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Index A Acaricides, 186, 203, 307 Acarina (mites and ticks), 18, 19, 135, 164, 186, 275, 307, 408-409 cattle ticks, 12, 26, 286, 292 European red mite, 32, 203 fruit tree mites, 162 See also Tetranychus spp. Aceria sheldoni, 165 Acetamides, 59, 63 Acetolactate synthase (ALS), 134-135 Acetylcholinesterase resistance, 37, 46, 77, 81, 166 Action thresholds, 372, 415, 417 Acyl ureas, 120-121 Acylalanines, 21, 100, 103, 105, 350, 390, 430 Adaptationist program, 159 Agency for International Development (AID), 384-386 Agonists, 74, 82 Agricultural consultants. See Cooperative extension and agricultural consultants 453 Agricultural losses, 170- 171 Agricultural practices combined pesticide use. See Mixtures of pesticides crop rotation, 327-328, 332, 432 fungicide use, 246-247 low-till agriculture, 112- 113, 332 333 pesticide application, frequency and area, 317-318 pesticide rotation, 56, 64, 150-151, 320-321, 329, 330, 339-340, 350-351, 375 pesticide use patterns, 31 rodenticide use, 240-243 sequential pesticide applications, 166, 320-321, 340 spraying, as enhancing mosquito resistance, 28-29 timing of pesticide application, 166, 197 See also Operational factors Agricultural Research Service, 372 Agriculture Department (USDA), 276 research support, 5, 7, 123- 125

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454 resistance management role, 372, 377, 378, 382, 385, 400, 420, 425, 428, 432, 433 Agriregulants, 138- 139 Agrochemical industry, 423 antitrust concerns, 8, 375, 380, 401, 430 cost concerns, 33, 113- 114 detection and monitoring systems, role in, 275, 290, 292, 301, 309 insecticide development, 118-121 marketing practices, 115-116, 429 431, 442 minor-use pesticides, 381-382 public sector support and cooperation, 121-126, 401 research focus and funding, 126, 432, 433 resistance management role, 315, 325-326, 379-382, 388-392, 400-401, 437, 445 rodenticide development and promotion, 241-242 university research, 125- 126, 309 Alachlor, 63 Aldrin, 163 Alfalfa weevil, 185 Allee effect, 160 Alleles, 45, 159. See also Genetic mechanisms Ally herbicide, 134 Alphachlorhydrin, 323, 365 Alternaria kikuchiana, 106 Alternation of pesticide applications, 56, 64, 150-151, 320-321, 329, 330, 339-340, 350-351, 375 Amaranthus blitoides, 68 Amaranthus hybridus, 68 Amaranthus retroflexus, 59, 68 Amaranthus spp., 330 AMDRO, 37 American Phytopathological Society, 427 Amidines, 26 Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, 56 INDEX Amphimallon majalis, 163 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 372 Anopheles albimanus, 12, 21, 27-29, 31 Anopheles culicifacies, 27, 264 Anopheles gambiae, 258, 264 Anopheles sacharovi, 21, 27 Anopheles spp., 212, 266. See also Mosquito resistance Anopheles stephensi, 27, 264 Anopheline mosquitoes, 12, 27-29, 259, 264, 307 Antibiotics, 47, 100, 105, 130, 133, 139, 187, 322 Anticoagulants, 322. See also Rodenticide resistance; Warfarin resistance Antihelminth resistance, 187 Antitrust issues, 8, 375, 380, 401, 430 Antiviral agents, 100 Antu, 238 Aphids green peach aphid, 24 hops aphid (Phorodon humuli), 12, 24, 286 See also Myzus spp. Apple scab fungus (Venturia inaequalis), 103, 317, 416, 418 Apple tree pests, 163, 200-203, 267 Application of pesticides. See Agricultural practices Aromatic hydrocarbons, 103 Arsenicals, 159 Arsenious oxide, 238 Arthropod resistance. See Resistance management, insecticide resistance Ashton, A. Daniel, 355-369 Aspergillus nidulans, 103, 104, 106, 353 Assault rodenticide, 365 Atrazine, 56, 59-63, 65, 66, 307, 309, 322, 329-331, 333 Australia, 286 cattle tick resistance, 12, 26, 286, 292

