Index

A

Accelerated Research Initiatives (ARIs), 25

Acceleration Mass Spectrometer (AMS) facility, 55

Acoustic Dopper Current Profilers (ADCPs), 55

Advance and Primary Opportunities in Physical Oceanography Studies (APROPOS), 80

Advisory Committee for the Ocean Science Program, 86

Agencies. See Federal agencies; individual agencies

AGOR-23 class vessels, 76

Allocation decisions, 67

American Geophysical Union (AGU), 14, 86

American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), 14

Announcements of Opportunity (AOs), 44, 65-66

Anthropogenic influence, growing awareness of, 21, 86

Arabian Sea process study, 94

Atlantic Climate Change Program, 94

Atmospheric Sciences Division (ATM). See National Science Foundation

Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorer (ALACE), 55

Autonomous vehicles (AUVs), 58

B

Background Questionnaire, 116-119

Balanced Budget Act of 1997, 36

Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS), 51, 57

Biological Oceanography, discipline of, 28

Biotechnical Investigations--Ocean Margins Program (BI-OMP), 28

Briscoe, Melbourne, 24-25

Broido, Michelle S., 27-28

Budgetary information, 10-11

Summary Budget Data, 128-136

C

Cable systems, 58

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), 44, 139

Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

Challenger expedition, 17

Chapman Conferences, 81, 87

Chemical Oceanography, discipline of, 22

Classroom programs, 60-61

Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) , 19

Climate Diagnostics and Experimental Prediction Centers, 77



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Index A Accelerated Research Initiatives (ARIs), 25 Acceleration Mass Spectrometer (AMS) facility, 55 Acoustic Dopper Current Profilers (ADCPs), 55 Advance and Primary Opportunities in Physical Oceanography Studies (APROPOS), 80 Advisory Committee for the Ocean Science Program, 86 Agencies. See Federal agencies; individual agencies AGOR-23 class vessels, 76 Allocation decisions, 67 American Geophysical Union (AGU), 14, 86 American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), 14 Announcements of Opportunity (AOs), 44, 65-66 Anthropogenic influence, growing awareness of, 21, 86 Arabian Sea process study, 94 Atlantic Climate Change Program, 94 Atmospheric Sciences Division (ATM). See National Science Foundation Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorer (ALACE), 55 Autonomous vehicles (AUVs), 58 B Background Questionnaire, 116-119 Balanced Budget Act of 1997, 36 Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS), 51, 57 Biological Oceanography, discipline of, 28 Biotechnical Investigations--Ocean Margins Program (BI-OMP), 28 Briscoe, Melbourne, 24-25 Broido, Michelle S., 27-28 Budgetary information, 10-11 Summary Budget Data, 128-136 C Cable systems, 58 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), 44, 139 Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) Challenger expedition, 17 Chapman Conferences, 81, 87 Chemical Oceanography, discipline of, 22 Classroom programs, 60-61 Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) , 19 Climate Diagnostics and Experimental Prediction Centers, 77

