Index

A

Ability to pay principle, 10, 17, 27, 86-89

Academic performance.

See also Outcomes, educational;

Performance standards

assessment of, 59, 61, 62, 253, 264-265

class size and, 234

environmental factors, 266-269, 271-273

foundation program formulas and, 261

gaps, 289

issues, 2, 65

resource allocation and, 7, 9, 14-15, 25, 152, 234, 266

school, 221

school district, 221, 266-269, 274

Accountability systems, 59, 159, 192, 200

Adequacy, educational

assigning costs to, 238, 242-246

compliance with, 58-59, 202

concept, 2, 12, 21-24, 58, 179-180, 188-189, 209, 211, 214

costs of, 23

court definitions of, 58, 59, 68, 193-199, 215-216, 217

definitional challenges, 214-232

early legal thinking, 179-182

emergence of movement, 2, 3, 175-176, 188-189

empirical models of, 192, 206, 216, 218, 223, 224-228, 254-255

equal opportunity and, 14, 16

equity and, 22-24, 27, 63-64, 204, 209

formulas for distributing funds, 211

future of, 205-207

historical context, 211

individual district circumstances and, 246-251

learning objectives, 215-232

legal standard, 2, 23, 24, 25, 189-193

legislation, 24, 198, 199-205

litigation, 22, 47, 51-52, 55-56, 58, 59-60, 63, 65, 175, 188-199, 211, 212-213

and local control issue, 198-199

and outcomes, 58, 200-201, 251-254

professional judgment model, 191-192, 201, 206, 218, 222, 223, 225 , 232-241

quantification, 22, 25, 188-189

see also Performance standards

race-based litigation and, 176-179

research, 23

and spending, 211, 212-213

statistical models of, 192-193, 206, 216, 219-224, 229-230, 231, 232, 254

vertical equity as, 23

voter preference-tax price methodology, 222, 231, 254



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305 INDEX Index A empirical models of, 192, 206, 216, 218, 223, 224-228, 254-255 Ability to pay principle, 10, 17, 27, 86-89 equal opportunity and, 14, 16 Academic performance. See also Outcomes, equity and, 22-24, 27, 63-64, 204, 209 educational; Performance standards formulas for distributing funds, 211 assessment of, 59, 61, 62, 253, 264-265 future of, 205-207 class size and, 234 historical context, 211 environmental factors, 266-269, 271-273 individual district circumstances and, 246- foundation program formulas and, 261 251 gaps, 289 learning objectives, 215-232 issues, 2, 65 legal standard, 2, 23, 24, 25, 189-193 resource allocation and, 7, 9, 14-15, 25, legislation, 24, 198, 199-205 152, 234, 266 litigation, 22, 47, 51-52, 55-56, 58, 59-60, school, 221 63, 65, 175, 188-199, 211, 212-213 school district, 221, 266-269, 274 and local control issue, 198-199 Accountability systems, 59, 159, 192, 200 and outcomes, 58, 200-201, 251-254 Adequacy, educational professional judgment model, 191-192, 201, assigning costs to, 238, 242-246 206, 218, 222, 223, 225, 232-241 compliance with, 58-59, 202 quantification, 22, 25, 188-189; see also concept, 2, 12, 21-24, 58, 179-180, 188- Performance standards 189, 209, 211, 214 race-based litigation and, 176-179 costs of, 23 research, 23 court definitions of, 58, 59, 68, 193-199, and spending, 211, 212-213 215-216, 217 statistical models of, 192-193, 206, 216, definitional challenges, 214-232 219-224, 229-230, 231, 232, 254 early legal thinking, 179-182 vertical equity as, 23 emergence of movement, 2, 3, 175-176, voter preference-tax price methodology, 188-189 222, 231, 254 305

