography, 112 exotic species control, 328-332 extinction, 52, 54, 59, 80-81 fisheries, 510 funding, 521, 566-567 human rights, 344-345 incentives, 414, 416-417, 502 indigenous peoples, 431-432 intellectual property rights, 400, 401-402, 404-408, 415 national parks and preserves, 52, 54, 59, 276-280, 375, 396, 436, 502, 521-529, 562-566, 575-577, 596-603 natural security and, 506-513 population growth, 321-324 private vs public goods, 400, 403, 406-407 scientific and technological infrastructure, 337-410, 483-484 social infrastructure, 411-480 U.S. policy on sustainability, 514-518 see also Government role; International agreements; International organizations and programs; Legislation; Sustainable development Pollution, 14, 516-517, 553 acid pollution, 64, 341, 474, 517 agricultural, 472, 553 Costa Rican policy, 504 environmental services, control of, 132, 156, 157, 544-545 freshwater, 304, 414-415, 509 fungi, 156 marine, 94, 96, 98, 472 oil-eating bacteria, 544-545 protists, 132 soil, 226, 246-249, 472, 553 see also Air pollution

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Page 621 Polynesia, bird extinctions, 38 Polypoidy, 26-27 Population factors, human, 3-4, 278 Colombia, 489-490 Costa Rica, 500, 574 developing countries, general, 304, 306, 322 global warming, 340 growth, 303-324, 413, 516 historical perspectives, 305-306, 308, 309, 310, 315, 318, 319-320 indigenous peoples, 420-434 medical interventions, 304, 305, 311-312 natural security and, 507 urbanization, 13, 99-100, 305, 322, 414 Population factors, non-human species, 47-48, 50, 63-64 conservation biology, 73, 80-81, 258, 279 conservation genetics, 270-273 definitional issues, 71-72 diversity, 71-83 marine species, 86-87 see also Extinction Population Growth, Resource Consumption, and a Sustainable World, 315-316 Poverty, 5-6, 339 patent licensing to low-income groups, 404, 405 see also Developing countries Prasinophyta, 143, 144 Preserves, see National parks and preserves Property rights, 399, 570 indigenous peoples, 430 knowledge, 400, 401-402, 404-408, 415 private vs public goods, 400, 403, 406-407 Protozoa, 118, 133, 134-135 138-143 biocontrol/remediation, 132 classification, 130, 131-135, 139, 140-151 eukaryotes vs, 130, 131 evolution, 131-132 extinction, 132, 136, 137, 139, 140-150 (passim) fossil record, 132, 136, 137, 139, 140-150 (passim) number of species, 35, 37, 38, 131, 138-143, 148, 149, 150, 232 pathogens, 141, 148, 149 plants and, 134, 135, 143, 144-145 pollution, 132 research funding, 151 see also specific species Public education, 2, 31, 417, 455-461, 583 Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 467-469 Colombia, 491 conservation medicine, 554 Convention on Biological Diversity, 561 exotic species control, 328-329 marine biodiversity, 101, 102 media, 13, 14-15 wildland habitats, 524-525, 583 see also Internet; Media Prance, Ghillean, 358-373 Psuedofungi, 147, 148 R Radiozoa, 140, 150 Rainforest Alliance, 526 Ranching, 522-523, 526-527 Malpai Borderlands Group, 596-603 Raphidophyta, 146 Rapid biodiversity assessment, fungi, 158-172 Reagan, Ronald, 389 Recreation, see Tourism and recreation Red Data Books, 42 Regional issues conservation genetics, 269-270 geospatial information systems, 278 population diversity, 75 systematics science, 383 see also specific regions Religion, 20, 112, 443-454, 458, 461 indigenous peoples, 429 Remote sensing, 89 satellite technology, 292, 589 Research and Development Center of Biology (Indonesia), 382 Research methodology Colombian biodiversity, 485-492 conference at hand, 2 countryside biogeography, 111-112 fungal diversity, 157-172 geospatial information, 276-280 history of scientific method, 11-14 microbial diversity, 118-121 mite diversity, 197, 200 National Biological Information Infrastructures, 291-300 protist diversity, 132-137, 151 rapid biodiversity assessment, fungi, 158-172 seed banks, 367-370 soil, 227-230, 235-237, 242-243 see also Classification; Sampling; Statistical methodology Rhizophoda, 139