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INDEX pyrethroid resistance management, 379, 390, 443 rodenticide resistance, 88, 89, 355 Austria, 329 Avermectins, 119, 120 Azemethipos residual spray, 284 Azinphosmethyl, 49, 162, 200-202 B Bacillus thuringiensis, 119 Back selection, 177- 178 Backcrossing, 161, 265, 336 Bactericide resistance, 14, 47-48, 100, 102, 133, 135 Bananas, 303 Barley mildew, 245, 249-251, 304, 308 Barley mixtures, 253-255 Barrett, J. A., 245-256 BASE Corp., 389 Bayer Co., 389 Bemisia tabaci, 21 Benefit-risk analysis, 353, 374, 397 400, 426-428 Benomyl, 12, 20, 137, 140, 302, 303, 308, 317, 389, 416, 418 Bentazon, 68 Benzimidazoles, 100, 102-105, 289 292, 350, 390-391 Q-galactosidase, 80 ,B-lactamase, 133 Q-tubulin, 104, 137, 140 Bioassays, 116-117, 272, 307, 308, 343, 408, 415, 418 Biochemical mechanisms fungicide resistance, 104-108, 348 349 herbicide resistance, 59-62 house fly resistance, 78-81 pesticide resistance, in general, 46 48, 132-133 research recommendations, 5, 50-52, 366-367 warfarin resistance, 87, 89-93, 363 455 Biochemical tests, 272, 307, 308, 415 Biocontrol organisms, 138, 353, 432 Biological processes, 170-193 back selection, 177- 178 density dependence, 180- 184 immigration. See Immigration/refuges influence on risk assessments, 280, 288, 290 insecticide resistance, 336-337 life cycle/generation turnover, 162- 163, 171-178, 186, 197, 319, 337, 339 pesticide resistance, in general, 158, 162-165, 313-314 prey/predator resistance development, 145, 147, 184-186, 201-202 Biorational pesticides, 432 Bioresmethrin, 165 Biotechnology, 3, 5, 13, 130-141 antibiotic resistance applications, 133 herbicide resistance applications, 68- 70, 134-135 pesticide resistance applications, 135-140 potential applications, 130-131, 140, 272 research areas, 119 techniques, 131 - 133 Bipyridyl, 309 Biston betularia, 178 Blatella germanica, 262, 264 Blow flies (Lucilia cuprina), 75, 77, 83, 212, 259-260, 265-266, 286 Blue mold, 318 Boll weevils, 275, 379 Boophilus microplus (cattle ticks), 12, 26, 286, 292 Botrytis cinerea, 107 Botrytis spp., 275, 308, 391 Brassica campestris, 59 Brent, K. J., 298-312 Britain. See United Kingdom Brodifacoum, 93-95, 239-240, 361, 364-365 Bromadiolone, 93-95, 239-240, 364

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456 Bromethalin, 323, 365, 366 Bryobia rubrioculus, 162 Bush rat, 88 C Calciferol, 320, 362, 365 Calcium metabolism, 365 California, 285, 376, 400, 403-409, 417, 418 California University, 309, 406, 408, 409 Canada, 329, 364 Canada thistle, 328 Captan fungicide, 49, 107 Captopril, 120 Carbamate resistance, 31, 328 cross-resistance, 166, 284 genetic mechanism, 77, 161-162 incidence, 12, 18, 19, 26, 27 and suppression of acetylcholinesterase resistance, 81 Carbendazim, 104 Carbofuran, 49, 162 Carboxamides, 100, 103, 105 Carboxin, 105 Carlson, Gerald A., 436-448 Catabolic resistance. See Polygenic resistance Cattle ticks, 12, 26, 286, 292 Cell and tissue culture techniques, 131 Centers for Disease Control, 359 Central America, 12, 21, 27-29, 303, 389 Cephalosporins, 133 Cercospora beticola, 302 Cercospora spp., 275 Cereal eyespot pathogen, 390-391 Cereal powdery mildew, 389 