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306 INDEX Alabama impact of reforms, 49-50, 63, 74-75, 90-92, adequacy standard, 22, 23, 149, 175, 200 93, 101, 186 constitution, 169 litigation, 3, 8, 39, 42, 47, 48-50, 56, 69, context for reform, 157-158 72, 74, 75, 81, 82, 91, 92, 93, 95, 143, legislative response, 200-201, 204 145, 169, 170, 183, 185, 212 litigation, 22, 42, 149, 159, 167, 170, 175 private school enrollments, 92-93 politics of school finance reform, 157-160, Proposition 13, 3, 49, 74, 75, 81, 94, 169, 166, 167 170, 185-186 property taxes, 159-160, 166 reforms, 49, 73, 146, 169 reforms, 73, 159-160, 200-201 spending on education, 74-75, 81, 82, 93, spending, 163, 171 95, 101, 169, 170, 211, 212 Alaska student performance, 90-91 cost of education, 229, 231, 245 teacher salaries, 102 litigation, 44, 212 voluntary donations to local schools, 91-92 reforms, 84 Cases. See Court cases spending on education, 212 Categorical grants, 101, 104, 130, 234, 235, Analysis of school finance equity 236, 239-241 alternative groups of special interest, 12 Center for Education Policy Analysis—New child perspectives, 10-11, 24 Jersey, 103 conceptual distinctions, 9-13 Chambers’ Teachers’ Cost Index, 84-85 ex ante and ex post concepts, 12-13 Charter schools, 27, 153, 164 inputs, 11-12, 24 Child/student equity, 10, 11, 28 methodology, 103-104 Christian Coalition, 158, 159 outcomes, 11-12 Civil Rights Act of 1964, 14, 177-178 outputs, 11-12, 24 Class size, 234, 238-241. See also Teacher/ processes, 11-12 pupil ratios taxpayer perspectives, 10-11, 24 Coefficient of variation, 19, 76, 85, 110-111, units of analysis, 11, 15, 17, 20, 22, 24 114 Arizona Colorado legislative response, 204 cost of education, 212, 249 litigation, 42, 175, 197 litigation, 45, 212 reforms, 73, 204 Concepts. See Equity concepts Arkansas Co-NECT, 230 litigation, 42, 56, 69 Connecticut reforms, 73 litigation, 42, 67, 69, 212 Assessment. See Student outcome assessments reforms, 73, 80-81 Atlas Communities, 230 spending on education, 80-81, 212 Audrey Cohen College System, 230 Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline (CMCD), 230 Consortium for Policy Research in Education, B 103 Consumer Price Survey, 247 Barro index, 84-85 Contracting for services, 153 Benefit principle, 10 Core Knowledge Curriculum, 230 Block grants, 61-62, 237, 238, 246 Cost functions, 21, 29 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 250 Cost indexes, education, 221 adjusted input prices, 270-271 Barro index, 84-85 C calculation, 269-282 Chambers’ Teachers’ Cost Index, 29, 84-85 California comparison of, 277-282 definition of equality, 75, 144

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307 INDEX conceptual foundation of, 261-269 Brown v. Board of Education, 14, 26, 40- cost functions converted to, 21, 29 41, 176, 177-178, 179, 181, 187, 205 cost-of-living, 84-85, 95, 226, 247-249 Burrus v. Wilkerson, 37 cross-sectional, 94, 95, 247, 282 Campaign for Fiscal Equity v. State of New defined, 261, 263, 273-274 York, 45, 68, 197 direct controls for performance, 273-277, Campbell County v. Wyoming, 198, 215, 281, 283, 287 218, 231 efficiency controls, 29, 263, 274-277, 278- City of Pawtucket v. Sandlun, 44, 68, 199 281, 282, 283, 285-286, 287, 288, 289- Claremont School District v. Gregg, 42, 68, 291, 293, 294 196 environmental factors, 266-269, 270, 271, Claremont v. Governor of New Hampshire, 277-278, 280-281, 282, 289, 292-293 193 in foundation formulas, 282-291 Coalition for Adequacy v. Chiles, 44, 68, geographic, 220, 246-249, 255 199 indirect controls for performance, 271-273, Committee for Educational Equality v. 277, 281, 283 Missouri, 42, 170 inflation adjustments, 249-251 Committee for Educational Rights v. Edgar, input prices, 266, 269-271, 277, 279-280, 45, 60, 199 283, 289 Cummings v. Board of Education, 176 McMahon and Chang’s Cost of Living Danson v. Casey, 45, 54 Index, 21, 84-85 DeRolph v. Ohio, 42, 62, 197 performance standards and, 262-264 Dupree v. Alma School District No. 30, 42, proxy for at-risk children, 222, 227-228 67 purpose of, 265-266 Edgewood v. Kirby, 42, 56, 67, 104, 160, weighted students, 21, 29, 57, 104, 148, 161, 170 168-169, 184, 261, 271, 281, 283 Freeman v. Pitts, 187 Cost of education. See also Formulas for Green v. County School Board, 178 distributing funds; Spending on Griffin v. Illinois, 182 education Harper v. Hunt, 22, 42, 159, 160, 170 economic definition, 21 Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections, 182 empirical models, 192, 206, 216, 218, 223, Hornbeck v. Somerset County Board of 224-228, 254-255 Education, 45, 67 professional judgment model, 191-192, 201, Horton v. Meskill, 42, 67 206, 218, 222, 223, 225, 232-241 Kadrmas v. Dickinson Public Schools, 182 public perceptions of, 152 Keyes v. School District No. 1, 178 statistical models, 192-193, 206, 216, 219- Kukor v. Grover, 45, 68 224, 229-230, 231, 232, 254 Leandro v. North Carolina, 42, 68, 193 student characteristics and, 226-227 Levittown, 17 teacher salaries, 222, 238, 239-241, 242- McDuffy v. Secretary of Education, 42, 59, 245, 246-247, 269-270, 279, 281, 282 196 in urban districts, 148, 184 McInnis v. Shapiro, 37 voter preference-tax price methodology, McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, 177 222, 231, 254 Milliken v. Bradley, 178, 187 Court cases Minneapolis NAACP v. Minnesota, 199 Abbott v. Burke, 17, 22, 42, 104, 115, 151, Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, 176-177 163, 164, 165, 201, 203, 254 Missouri v. Jenkins, 66, 187 Alabama Coalition for Equity v. Hunt, 59, Olsen v. Oregon, 45, 54 196 Pauley v. Kelly, 43, 52, 194, 215, 220 Board of Education of Oklahoma City v. Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 238 Dowell, 187 Plessy v. Ferguson, 176 Brigham v. Vermont, 42, 61 Plyler v. Doe, 40, 182