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Climate forecasting, 5, 26, 49 Climate Research Committee (CRC), 84-85 Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR), 12-13, 14, 38 origin and evolution of, 86 CLIVAR--A Study of Climate Variability and Predictability, 86 CLIVAR--Decadal to Centennial (CLIVAR-DecCen), 86 CLIVAR on Anthropogenic Climate Change (CLIVAR-ACC), 86 CLIVAR on Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (CLIVAR-GOALS), 86 Coastal Ocean Processes (CoOP) program, 11-12, 14, 21, 41, 42-45, 54, 86 origin and evolution of, 86 and technology, 55-56 Coastal Ocean Program (COP). See National Ocean Service Coastal Physical Oceanography (CoPO), 86 Coastal pollution, 7 Coastal programs, increase in, 77 Coastal Upwelling and Ecosystem Analysis (CUEA), 19, 21 Cold War, 18 Collateral performance support, 24 Collegiality. See Oceanographic research community Committee on Climate Changes and the Ocean (CCCO), 85 Committee on Major U.S. Oceanographic Research Programs, 1, 8 approach of, 10-16 formation of, 36 task statement, 9 Committees of Visitors, 10, 15, 30, 63, 67 Communication, enhancing, 5 Conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) groups, 56 Congress, 22 Consensus building, 6 Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education (CORE), 15, 61 Contingencies, developing mechanisms to deal with, 3, 71-74 Continuing Quest: Large-scale Ocean Science for the Future, The, 35, 90 Coordination enhancing, 5 increasing need for, 6 CO2 Survey, 28 Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE), 23, 49, 73-74 data-submission policies for, 142 Creativity, 8 D Dahlem Conferences, 81 Data assimilation and synthesis, need to enhance, 4 Data information units (DIUs), 49 Data management, 78-79 Data sets, 44 collecting, 11, 14-15, 75-76 identifying, 10-11 as legacy, 49-52 policy for, 137-143 preserving access to, 2 value of, 2 Data synthesis capabilities, need to enhance, 4 Deep-Sea Drilling Program (DSDP), 18, 60, 85 Deep-Sea Research, 53, 60 Direct performance support, 24 Dissolved oxygen sensor technology, 50 Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE). See National Science Foundation/Ocean Sciences Division E Earth Science Division (EAR). See National Science Foundation Education advances in, 2 facilities for, 59 El NiÒo, 2, 13, 23, 60, 74 El Niño and the Southern Oscillation--A Scientific Plan, 84-85 El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 54-55, 81, 93, 149 Emergence of a United Ocean Sciences, 85-86 Environmental Geochemistry and Biogeochemistry (EGB) program, 29 Environmental Research Laboratories (ERL). See Office of Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research EOS (scholarly journal), 14 Ewing, Maurice, 88

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F Facilities, 56-57 new and improved, 2-3 sharing, 6 Federal agencies, recommendations to, 4-5, 15 Federal funding for ocean science, 129-130 trends in, 31-32 Field programs, coordinating, 40-43 Fisheries, decline in, 2 Fleet Improvement Plan (FIP), 58 Flexibility, importance of maintaining, 4 Forums. See Town meetings French-American Undersea Study (FAMOUS), 21 Future of Marine Geology and Geophysics (FUMAGES), 80 Future of Ocean Chemistry in the United States (FOCUS), 80 G Geochemical Ocean Sections (GEOSECS), 19, 21, 87-88 Geosciences Directorate. See National Science Foundation Global Change Research Program, 14 Global environmental issues, emphasis placed on, 5 Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (GOALS), 86 Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) program, 11-12, 14, 33-34, 39-44, 45, 54, 60, 156 data-submission policies for, 141 origin and evolution of, 86 publications from, 146 Global Ocean Flux Study (GOFS), 85 Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), 75 Gordon Conferences, 81 Graduate education, 61-62 Gray, Judith, 25-27 Greenhouse gases, 29 concentration changes buffered in ocean, 2 H Hawaii Ocean Time-Series (HOTS), 49, 52, 57, 157 Hydrowire, 14 I Impacts, 49-71 Improved Meteorological Package (IMET), 55 Individual creativity, 8 Information collecting, 11, 14-15 identifying, 11 sharing, 9, 37-47 Infrastructure, gaps in, 76-79 Interdisciplinary research activities, 4-6, 46, 68, 100-102 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), 70 International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), 70 International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE), 18-21, 35-36, 60 , 75 programs involving, 87-89 International Geophysical Year (IGY), 18 International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), 14, 70, 85 International Research Institute (IRI), 77 International Southern Ocean Studies (ISOS), 21 Inter-program planning. See Strategic planning J Jennings, Feenan, 18 Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) program, 11-12, 14, 21, 23, 29, 37, 39-42, 44, 51-54, 60, 153-158 data-submission policies for, 141-142 origin and evolution of, 85, 94-95 publications from, 145 and technology, 56 and unexpected events, 73 Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), 61, 85, 87 Joint Scientific Committee (JSC), 85 Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR), 148 L Lagrangian drifters and floats, 55 Land Margin Ecosystem Research (LMER), 29 Large oceanographic research programs, 1-3, 7-8, 10 Large-scale phenomena, 1, 8