CGIAR International Research Centers, 384 Chemical Control Committee, 354 Chemical industry. See Agrochemical industry INDEX Chenopodium album, 59 Chenopodium spp., 330 Chicago, 357, 359-361 China, 285 Chitin synthesis, 106, 352 Chlamydomonas spp., 66 Chlorazifop-propynil, 64 Chlordimeform, 74, 82, 120 Chlorfenethol, 322 Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, 87 Chlorobenzilate, 165 Chloro-s-triazines, 63 Chlorothalonil, 102 Chlorsulfuron, 69 Cholecalciferol, 365 Ciba-Geigy Co., 389 Cirsium arvense, 328 Citrus rust mite, 165 Classic herbicide, 134 Clavulinic acid, 133 Coadaptation, 241, 265-266 Cockroaches, 78-79 Coddling moth, 317 Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, 383 Coleoptera, 18, 19, 22 Colorado potato beetle, 12, 20, 29-31, 158, 162, 183, 275 Combined pesticide applications. See Mixtures of pesticides Commodity groups, 126 Competitive Grants Program, 5, 124 Computer-assisted design, 118 Computer simulation. See Models Conoderusfalli, 163 Consultants. See Cooperative extension and agricultural consultants Conyza bonariensis, 62, 64 Conyza spp., 64 Cooperative extension and agricultural consultants, 410-421, 432 education and training services, 372, 419, 420, 431 funding recommendation, 419-420 professional training for, 413-415

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INDEX resistance management procedures, 373, 415-419 role in resistance management, 410 412, 419, 425 Copper bactericides, 47, 100 Copper fungicides, 49, 101-102 Copper resistance, 48, 102, 159 Corn corn borer, 12, 31, 157, 159 herbicide resistance in, 56-59, 328, 329, 331-333 resistance mechanism, 59-60, 63, 65 rootworm, 443 smut pathogen (Ustilago maydis), 105, 108 Cost concerns. See Economic issues; Registration costs and procedures Cotton herbicide use, 332 pest management, 379, 407, 408, 443 pests, 286, 308, 336. See also Heliothis spp. production practices, 342 spider mites, 417, 418 Coumaphos, 284 Coumarin anticoagulants, 88 Coumatetralyl, 364 Coumithoate, 284 County Agricultural Commissioners (CAC), 405-406 Croft, Brian A., 257-270, 422-435 Cross-resistance fungicides, 289-290 herbicides, 62-66, 290 insecticides, 20-21, 284, 414 mechanisms, 12, 21, 120, 162, 166 negative cross-resistance, 20, 339, 352 nematicides, 291 pesticide mixtures, 340-341 rodenticides, 87, 88, 95, 239-240, 321, 364 See also Multiple resistance C:rustacea, 135 457 Cucumber angular leaf spot, 107 Cucumber powdery mildew, 302, 308 Culex pipiens, 21 Culex quinquefasciatus, 160-162, 264 Culex spp., 45. See also Mosquito resistance Cuticle formation, 120 Cyanide gas, 357, 359 Cyclodiene resistance incidence, 12, 18, 19, 266 mechanisms, 47, 76, 78-79, 259 possible solutions, 81-82, 120 Cycloheximide, 105 Cyhexatin, 203 Cyromazine, 37, 285 Cytochrome P4so, 137, 138, 140, 339 Czechoslovakia, 285, 286 D DDT resistance, 341, 447 in anopheline mosquitoes, 27, 28, 264 biochemical mechanisms, 47, 78-79 cross-resistance, 21, 166, 284 in frogs, 87 genetic mechanisms, 76, 77, 162, 262, 266 in house flies, 283-285 incidence, 11-12, 18, 19, 157-158, 285 in mice, 88 possible solutions to, 81-82 Decatur, Illinois, 361-362 Defect action levels, 429 Defense Department, 276 DEF, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, 82-83 Dehydrochlorinase inhibitors, 322 Dekker, Johan, 347-354 Delp, Charles J., 388-392 Deltamethrin, 33 Demethylation inhibitors, 391 Demeton S-methyl, 24 Denmark, 254, 318