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308 INDEX Robinson v. Cahill, 22, 42, 50, 72, 145, intergovernmental grant theory, 103 163, 193 methodology for assessing, 103-104 Rodriguez v. San Antonio Independent models of, 100-103 School District, 39-40, 41, 43, 48, 50, perceptions of funding stability and, 128- 53, 54, 55, 56, 66, 72, 146, 170, 182, 129 183 required local effort, 105-106 Roosevelt Elementary School District v. Bishop, 42, 68, 197 E Rose v. Council for Better Education, 29, 42, 58, 90, 104, 149, 155, 157, 193, Eagle Forum, 158 195, 215 Econometric studies, 75-82, 86-87, 152, 223 School Administration District #1 v. Edison Project, 207, 230 Commissioner of Education, State of Education Commission of the States, 144, 169 Maine, 68 Education Finance and Management program, Scott v. Virginia, 44, 68 144 Seattle v. State of Washington, 43, 52, 193- Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 194 26 Serrano v. Priest, 3, 8, 39, 42, 47-50, 54, Education production, 11-12 72, 74, 75, 77, 81, 82, 84, 90, 91, 92, functions, 15-16, 25, 83 93, 95, 143, 145, 169, 170, 183 Education reform, 129-130, 146-147 Shapiro v. Thompson, 182 Education standards, 59, 64, 186-187, 206. See Skeen v. Minnesota, 45, 68 Performance standards St. Paul School District v. Minnesota, 199 Efficiency Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of controls, 29, 263, 274-277, 278-281, 282, Education, 178 283, 285-286, 287, 288, 289-291, 293, Sweatt v. Painter, 177 294 Tennessee Small School Systems v. definition of, 228 McWherter, 42, 67, 68, 197 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 26 Thompson v. Engelking, 44, 53 Environmental factors. See also Special-needs Van Dusartz v. Hatfield, 66 students; Urban school districts; Washakie v. Herschler, 43, 60, 198 Weights/weighting standards and academic performance, 15, 28, 226- 227, 266-269, 271-273 D cost adjustments, 266-269, 270, 271 Data availability issue, 11, 24-25 Equal opportunity, 22, 64, 166 Data Envelopment Analysis, 29, 275, 293 concepts of equity, 8, 13-16, 24, 50 Demographics of school finance ex ante and ex post definitions, 13-14 impacts of reforms, 87-88 income disparity and, 15 politics and, 139, 153-154 individual characteristics and, 15 Desegregation, school, 36, 66, 143, 177-179, issues, 2 187-188, 205 legal concepts, 14 District power equalization, 17, 38, 46, 49, 50, measures of, 111 57, 81, 83, 94, 184-185; see also minimum-attainment definition, 16 Guaranteed tax base movement, 143-144 District response to reforms. See also Local per-pupil expenditures and, 16, 35-36, 149 school districts; Resource allocation, political issues, 151, 163 reform-related resource/achievement controversy, 14-15 decision-making models, 100, 102-103, 113 Equal protection expenditure models, 100, 101-102, 128 concept, 14 incentives for spending, 111 litigation based on, 35-36, 43, 48, 54, 55, institutional theory, 128 56, 61, 66-67