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Page 622 Rhodophyta, 144, 148 Río Cóndor Project, 535-542 Rio Conference, see Convention on Biological Diversity RNA sequencing, 118-126 Rodríguez, Sandra, 573-585 Rogo, Lucie, 204-212 Rosenthal Center for Alternative/Complementary Medicine, 465 Rural areas, 13, 416, 502, 583 countryside biogeography, 109-112 indigenous peoples, 420-434 Kew Seed Bank, 362 see also Agriculture Russonello, John, 455-461 S Samper, Christián, 483-492 Sampling fungi, 163-171 insects, 217 Kew Seed Bank, 358-373 marine, 86, 91 mites, 195, 196, 198 nematodes, 187-188 soil, 228, 236, 242 Santa Rosa National Park, 521-529 Satellite technology, 292, 589 Schnase, John, 291-300 Schubel, Jerry, 84-103 Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, 237, 347 SCOPE, 349 Sediment, see Soils and sediment Seeds and seed banks, 358-373, 509 Serageldin, Ismail, 413-419 Sherman, David, 551-556 Silberschatz, Abraham, 291-300 Silent Spring, 14, 516 Simberloff, Daniel, 325-334 Singh, Ashbindu, 276-280 Sistema Nacional de Areas de Conservation, 525, 576-579, 581, 582-583 Smith, Roger, 358-373 Smithsonian Institution, 1, 3, 287, 389 Soberón, Jorge, 586-595 Soil and sediment, 67 agriculture, 226, 234, 235, 236, 245, 246, 472, 553 algae, 232 bacteria, 228, 232 biodiversity, general, 225-241, 351 biological control/remediation, 242-251 biotechnology, 242-249 classification, 228, 232, 235 ecosystems and soil biodiversity, 225-230, 233-241 endemism, 233 energy, soil-based organisms, 227, 246-247 environmental services, 225, 226-227, 230, 235 exotic species, 233-234 fungi, 229-230, 232, 234, 244 geographical factors, 227-228, 232 insects, 232-233, 235 mites, 193, 199 Internet, 236-237 inventories, 227-233 metabolic processes, soil-based organisms, 227, 246-247 microorganisms, 139, 229-230, 246-248 molecular biology, 228, 229-230, 246-247 nematodes, 176-185 (passim), 232, 233-235, 236, 243-245, 246 benthic, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184 parasites, general, 227, 235 pathogens, 229-230 pollution, 226, 246-249, 472, 553 protists, 139 sampling, 228, 236, 242 slash-and-burn agriculture, 426 see also Benthos; Deserts and desertification South Africa, 564 South America, see Latin America; specific countries Southeast Asia, 514 agricultural biodiversity, 73 conservation genetics, 273 extinctions, 54 indigenous peoples, 425-426 national security policy, 510 Southern Africa Botanical Network, 382-383 Speciation, see Evolution Species, number of, see Inventories SPECIES 2000, 351-353 Squibb ICGB, 528 Standards Convention on Biological Diversity, 393-394 knowledge-based economies, 409 soil sampling, 236 Star, Susan Leigh, 291-300 Statistical methodology countryside biogeography, 110 endemism, 51, 52