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458 house fly resistance, 276, 279, 281 285, 292, 307-308 rodenticide resistance, 88-89, 364 Dennehy, Timothy J., 410-421 Density dependence, 180- 184 Detection and monitoring, 153, 298- 312, 349, 352 achievements, field examples, 307- 309 aims of, 300-304, 315 California programs, 407-408 definitions of, 271, 298-299 industry programs, 389 industry/public sector cooperation, 309 methods, 116-117, 258, 272-273, 305-307, 343 research areas, 3-4, 6-7, 273-274 resistance, definitions of, 299-300 resistance management role, 372, 376, 424-426 risk assessment relationship, 272 rodenticide resistance, 366 system implementation, 274-275, 304-305, 415-416 Detoxification, 159, 348. See also Polygenic resistance Diabrotica longicornis, 163 Diazinon, 31, 77, 260, 264-266 Dicarboximides, 21, 103, 308, 317, 391 Dichloracetamide protectants, 63 Dichloroanilines, 21 Diclofop-methyl, 48, 54, 62, 64-65 Dicofol, 408, 417, 418 Dicots, 20, 61 Dicoumarol, 89 Dieldrin resistance, 160, 180 cross-resistance, 88 incidence, 27, 163 mechanisms, 76, 258, 259, 264 model of house fly resistance, 198- 200 Difenacoum, 93-95, 239-240, 362 365 INDEX Diflubenzuron, 285 Dihydrostreptomycin, 100, 107 Dimethirimol, 302, 308 Dimethoate, 24, 284, 285, 340 Dinitroanilines, 48, 62, 64, 329, 332 Dinocap, 32 Diphacinone, 364 Diphenamids, 56 Diphenyl-ether herbicides, 64-65 Diptera, 18, 19, 22, 339, 341 Diquat, 64 Disulfoton, 417-418 Dithiocarbamates, 49, 102 Diuron, 62-63, 66 DNA probes, 132, 148, 272, 307 DNA sequencing, 132-133 Dobson, Andrew P., 170- 193 Dodine, 103, 349, 416, 418 Dominance. See Genetic mechanisms Dosage factors, 166, 186, 316-317 dose/immigration interactions, effect on resistance development, 196 198 Dover, Michael J., 422-435 Downy mildews, 275 Drosophila melanogaster, 75-77, 80, 211 Drosophila spp., 132, 258 DT-diaphorase, 92 du Pont Co., 134, 303, 389 E EBG operon, 208-209 Echinochloa crus-galli, 61 Echinochloa spp., 61 Economic issues, 436-448 atrazine cost, 56 costs of chemical control, 31-35 depreciation of pesticide value, 187- 190, 315, 436-437 funding of pesticide research, 5, 121-126 funding of resistance management programs, 378-379, 419-420 432-434

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INDEX incentives and constraints to resistance management, 441-444 insecticide research and development, 113-114 pest susceptibility, optimal use over time, 437-441 pesticide prices/market interactions, 374, 375, 442 policy implications of, 318-319, 446-447 resistance management organizations, 444-446 See also Registration costs and procedures Economic Research Service, 372 Education and training California, pest-control advisers, 406 of cooperative extension and agricultural consultants, 413- 415 extension programs, 372, 419, 420 international resistance courses, 353- 354, 389 regulatory agencies' role, 396 resistance management needs, 431 Effective kill, 57 Egypt, 286, 308, 390 Eleusine indica, 329 Eleusine spp., 62, 64 Endocrine system research, 120-121 Endrin, 88 England. See United Kingdom Enol-pyruvate-shikimate-phosphate- synthase, 68 Entomological Society of America, 273 Environmental factors. See Biological processes Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), 385 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 7, 114, 276, 365, 367, 386, 392, 396 pesticide regulation, 127, 374-382, 385, 398-400, 404, 432, 446 