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309 INDEX Equality of Educational Opportunity (Coleman foundation, 104, 105-106, 107, 112, 132, Report), 14-15, 27, 35, 267 168, 190-191, 200, 211, 214, 225-226, Equity concepts 282-291 adequacy distinguished from, 12, 22-24, guaranteed tax base (GTB), 17, 28, 104, 179-180 105, 106-107, 132 analyzing, see Analysis of school finance key components, 104, 106-107 equity percentage equalizing funding system, 28 child/student perspective, 10, 11, 21, 24 performance-based, 286-291 equal opportunity, 8, 13-16 two-tier systems, 57 future trends, 24-26, 214 weights/weighting students, 21, 29, 57, 104, horizontal equity, 18-20 148, 168-169, 261, 271 taxpayer perspective, 10-11 Foundation aid, 83, 91-92, 185 value decisions, 26, 222 Free rider problem, 92 vertical equity, 20-21 Fundamental interest, education as, 36, 39, 43, wealth neutrality, 14, 16-18 48, 55, 181 Ex ante concepts, 12, 13, 17 Ex post G concepts, 12-14, 22 horizontal equity, 18-19 Georgia, litigation, 44 wealth neutrality, 17-18, 28 Gini coefficient, 19, 27, 76, 110-111, 114 Expeditionary Learning program, 230 Goals 2000, 159 Extended school services, 104, 119, 124-126 Guaranteed tax base, 17, 81, 94, 104, 105, 133; see also District power of equalization F H Facilities, school, 124-125, 126 Federal government Horizontal equity litigation, see Court cases; U.S. children’s concept, 18-20, 29 Constitution litigation based on, 35-36 share of funding, 8, 9, 76, 146-147, 236-237 measures of, 19-20 student-level surveys, 25 price adjustments in, 29 use of aid from, 9 research on, 19-20 Federal range ratio, 19, 110, 114 Finance distribution arrangements. See Formulas for distributing funds I Fiscal neutrality. See Wealth neutrality Florida Idaho, litigation, 44, 53 impact of reforms, 82 Illinois, 37 litigation, 44, 60, 175, 199 adequacy standard, 226, 228, 255 politics, 142-143 Commission on Education Funding, 225 Formulas for distributing funds constitution, 66 centralized, 82-83, 84 cost of education, 225-226, 229, 231, 255 cost indexes in, 282-291 Goals Assessment Program, 226 design considerations, 9, 146, 216, 218-232 impact of reforms, 82 district power equalizing (DPE), 17-18, 28, litigation, 45, 60, 175, 199, 212 38, 46-47, 49, 50-51, 81, 83, 94, 184- spending for education, 212 184 Impacts of reforms, 8. See also State aid district response to, 9-10, 104 changes ex ante concepts, 12, 13, 17 on black students, 89-90 ex post concepts, 12-13 California case, 49-50, 74-75 expenditure-based, 287, 288-289 cost-of-living adjustments, 84-86

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310 INDEX econometric studies, 75-82, 86-89, 152 spending on education, 213 educational outcomes, 65, 90-91, 93, 100 Kentucky evidence of, 65, 74-84 adequacy standard, 22, 23, 58, 62, 64, 68, on horizontal equity, 20 167, 175, 195, 196, 198, 200-201, 203, on income, 82-84 206, 215, 216 on litigation, 59 constitution, 155 on low-house-income districts, 86-89 context for reforms, 156-157 peer group effects, 82 district response to reforms, 103, 104, 128 price-of-education perspective, 80-82 education reform, 129 private school enrollments, 92-93 impacts of reforms, 90, 104-112, 156, 200- on real resources, see Resource allocation, 201 reform-related litigation, 42, 58-59, 69, 90, 104, 149, 155, research needs on, 127, 130-132 167, 195, 196, 198, 203, 206, 212, 215 on revenues, 68, 75-76, 77, 78-82, 86-89, politics of school finance reform, 155-157, 104-112 166, 167, 200 simulation models, 82-84 Pritchard Committee for Academic on spending on education, 4, 49-50, 74-78, Excellence, 157, 159, 167 93, 212-213 reforms, 59, 64, 73, 90, 104, 106-107, 112, voluntary contributions, 91-92, 95 128, 133, 149, 156, 200 years after reform and, 87-88, 89 resource allocation changes, 112, 114-115, Income 116, 121-122, 124, 126-127, 128, 163, redistribution programs, 15 195, 230 spending on education and, 82-84, 86-89, revenue changes, 104-112, 156 253-254, 280 spending on education, 212 Indiana, litigation, 46 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 21 L Inputs into education, 11-12. See also Spending on education Legislation, federal. See also specific statutes and ability to pay, 17 significant years for, 26 access to, 14 vertical-equity-based, 21 horizontal equity applied to, 18-19 Legislation, state and performance, 25 achievement of equity through, 4 price indexes, 266, 269-271 politics of, 142-143, 144, 145, 147, 156, race-based litigation, 177 159 Instruction. See also Cost of education responsiveness to court-mandated reforms, decision making, 237-238 49, 50-51, 56, 63-64 components, 224, 228-232 Leveling-up issue, 111, 138-139, 145, 150, 161, model program, 224 186 resource allocation for, 101, 115, 119, 120, Litigation, school finance. See also Court cases; 233-238, 239-240 State court litigation; U.S. Supreme Interest groups, 142, 143, 144-145, 153, 157, Court litigation 158, 164, 165, 167 character of, 34-35 Intergovernmental grant theory, 100, 101 future of, 63-65 International Association for the Evaluation of geographic uniformity principle, 36, 38, Educational Achievement, 251 180, 185 horizontal equity principle, 35-36 importance to reform, 166-167 K origins and evolution, 34-41 Kansas vertical equity (needs-based) challenge, 37, litigation, 44 38, 64-65 reforms, 73, 94 wealth-based discrimination, 37-41, 181-182