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Leadership, greater involvement of, 46 Legacies, 48-70 Lessons from existing programs, 44-47, 97-100 Life in Extreme Environments (LEXEN), 29 Lindstrom, Eric, 23 Long-range science plans, 3 Long-Range Science Plans (LRPs), 45 Long-time series observations, 8, 74-75 operationalizing, 3-4 M Major oceanographic programs (MOPs). See Oceanographic research Management styles, 46 Manganese Nodule Project (MANOP), 19, 88 MARGINS program, 102 Marine food webs, 48 Marine Geology and Geophysics (MG&G), disciplines of, 22 Merz, Alfred, 17 Meteor expedition, 17, 31 Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (MODE), 21 eddies division (POLYMODE), 21 Mid Ocean Ridge (MOR), 73 Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). See National Aeronautics and Space Administration Modeling coordinating with observation, 4, 93-95 need to enhance, 4 "Mountains to Monsoons" (CD-ROM), 60 Multi-channel seismic (MCS) systems, 55, 154 Multi-investigator projects, 5, 77 Multivariate time series, 74 N National Academy of Engineering (NAE), 18, 35 National Academy of Sciences (NAS), Committee on Oceanography (NASCO) , 18, 31, 34-36 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 14, 23, 27, 154 Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE), 23 Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission, 23 National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), 149 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), 44, 139 National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) , 25-26, 138 National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), 45, 139 National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), 25, 156 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 14, 25-27, 40, 57, 75, 77, 94, 138, 156 National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), 4, 26, 44, 78-79, 138 National Ocean Service (NOS), 25 Coastal Ocean Program (COP), 26 National Research Council (NRC), 1, 8, 36, 62, 81, 84, 87 National Science Board, 20 National Science Foundation (NSF), 9, 19-22, 27, 73 Advisory Committee on Geosciences, 10 Atmospheric Sciences Division (ATM), 102 creating new interdisciplinary unit within, 5-6, 100-102 creation of, 18 Division of National and International Programs, 18 Earth Science Division (EAR), 102 future of ocean science funding at, 15, 63-68, 96-102 Geosciences Directorate, 29, 102 programs involving, 84-87 recommendations to, 62 National Science Foundation/Ocean Sciences Division (NSF/OCE), 1, 3-6, 22-31, 33, 41, 42, 51, 80. See also Committees of Visitors; Oceanographic Centers and Facilities Section; Oceanographic Sciences Research Section focus initiatives of, 28-29 formation of, 18 and funding, 63-68, 128, 131-132 policy statement for, 137-143 recommendations to, 8-10, 14-16, 82 role of, 96-97 National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), 45, 139 National Weather Service (NWS), 25 Newsletters, 14 expanding use of, 3, 47, 82 North Atlantic Oscillation, 81

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North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Institutes, 81 North Pacific Experiment (NORPAX), 19, 21 North Pacific subtropical gyre, 49 NSF/OCE. See National Science Foundation O OAR. See Office of Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), 10-11, 13, 18, 22, 28, 39, 44, 54, 55, 59-60, 154 data-submission policies for, 142-143 origin and evolution of, 85 publications from, 146-148 Ocean Ecology: Understanding and Vision for Research (OEUVRE), 80 Ocean Margins Program (OMP), 94 Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). See Office of Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research Oceanographic Centers and Facilities Section (OCFS), 22 Oceanographic research accomplishments of, 48-70 challenges facing, 1 computers needed for, 4, 78 coordinating, 5, 37-47 developing goals for, 37-40 disciplines within, 11, 22, 28, 35, 100 evaluating, 9, 52-55, 80 future of, 4-5, 8, 90-102 gaps in, 3-4, 9, 71-82, 157-158 graduate degrees in, 133 growth in, 21-22 history of, 17-21 impact on education, 59-62 innovations in, 1 major programs in, 1-3, 7-8, 10, 17-36, 83-95, 155 publications of, 144-149 textbook references to, 150-151 Oceanographic research community, 8 collegiality within, 3, 30, 62-70 high standard of scientific achievement within, 15 perception of accomplishments, 53, 59, 152-158 Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships,36, 70 Oceanography 1960 to 1970,31 Oceans, 80-81 commercial importance, 7 environmental importance, 7 role in climate, 2 Ocean Sciences Division. See National Science Foundation Ocean Sciences Research Section (OSRS), 22 Ocean Studies Board (OSB), 1, 35, 80, 85 Ocean Surface Topography Experiment (TOPEX), 60 Ocean Technology and Interdisciplinary Coordination, discipline of , 28 Ocean Technology and Interdisciplinary Program, 102 Office of Global Programs (OGP), 25-26 Office of Naval Research (ONR), 9, 14, 24-25, 27 programs involving, 89-90 Office of Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research (OAR), 25 Environmental Research Laboratories (ERL), 26 Opportunities in Ocean Sciences: Challenges on the Horizon,80 P Pacific Decadal Oscillation, 81 Passive tracer technology, 55 Peer-review system, 5, 88 Penrose Conferences, 87 Physical Oceanography, discipline of, 28 Plenary sessions at meetings, 3 Policymakers, value of oceanographic research for, 21-22 POLYMODE, 21 Poseidon satellite radar altimetry mission, 23 Post-program support, 24 Precursor program support, 24 Process studies, combining, 74 Programs. See also Oceanographic research concluding, 99-100 implementing, 99 initiating, 98 length of, 92-93 managing, 100-102 size of, 92 structure and organization of, 91-95, 127 Public forums. See Town meetings