research funding, 123 459 resistance management, 425-428, 433 Enzyme inhibitors, 322 Enzyme kinetics, 51-52, 343. See also Polygenic resistance Epibloc, 365 Epistatic resistance, 146, 212 EPTC, 56, 63, 328-329 Ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors, 21, 47, 51, 100, 103, 106, 321, 352 Eriophyid mite, 165 Erwinia amylovora, 47, 107 Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordes, 245, 249-251 Escherichia colt, 80, 132, 208, 209 Esterase E.O., 33, 162 Esterase inhibitors, 322 Ethirimol, 254-255, 308 European Plant Protection Organization, 273 European red mite, 32, 203 Euxesta notada, 186 Evolutionary processes. See Genetic mechanisms Expert Committee on Insecticide Resistance, WHO, 383 Extension Committee on Organization and Policy IPM Task Force, 372, 413, 419 Extension specialists. See Cooperative extension and agricultural consultants F Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 373, 399, 428, 446 Fenarimol, 106, 322 Fenitrothion, 33 Fenthion, 285 Fentin, 103 Fenvalerate, 29 Field fluorometers, 60 Field resistance, 300

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460 Field studies, 148, 274, 287-288, 315, 349, 417 Fireblight pathogen, 47, 107 Fish, 87, 135 Fitness. See Genetic mechanisms Flies Drosophila spp., 75-77, 80, 132, 211, 258 horn flies, 416, 418 Lucilia spp. (blow flies), 75, 77, 83, 212, 259-260, 265-266, 286 white flies, 21 See also House flies Fluazifop-butyl, 64 Fluoroacetate, 88 Flurazole, 63 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 276, 348 detection and monitoring activities, 273, 287, 292, 301, 306, 307, 378 resistance management activities, 354, 383, 385, 389 Food and Drug Administration, 428 Food limitation effects, 201-202 Formamidines, 82, 120 Formothion, 284 4-hydroxycoumarin. See Warfarin resistance France, 21 Frisbie, Raymond E., 410-421 Frogs, 87, 135 Fruit tree mites, 162 Fumigant resistance, 19 Funding of pesticide research, 5, 121-126 of resistance management initiatives, 378-379, 419-420, 432-434 Fungicide resistance, 100-110, 245 256, 347-354 barley mildew, example, 249-251 biochemical mechanisms, 47-48, 104-108, 314, 348-349 definitions of, 348 INDEX detection and monitoring, 302, 304, 307, 308 fungicide application and type, 247 fungicide mixtures, 427 fungicide use, reasons for, 246-247 genetic mechanisms, 47, 101-104, 159, 248-249 high-risk chemicals use, 350 incidence, 11, 12, 14-16, 20, 21, 135 industry research, 389-391 low-risk chemicals use, 352 management strategies, 251-256, 317-324, 349-354 negative cross-resistance, 352 new chemicals use, 349 regulatory agencies' involvement, 401 risk assessment, 276, 288-290 rotation or combined use, 350-351 site-specific inhibitors, 352 synergism, 352-353 See also Plant pathogens Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC), 290, 299-300, 309, 354, 390, 391 G GABA agonists, 37, 120 Galactose permease, 80 Gambusia affinis, 87 Gametoclonal variation, 131 Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, 89, 363 Gene amplification, 45, 136- 137 Gene flow. See Immigration/refuges Gene library, 132 Genetic engineering host plant resistance development, 329, 336-337, 432 pesticide applications, 138- 140 predator resistance development, 324 resistant strains of beneficial mites, 409 techniques, 131- 132