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311 INDEX Local control issue, 138, 151, 164, 198-199 litigation, 45, 50, 55-56, 60, 175, 199, 212 Local school districts. See also District politics, 142-143 response to reforms spending on education, 212 consolidation of, 161, 164 Mississippi cost functions, 21, 239-241 constitution, 169 enrollments, 293 cost of education, 226, 255 horizontal equity, 19-20 spending on education, 213 impact of reforms, 78-80, 84-86 Missouri inter-district equity, 21, 180 litigation, 42, 170, 176-177, 213 intra-district equity, 11, 65, 180 reform, 43, 66 low-household-income districts, 84, 86-89 spending on education, 213 measures of equity between, 111 Modern Red Schoolhouse, 230 revenues, 78-80, 104-112 Montana role in finance, 1, 8 litigation, 42, 69, 212 spending, 76 reforms, 73, 145 as unit of analysis, 11, 20, 22, 25 spending on education, 212 vertical equity, 20-21, 29, 58 Louisiana, litigation, 46, 175 N A Nation at Risk, 21-22, 146, 147, 186 M National Academy of Education, 253 Maine, litigation, 44, 60 National Alliance for Restructuring Education, Maryland, litigation, 45, 55-56, 67 230 Massachusetts, 28 National Assessment Governing Board, 253 constitution, 66 National Center for Education Statistics, 19, 86, cost of education, 212, 289, 292 95, 154 litigation, 42, 59, 175, 212 Common Core of Data, 25 reforms, 73, 146, 149 National Commission on Excellence in McLoone index, 19, 111, 114 Education, 147 McMahon and Chang’s Cost of Living Index, National Conference of State Legislators, 144 21, 84-85 National Educational Longitudinal Survey, 91 Measures of inequality National Governors’ Association, 159 coefficient of variation, 19, 76, 85, 110- National Longitudinal Survey of the High 111, 114 School Class of 1972, 90-91 federal range ratio, 19, 110, 114 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 84 Gini coefficient, 19, 27, 76, 110-111, 114 National reform network, 144-145 McLoone index, 19, 111, 114 Nebraska, litigation, 44 95/5 ratio, 76, 77, 85, 110, 144, 170 New American Schools, 230 restricted range, 110, 114 New Hampshire simple correlation, 111, 114 litigation, 42, 175, 196-197, 199, 212 test scores, 83 reforms, 73, 148 Theil index, 19-20, 76-77, 78, 85, 86, 95 spending on education, 212 Michigan New Jersey cost of education, 212, 278 adequacy standard, 22, 175, 193, 195, 202- equity analyses, 19, 21 204, 206, 254 litigation, 44, 212 constitution, 66, 73 politics, 142-143 district response to reforms, 103, 104, 129 reforms, 74, 146 education reform, 129 Minnesota enforcement of reforms, 145, 163 constitution, 66 Hands Across New Jersey, 164 impact of reforms, 82 impact of reforms, 82, 99, 104-112, 113