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Q Questionnaires, 11 Background, 116-119 Scientific Steering Committee Perspectives, 44-46, 120-125 selected responses to, 152-158 on World Wide Web, 11, 14-15, 126-127 R Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), 58 Report of Observations and Samples Collected on Oceanographic Programs (ROSCOP), 138 Research. See Oceanographic research Research fleet, 2, 57-59. See also individual research vessels (R/Vs) gaps in, 76-77 Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers,62 Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiments (RIDGE), 11, 13-14, 21 , 39-41, 44, 54, 60, 154 origin and evolution of, 85-86 publications from, 145-146 success of, 64-66 and technology, 55-56 and unexpected events, 73 R/V Alvin,57 R/V Atlantis II, 76 R/V Ewing,154 R/V JOIDES Resolution,22, 57 R/V Revelle,76 R/V Ron Brown,40, 76 R/V Thompson,76 R/V Washington,76 S Sampling techniques, standardizing, 56 Satellites, 58 Science and technology (S&T), 24-25, 127 Science journal, 53 Sciencenet, 14 Scientific Steering Committee Perspectives Questionnaire, 120-125 selected responses to, 152-158 Scientific Steering Committees (SSCs), 4-5, 37, 45, 57-58, 74, 87 annual meetings of chairs of, 5, 46 joint appointments to, 5 role of, 91-92 sharing among, 46-47 Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), 23 Smithsonian Institution, 59 Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS), 73 Special Focus Programs, 25 Stommel, Henry, 87 Strategic planning, 59 coordinating across agencies, 3 Study approaches, 38, 49-50, 72, 84 Summary Budget Data, 128-137 Synoptic ocean observations, 21 Synthesis activities, coordinating, 43-44 T Task groups, study approaches for, 38, 50-51, 72, 84 Technology, developments in, 2, 56-57 Telephonic Device for the Deaf (TDD) capabilities, 143 Time series. See Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study; Hawaii Ocean Time-Series; Long-time series observations TOGA Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean (TOGA TAO) array, 54, 73, 75 TOPEX project, 61, 153 Poseidon satellite radar altimetry mission, 23 Town meetings, 47, 87 Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program, 11-13, 21, 23, 39 -41, 49-55 Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE), 23, 49, 73-74 origin and evolution of, 84-85 Program on Prediction (T-POP), 73 publications from, 148-149 and technology, 55-56 and unexpected events, 73 Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission. See National Aeronautics and Space Administration U United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 70

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U.S. Department of Commerce, 7 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 14, 27-28 U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), 23, 29-30, 36, 41 U.S. Science Advisory Committee (USSAC), 28, 60, 85 U.S. Science Support Program (USSSP), 28, 59 publications from, 146-148 University-National Oceanographic Laboratory Systems (UNOLS), 40, 43, 50, 57-58, 76, 95, 136, 157 Unknowns, investigating, 72 W Weather forecasting, 26 Website questionnaire, 11, 126-127 selected responses to, 152-158 Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 18, 85 World Climate Research Program (WCRP), 13-14, 70, 85 World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 70 World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) program, 10-14, 21, 23, 27-29, 37, 39-42, 44, 49-53, 55-56, 59-60, 158 data-submission policies for, 140-141 milestones in, 69 origin and evolution of, 85 publications from, 144-145 success of, 64-69 trends in funding, 14, 33-34, 134-135 and unexpected events, 73 World War II, 17 World Wide Web data available on, 26, 49, 59-60 expanding use of, 3, 79, 82 questionnaire on, 11, 126-127, 152-158