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INDEX Genetic mechanisms back selection, 177-178 cross-resistance, 12, 21, 120, 162, 166 dominance, 160, 259-260, 336, 338 fungicide resistance, 47, 101-104, 248-249 genomic shock, 151 herbicide resistance, 56-59, 65-68, 187 heterozygote superiority, 186 house fly resistance, 75-78 immigration. See Immigration/refuges influence on risk assessments, 280, 288 initial allele frequency, 159-160, 257-259 laboratory and field studies compared, 148-149 life cycle evolution of resistance, 171-177 modeling assumptions, 143-144, 195-196 modes of inheritance, 145-146 monogenic/polygenic resistance, 146, 171-172, 195-196, 223, 258 multilocus perspective. See Polygenic resistance parameters needed for model development, 145-147, 196 198 pesticide resistance, in general, 45 46, 136-137, 150-151, 159 162, 313-314 reducing frequencies of resistant alleles, 337-338 relative fitnesses of genotypes, 146, 160-161, 260-266, 322-323, 338-340 research recommendations, 5, 50-52, 267-268 resistance management applications, 144-145, 153-154 return to pesticide susceptibility, 150 warfarin resistance, 88-89, 93, 236 See also Alleles 461 Georghiou, George P., 14-43, 157-169 Georgopoulos, S. G., 100-110 German Democratic Republic, 254 Germany, Federal Republic of (West), 308 Glean herbicide, 134 Gliocladium spp., 324 Glutathione-S-transferase, 60, 63, 65 Glyphosate herbicides, 68-69, 135, 137 Gonodontis bidentata, 178 Goosegrass, 329 Grape vine pathogens, 308 Grass weeds, 275. See also Herbicide resistance Greaves, J. H., 236-244 Greece, 302, 308 Green peach aphid, 24 Green rice leafhopper, 12, 26, 81, 286, 308 Greenbugs, 417-418 Gressel, Jonathan, 54-73 Grey kangaroo, 88 Groupement International des Associations Nationals de Fabricants de Produits Agronomiques (GIFAP), 290, 354, 391 Guinea pigs, 213 H Haematobia irritans, 416 Hammock, Bruce D., 111-129 Hardy, Ralph W. F., 130-141 Hawaii, 367 Hawkins, Lyndon S., 403-409 Heliothis armigera, 259, 379 Heliothis spp., 21, 80, 82, 267, 275, 286, 336, 390. See also Cotton, pests Heliothis subflexa, 336 Heliothis virescens, 82, 336, 407, 414 Heliothis zea, 336 Herbicide resistance, 54-73, 327-334 amino acid transversions, 67, 68

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462 biochemical and physiological mechanisms, 46, 48, 59-62, 314 biotechnology applications, 68-70, 130, 134-135, 139 crop species resistance development, 329 cross-resistance, 62-65 detection and monitoring, 307-309 329-330 dose-response curves, 55 enrichment, 57-59, 66 genetic mechanisms, 65-68, 159, 187 herbicide extenders, 56, 61 incidence, 11, 12, 14-16, 20, 54- 56, 135, 328-329 industry research, 389 management tactics, 317-324, 330- 333 new products development, 432 nonchemical weed control methods, 327-328, 332-333 population genetics models, 56-59 preemergence and postemergence herbicides, 328, 332 problem soils, 56, 328-329 protectants, 64 risk assessment, 290-291 rotation of herbicides, 56, 64 seed banks, 57 weed control, history of, 327-328 See also Grass weeds; Weeds Heteroptera, 18, 19 Holland, 88, 302, 308 Homoptera, 18, 19, 22, 339 Hops aphid (Phorodon humuli), 12, 24, 286 Horn flies, 416, 418 House flies (Musca domestica), 258, 264, 341, 390 biochemistry of resistance, 47, 78- 81, 322 Danish study, 276, 279, 281-285, 292, 307-308 INDEX d~azinon-resistant, fitness of, 264 266 genetic mechanisms of resistance, 75-78, 162 immigration effects, 164- 166, 180, 267 incidence of resistance, 21, 74-75, 83-84, 157-158 model of dieldrin resistance, 198-200 