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312 INDEX legislation, 164, 201-203, 204 income disparities and, 15 litigation, 22, 42, 47, 50-51, 53, 57, 69, indirect controls for, 221 104, 145, 151, 163, 164, 175, 195, 206, measures of, 83-84, 200, 220-221, 225, 226, 212, 254 227-228, 232, 253, 264, 273 politics of school finance reform, 145, 151- monitoring, 51, 65 152, 163-165, 166 pupil/teacher ratios and, 233-234 reforms, 50-51, 73, 104, 106-107, 113, 129, resource allocation and, 25, 90-91, 131 164, 201, 203-204 shift in focus to, 22, 53, 176 resource allocation changes, 99, 101, 102, spending and, 83-84, 90-91, 152, 283-284 115-119, 121, 123, 125, 126-127, 129, student characteristics and, 15, 28, 163 226-227 revenue changes, 104-112, 113 tax prices and, 272-273, 274 spending levels, 64, 148, 201, 212 test scores, 83-84, 90-91, 152, 187, 220, New Mexico, litigation, 46, 213 222, 226-227, 264, 267, 273 New York City, 20, 91, 192, 221, 223, 227, Outputs of education. See also Academic 275-282, 294 performance; Outcomes, educational New York State horizontal equity applied to, 18 costs of education, 220, 221, 223, 255, 271, minimum vs. relative, 24 275-282, 283, 287, 292, 293-294 vertical equity applied to, 20 equity analyses, 19, 21, 192 Outward Bound, 230 Extraordinary Needs Aid program, 271 impact of reforms, 82 P litigation, 45, 55-56, 175, 197, 21 Pupil Evaluation Program, 265 Peer effects, 82, 83 resource allocation changes, 101 Pennsylvania, litigation, 45, 53, 54-55, 175 spending on education, 212 Per pupil expenditures. See Spending on North Carolina, litigation, 42, 55-56, 175, 197- Education 198, 199, 212 Performance standards. See Academic North Dakota, litigation, 44, 212 performance; Education standards; Student outcome assessments cost indexes and, 262-264 O court ordered, 260 Ohio criterion-references, 253 adequacy standard, 228 cutoff points, 256 cost of education, 224, 225, 255 educational adequacy and, 59 litigation, 42, 53, 62, 175, 197, 212 external influences, 260-261, 265-266 reforms, 29, 73, 84 movement, 186-187 spending on education, 212 national testing, 206 Oklahoma norm-referenced, 252-253 adequacy standard, 23 reform linked to, 1-2, 59, 260 impact of reforms, 82 school district, 274 litigation, 44 and spending for education, 126 reform, 43 Politics of school finance, 61. See also Oregon, 146 individual states litigation, 45, 53, 54 and analysis of school finance equity, 11 Outcomes, educational, 12-13 anti-government/anti-tax sentiment and, adequacy standard and, 58, 200, 251-253 152-153, 157, 158, 159-160, 161, 164, assessment of, 131 165-166 dropout rates, 83-84, 90, 225, 264, 273 demographics and, 139, 153-154, 160 equal opportunity and, 14, 15 education excellence and, 146-147, 157 impacts of reforms on, 90-91, 93 and enforcement of reforms, 145, 163

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313 INDEX executive branch, 141, 142-143, 144, 145, Rational basis test, 55, 67 147, 156-157, 165, 167, 200 Reapportionment cases, 36 fiscal context, 140, 145-147, 150, 158, 161, Research 166, 167 on educational adequacy, 23 formulas for funding, 190-191 on horizontal equity, 19-20 history, 142-154 on resource allocation, 130-132 incentives for involvement in reforms, 139- wealth neutrality concept used in, 18 142, 143, 155, 166, 168 Resource allocation, reform-related. See also interest groups, 142, 143, 144-145, 153, Spending on education 157, 158, 164, 165, 167 and academic performance, 7, 9, 14-15, 25, issues, 137-139, 150-163 152 judicial branch, 141-142, 149-150, 165, for administration, 101, 115, 120, 121, 239- 166, 183 241, 245 legislative branch, 140, 142-143, 144, 145, for capital outlay, 115-119, 121 147, 156, 159, 167 categorical grants, 101, 104, 130, 234, 235, leveling-up issue, 111, 138-139, 145, 150, 236, 239-241 161, 185 decision-making models, 102-103, 113, local control issue, 138, 151, 164 127, 128, 129-130, 131 racial prejudice, 152-153, 154, 160, 162, design considerations, 216, 221 164-165, 166, 167 direct educational expense, 115-119 resource allocation, 152, 163 and educational outcomes, 25, 90-91 and spending, 143, 145-146, 148, 150, 152, for extended school services, 104, 119, 124- 163 126, 126, 130 tax increases and, 138, 140, 145-146, 151- for facilities, 124-125, 126, 127, 129 152, 156, 159 for fixed costs, 115, 121 Private management of schools, 153 for instruction, 101, 115, 119, 120, 233- Private schools, 92-93, 238, 268-269 238, 239-240 Private Wealth and Public Education, 17, 181 models, 100-103 Production. See Education production operations and maintenance, 115-119, 120 Property taxes, 65 public trust issue, 152 bases, 80, 81, 133 research needs on, 130-132 benefit principle and, 10 for special needs students, 104, 110, 119, caps, 49-50, 57, 146, 170 120, 124-125, 126, 148, 235-237, 246 compensation for inequalities, 8, 145-146 for staff development, 121, 122-123, 126, education tax, 62, 110 235, 239-241 equity issues, 1, 8, 138 standards-driven, 129-130 political considerations, 145-146, 151-152 for supplies and equipment, 101, 124-125, rates, 49-50, 94, 104, 105, 107-109, 111, 126, 128, 245 145-146 for tax relief, 87, 99, 101, 103, 105, 106, relief, 87, 99, 101, 103, 105, 145-146, 162- 145-146 163, 164 for teacher/staff salaries, 52, 85, 99, 101, Public school system, structural changes, 25 102, 103, 121, 122-123, 126, 130, 238, 239-241, 242-245, 246 transportation, 115-119 R trends, 84-86, 93, 127-129 tuition for out-of-district placements, 115- Race, spending on education by, 89-90 119 Racial discrimination, 14, 40-41, 176-179, 181, unrestricted general aid, 101 187-188 urban districts, 99, 119 Racial integration, 199 vertical equity, 20 Racial prejudice, 152-153, 154, 160, 165, 166, Restricted range statistic, 110, 114 167