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Page 623 extinction, 48, 49, 52-54, 55-56, 78-80 fungal diversity, 157-158, 166-167 human population projections, 316-322 UN, 304-305, 307-313 insect diversity, 215 mite diversity, 197 nematode diversity, 185 population diversity, general, 76-78 Subsidiary Body for Scientific, Technical, the Technological Advice, 348, 391-396 (passim), 484 Sustainable development, 2, 18, 20 Africa, tropical insects, 206, 208, 209-211 chemical prospecting, 543-549 Colombia, 483-492 Costa Rica, 500-505, 521-529, 573-585 developing countries, general, 322, 534-535, 557-572 ethnobotany, 436-441 human population growth, 321-324 religion and, 443-454 scientific and technological infrastructure, 337-410 social infrastructure, 411-480 threats to, 301-334, 414; see also Exotic species tropical rain forests, 483-492, 500-505, 521-542, 573-585 U.S., 514-518 World Bank, 416-418 Suzuki, David, 7, 11-21 Sympathetic speciation, 27, 28, 47-48 Systematics Agenda 2000 International, 379-380, 384 Systematics science, 35-36, 206, 374-386 bacteria, 413 CBD, 374, 382 computer technology, 380-381 conservation genetics, 265-267, 268 DIVERSITAS, 353, 379, 380, 384 funding, 375, 376, 382, 383-384 impoverishment, 340-341 plants, 378, 382-383, 384; see also Ethnobotany U.S. efforts, 375, 379, 384 see also Classification T Tabor, Gary, 551-556 Taiwan fungal diversity, 159 Taxation, 414, 502, 504, 570, 571 international, 570 Taxonomy, see Classification Taylor, J. E., 156-175 Technological factors, 12, 13-14, 85 Africa, tropical invertebrates, 208-209 Convention on Biological Diversity, 395-396, 561 developing countries, 315-316; see also Technology transfer dysfunctional, 337-338 human population growth, 305, 311-312, 315-316, 318-319, 338 intellectual property, 400, 401-402, 404-408, 415 knowledge-based economies, 398-410, 415 microorganisms, classification, 117-122 remote sensing, 89 satellite technology, 292, 589 seed banks, 367-371 see also Computer technology; Education and training; Globalization; Pesticides Technology transfer, 208-209, 348, 360, 365, 367, 370-371 Convention on Biological Diversity, 561 human population growth, 306, 319 seed banks, 370 Telecommunications, see Internet; Media Thailand, fungi, 162, 165 Threatened and endangered species chemical prospecting, 546-549 Colombia, 488, 489 birds, 57-58, 59, 497 conservation genetics, 266, 268 Endangered Species Act, 81, 493-499, 602-603 ecosystems, 80 ethnobotany, 435-442 hunting of, 85 language extinction compared to, 437-438 Malpai Borderlands Group, 599-603 management, 54 Mexico, 588 number of, 52 trade controls, CITES, 268, 436, 588, 593 Tourism and recreation, 68, 102, 530, 535, 539, 564, 582, 589 exotic species introduced by travelers, 325, 328 Trade, see Globalization; International trade Training, see Education and training

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Page 624 Trillium Corporation, 535 Tropical forests, 19, 23, 111, 521 Amazon Basin, 28, 343, 421, 427, 471, 509- 510, 512, 534 Chile, 535-542 Colombia, 490 Costa Rica, 500-505, 521-529, 573-585, 601 countryside biogeography, 110 economic value of biodiversity, 66, 67 environmental services, 74, 75-76, 502, 509-510, 517, 526, 528, 530 extinction/habitat fragmentation, 55-57, 59, 78-80, 414, 436 indigenous peoples, 424, 426, 430-431 fungi, 40, 156-175, 531 geospatial information, 279 insects, 38, 111, 204-212, 216-217 mites, 199 models, ecosystem, 534-535 national security policy, 509-510 slash-and-burn agriculture, 426-427, 522 soil species, 233 sustainability, 483-492, 500-505, 521-542, 573-585 sympathetic speciation, 28 Turtles, 95, 98, 494 U. Uganda, 51-52 Ultraviolet radiation, 64, 341, 508, 5654 Ulvophyta, 144, 145 UN Climate Convention, see Convention on Climate Change UN Commission