resistance studies, 285-286 solutions to insecticide resistance, 81-83 See also Flies House mouse (Mus musculus) DINT resistance, 88 Decatur infestation, 361-362 resistance mechanisms, 80 rodenticide resistance, 48, 87, 89, 93-95, 355-358, 362-364, 366 Hungary, 54-55, 329 Hylemya spp., 163 Hypercalcemia, 365 I ICI Americas, Inc., 389, 390 Imidazole herbicides, 69 Immigration/refuges, 147, 257, 336, 341 density dependence, relationship, 180-184 dose/immigration interactions, effect on resistance development, 196- 198 evolution of resistance mechanisms, 146-147, 160, 164-166, 178- 180, 214-216, 266-268 house flies, dieldrin resistance, 198- 200, 267 as resistance management tactic, 314, 318, 324, 337, 338 See also Refugia Immunological tests, 272 Industrial melanism, 171, 178 Industry. See Agrochemical industry

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INDEX Information collection and dissemination, 7, 377-378, 394- 396, 432 Insect growth regulators, 36 Insecticide development cost concerns, 33, 113-114 industry and universities, collaboration efforts, 125- 126, 309 industry strategies, 115-116 public sector role, 121-126 registration procedures, recommended changes in, 126-127 research areas, 118-121 Insecticide resistance, 74-86, 335-346 biochemical mechanisms, 46-47, 78- 81, 314, 348 biotechnology applications, 139 California programs, 408-409 cross-resistance, 20-21, 284, 414 detection and monitoring, 302, 307- 308, 343 genetic mechanisms, 75-78, 83-84, 159, 337-340 incidence, 11-12, 14-16, 18-27, 74-75, 135 industry research, 389 management problems, 335-336, 341-343 management tactics, 81-83, 317- 324, 337-341 operational and biologic factors, 336- 337 risk assessments, 279-288, 342-343 Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC), 290, 309, 391 Insensitivity, definition, 348 Integrated pest management (IPM), 4, 431. See also Resistance management International Cooperation and Development, Office of, 385 International Course for Southeast Asia on Fungicide Resistance in Crop Protection, 353-354, 389 International Group of National 463 Associations of Agrochemical Manufacturers (GIFAP), 290, 354, 391 International organizations. See specific organizations International Society of Plant Pathology, 354 Interregional Project-4 (IR-4), 8, 381- 382 T Jackson, William B., 355-369 Japan, 12, 26, 285, 286, 292, 308, 355, 401 Johnson, Edwin L., 393-402 Justice Department, 7-8, 380 K Kasugamycin, 103, 105-106 kdr gene, 12, 21, 162, 166, 284-286 Keiding, Johannes, 279-297 Kitazin-P, 349 Klebsiella spp., 208, 209 L Labeling, 381, 398-400, 405, 427 Laboratory resistance, 299-300 Laboratory studies, 148, 274, 287-288, 315, 349 lac operon, 80 Lambsquarters, 330 Lanosterol synthesis inhibitors, 352 Late blight, 318 Lead arsenate, 314, 341 Leafhoppers, 12, 26, 81, 286, 308, 343 Leeper, John R., 335-346 Lepidoptera, 18, 19, 21, 23, 164, 319 Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado potato beetle), 12, 20, 29-31, 158, 162, 183, 275 Lettuce aphid, 164