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314 INDEX Revenue for school finance. See also Property substitution effects, 80 taxes within-state, 4, 75, 76, 77-78, 85 impacts of reforms on, 75-76, 77, 78-80, Staff development, 121, 122-123, 235, 239-241 85-86, 87, 89-90, 104-112 State aid changes. See also Formulas for per-pupil, 4, 78-80, 86, 89-90, 108-109 distributing funds recapture, 57, 94, 104, 161-162 district response to, 100-103, 105-109; see required local effort, 105-106 also Resource allocation, reform-related sources, 9, 72, 77, 87, 108-109, 148, 150, intergovernmental grant theory, 101 166 per-pupil aid, 78-80, 88, 105 Rhode Island, litigation, 44, 60, 175, 199, 231 policy implications, 127-130 Roots and Wings, 230 and price of education, 80-82 research implications, 130-132 and school district revenues, 109-112 S trends, 105 State court litigation. See also Court cases; SAT scores, 90, 91, 152, 222 Impacts of reforms; individual states School-based decision making, 11, 27, 207 education clauses, 35, 43, 44, 46, 50, 52, School choice, 64, 94, 153, 164, 207, 222 54, 55, 56, 58, 60, 66, 67, 73, 149, 189- School Development Program, 230 190 School finance equity. See Equity concepts educational adequacy claim, 22, 47, 51-52, School-level analysis, 18-19, 24, 292 55-56, 59-60, 62, 63-64, 65, 68, 175, School size considerations, 234-235 183, 188-193 Separation-of-powers concerns, 53, 201 equal protection challenges, 35-36, 43, 48, South Carolina, litigation, 45, 175 50, 54, 55, 56, 61, 66-67, 72-73, 143- South Dakota, litigation, 46 144, 149, 183, 199 Special-needs students, 66, 104, 110, 119, 120, equity cases, 65, 68, 179-180, 182-183, 190 124-125, 126, 148, 153, 168-169, 201, fiscal neutrality standard (Coons 205, 235-237, 246, 271, 293 Proposition I), 46, 47, 48, 50-51, 54, 55, Spending on education. See also Resource 56-57, 61, 62, 63-65, 66, 67, 144, 146, allocation, reform-related 149, 175, 181-182, 184-185, 205 ability to pay and, 86-89 history, 8, 47-62, 149-150 between-state, 4, 75, 76, 77, 85 legislative responses to, 56-57, 60-61, 62, caps on, 146, 150 63-64, 144, 198, 199-205 cost-of-living adjustments, 84-86 overview, 41-47, 59-60 decision making, 8-9 results, 35, 41-46, 47-48, 53-55, 56, 59-60, determinants of, 74 68, 69, 72, 144, 146, 149, 175 efficiency of, 131-132 separation-of-powers concerns, 53, 201 and equal opportunity, 16, 35-36, 150 status of, 72, 73 impact of reforms, 4, 49-50, 74-78, 84-93, vertical equity cases, 54-55, 63, 64-65 110, 211 wealth discrimination, 38-41, 183-188, 190 incentives for, 107, 111 States. See also individual states measures of inequality, 76-77, 83, 110-111 constitutional requirements for free public models, 101-102 schools, 169 and outcomes of education, 83-84, 90-91, with court-ordered reforms, 73 152, 283-284 role in financing, 1, 8, 9 patterns, 127, 143, 163-164, 211, 212-213 spending on education, 212-213 per pupil, 8-9, 16, 35-36, 49-50, 61, 75, 76, as unit of analysis, 11, 20 78-80, 88, 89, 118, 146, 148, 150, 152, Strict scrutiny test, 40 163, 180 Student outcome assessments, 51, 59, 61, 62, and quality of education, 152 190, 218, 239-241 by race, 89-90