on the Environment and Development, 17 UN Conference on Development and the Environment, 321, 390 UN Conference on Human Environment and Action Plan, 3880389 UN Development Program, 360 Global Environment Facility, 348, 360, 382, 383, 557-558 UN Environment Programme, 276, 277, 349, 359, 378, 400 Global Environment Facility, 348, 360, 382, 383, 557-558 see also Convention on Biological Diversity UN Food and Agricultural Organization, 351, 359, 389, 491 Union for the Conservation of Nature, 268 United Kingdom birds, endemism, 51 fungi, 39, 158, 159 Kew Seed Bank, 358-373 mites, 195-196 soil, 237 United Nations, 17, 504 Earth Summit, 6, 37, 348 human population projections, 304-305, 307-313 see also Convention on Biological Diversity; terms beginning “UN . . . ” United States, 514-518 agriculture, 75, 325, 329, 553 food globalization, 65-66 CBD, 388, 389, 395-396, 557 Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 462-470 climate change, 505 coastal fisheries, 344 conservation biology, 259, 260, 261, 269-270 drylands, 362, 363 education in, 207, 462-470 endangered species, 81, 493-499, 600, 602-603 exotic species, 325-329, 331 forests, 72 knowledge assets, 402, 405, 409-410 Malpai Borderlands Group, 596-603 mites, 195, 197 NAFTA, 328, 366-367, 593 National Biological Information Infrastructure, 291-300 national security, 506-513 Nature Conservancy, 281, 284, 457, 521, 566, 598, 599 plant-based medicines, 66 population vs resources, 4-5, 305 post-Cold War environment, 16 religious factors, 447-448, 450-453 salamanders, 50 seed banks, 362, 363, 366 soil biodiversity, 232, 233-234 species-rich countries, by rank and number, 558 systematics science, 375, 379, 384 taxonomic training, 207 value of environmental resources, 67-68, 72, 108 see also Hawaii; terms beginning “U.S.” UN Scientific, Educational, and Cultural Organization, 349, 388

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Page 625 UIrbanization, 13, 305, 322, 414 costal areas, 99-100 U.S. Agency for Interantional Development, 382 U.S. Department of Agricultrue exotic species control, 329, 330 Hawaii Buiological Survey, 284, 287 Malpai Borderlands Group, 598, 599, 601 seed banks, 367 U.S. Department of Defense, 511-512 U.S. Department of State, 514-518 U.S. Department of the Interiior, 268, 277, 284, 286, 287, 495, 602 U.S. Enviornmental Protection Agency, 108 V Valdés, Ana Elena, 573-585 Vegetation, see Agriculture; Forests and forestry; Plantae; Seeds and seed banks Veltre, Thomas, 15 Venezuela, 54 nematodes, 183 Virginia, Ross, 225-241 Viruses, 229-230 W Wall, Diana, 176-191, 225-241 Water resources, 5, 20, 54, 67, 74-75, 106, 107, 108, 414, 489 pollution, 472 soil biodiversity, 227 see also Freshwater sepcies; marine species Wetlands, 98, 389, 489, 540, 541 environmental services, 67, 74 Everglades, 54 Wildlife Conservation Society, 462, 464 Wildlife Preservation Trust International, 462, 464 Wirth, Timothy, 514-518 Wilson, Edward, 14, 22-29, 30, 35, 206, 401, 555 Woodwell, George, 337-346 World Bank, 360, 413, 416-419 Global Environment Facility, 348, 360, 382, 383, 557-558 World Commission on Environment and Development, 289-390 World Conservatiion Monitoring Centre, 277, 587 World Convservation Union, see International Union for the Conservation of Nature World Resources Africa Data Sampler, 277 World Resources Institute, 347 World Trade Organizations, 491 World Wildlife Fund, 80, 400, 457, 502, 516, 566, 516, 567 World Wide Web, see Internet X Xylariacea, 162 Z Zambia, 564 Zoos, 23, 378, 489