NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the NationalResearch Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the NationalAcademy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the reportwere chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguishedscholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology andto their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, theAcademy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr.Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academyof Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in theselection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federalgovernment. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting nationalneeds, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure theservices of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the healthof the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues ofmedical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associatethe broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advisingthe federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Councilhas become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy ofEngineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities.The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr.William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
Support for this project was provided by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the NationalSecurity Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those ofthe authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 98-xxx
International Standard Book Number xxx
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