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315 INDEX U Success for All, 23, 230 Supplies and equipment, 101, 124-125, 126, Urban school districts, 54, 99, 119, 140, 147- 239-241, 245 148, 153-154, 163-164, 183-184, 187- Suspect classification, wealth as, 39, 43 188, 190, 192, 201, 202, 207, 219 U.S. Constitution T Fourteenth Amendment, 17, 35, 48, 176, 178, 183, 214. See also Equal protection Tax burdens, 10, 27, 285 U.S. Supreme Court litigation, 12, 35-41 Tax prices, 82, 272-273, 274 geographic uniformity principle, 36, 180- Tax relief, 87, 99, 101, 103, 105, 145-146, 151, 181 162-163, 164 horizontal equity challenges, 35-36 Taxpayer equity, 10-11, 27, 28, 29 racial discrimination, 14, 26, 40-46, 176, Taxpayer support for reforms, 129, 138-139 181 Teacher/staff results, 34, 72 costs, 221, 222 vertical equity (needs-based) claims, 36-37 quality of, 243-244, 246, 292 Utah, reforms, 74, 82, 145 salaries, 52, 85, 99, 101, 102, 103, 121, 122-123, 219, 222, 238, 239-241, 242- V 245, 246-247, 269-270, 273, 279, 281, 282, 283, 292 Variance decomposition, 76 Teacher/pupil ratios, 84, 102, 233-234, 246 Vermont Teachers unions, 142, 143, 242 litigation, 42, 61, 65, 183 Tennessee reforms, 61-62, 73 litigation, 42, 67, 175, 197, 212 Vertical equity, 20-21, 23, 24, 29 reforms, 73 litigation based on, 36-37, 54-55 spending on education, 212 Virginia, litigation, 37, 44, 60 Test scores, 83-84, 90-91, 152, 187, 220, 222, Voucher programs, 153, 164 226-227, 264, 267 Texas Assessment of Academic Skills, 227, 228 W district response to reforms, 103, 104, 129 education reform, 129 Washington impact of reforms, 82, 104-112, 113 constitution, 194 litigation, 39-40, 42, 50, 56-57, 69, 104, impacts of reforms, 148 146, 160, 161, 177, 183, 205, 212 litigation, 43, 47, 52, 53, 69, 193-194 politics of school finance, 160-163, 166 reforms, 73 racial discrimination, 177, 205 Wealth as a suspect classification, 39, 43 reforms, 57, 73, 104, 106-107, 113, 129, Wealth neutrality, 27, 63 160-161, 162 concept in school finance equity, 16-18, 24, resource allocation changes, 84, 112-113, 28 119, 120, 121, 123, 125, 126-127, 129 equal opportunity and, 14 revenue changes, 104-112, 113 federal litigation, 37-39, 66 spending on education, 212 measures of, 17-18, 28, 111-112 Theil index, 19-20, 76-77, 78, 85, 86 research, 18 Third International Mathematics and Science shift away from, 183-188 Study, 251, 252 state litigation based on, 46, 47, 48, 50-51, Title I funding, 21, 236-237 54, 55, 56-57, 61, 63, 67, 144, 146, 149, 175, 181-182, 183, 205 unit of analysis, 17

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316 INDEX Weights/weighting students, 21, 29, 57, 104, reforms, 73, 94 148, 168-169, 184, 261, 271, 283 spending on education, 212 West Virginia Wyoming adequacy standard, 194, 215, 216, 220 adequacy standard, 198, 215, 217-218, 220, litigation, 43, 47, 52-53, 57, 69, 194, 195, 230-251 215 cost indexes, 247-250, 271 reforms, 52-53, 73 legislation, 200, 204 spending on education, 212 litigation, 43, 56, 60-61, 69, 175, 198, 212, Whole School Design, 230 215, 218 Wisconsin reforms, 61, 62, 64, 73, 145, 192, 200 cost of education, 220, 221, 255, 278 spending on education, 81, 212, 255 litigation, 45, 55-56, 68, 212