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464 Life cycle factors. See Biological processes Lindane, 144, 259 Lolium perenne, 62, 64, 68 Lolium rigidum, 62 Lolium spp., 64-65 Londax herbicide, 134 Lucilia cuprina (blow flies), 75, 77, 83, 212, 259-260, 265-266, 286 M MacNicoll, Alan D., 87-99 Malaria, 12, 32-33 Malathion, 32, 77, 162, 340 Malay wood rat, 355 Malaysia, 353-354, 389 Management of resistance. See Resistance management Market forces, 374, 375, 427, 436, 447 Marketing practices, 429-431, 442 Maryland, 329 May, Robert M., 170-193 MCPA herbicide, 328 Melanotus tamsuyensis, 163 Metabolic resistance. See Polygenic resistance Metalaxyl, 105, 308, 317, 318 Methionine sulfoxamine, 138 Methomyl, 389 Metribuzin, 62 Mexico, 29 Mice. See House mouse Microbial pesticides, 432 Microsomal oxidases, 343 Microtus pinetorium, 88 Migration. See Immigration/refuges Miranowski, John A., 436-448 Mites. See Acarina Mixtures of pesticides registration procedures, 375, 380- 381, 427, 428 as resistance management tactic, 150- 151, 166, 319-320, 330, 339, 340-341, 350-351, 443, 445 INDEX Mobam, 284 Models, 194-206 characteristics of resistance models, 135-136 data sources, 148-149 epistatic resistance, 217-218 insect resistance, 75, 81, 341 management applications, 153-154, 203, 288 model classifications, 147-148, 195 modeling assumptions, 143-144, 195-196 parameters of resistance development, 145-147, 196-198 polygenic resistance, 223, 226-231 population genetics, 56-59 validation studies, 149, 198-203, 233 Molecular biology. See Genetic mechanisms Monilinia spp., 275 Monitoring. See Detection and monitoring Monoclonal antibody (MAB), 131, 137, 272, 307 Monocots, 20 Monoherbicide culture, 56, 59 Monophagia, 164 Mosquito fish, 87 Mosquito resistance, 341 California, monitoring program, 408 detection and monitoring programs, 286, 343 incidence, 18, 19 solutions, 82-83, 337 See also Anopheles spp.; Culex spp. Multiple resistance, 20-21, 286. See also Cross-resistance Mus musculus. See House mouse Musca domestica. See House flies Mycosphaerella spp., 303 Myzus persicae, 21, 259, 286, 308 Myzus spp. (aphids), 21, 45, 164, 275, 286, 308, 343. See also Aphids

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INDEX N N-phenyl carbamates, 104 NADH, 91, 92 NADPH, 92 National Agricultural Pesticide Impact Assessment Program, 420 National Biological Impact Assessment Program, 7, 372 National Cotton Council, 396 National Institute of Environmental Health Statistics, 122 National Institutes of Health, 122, 124 National Pest Control Association, 396 National Pesticide Information Retrieval System, 377 National Science Foundation (NSF), 122, 432, 433 Natural enemies. See Predator resistance Natural pesticides, 138, 140 Nematode resistance, 12, 17, 135, 291 292 Neolamarckian theories, 151 Nephotettix cincticeps (green rice leafhopper), 12, 26, 81, 286, 308 Neurobiology research areas, 120 Neurospora crassa, 105 Nitrapyrin, 56 Norbormide, 238, 359 North Carolina, 17, 418 Norway rat. See Rodenticide resistance; Warfarin resistance Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 118, 133 o Oklahoma, 418 Omethoate, 32 Oomycetes, 101 Operational factors, 158, 165-166, 313 insecticide resistance, 336-337 involved in risk assessment, 280, 288, 290 resistance development rate, 196-198 465 See also Agricultural practices Orchard pests, 184- 185, 336 Organochlorines, 18, 283 Organophosphates (OP), 287 cross-resistance, 166, 284 Danish use, 285 genetic mechanism of resistance, 77, 161-162 resistance incidence, 12, 18, 19, 21, 26, 27, 266 solutions to resistance, 82 susceptibility to, 31 Orthoptera, 23 Oryzuephilus surinamensis, 264 Oust herbicide, 134 Oxidase inhibitors, 322 Oxyfluorfen, 64 Oxytetracycline, 47, 100 Ozone tolerance, 64 p Pakistan, 259 Panonychus ulmi, 162, 203 Paraquat, 20, 48, 54, 62, 64, 68, 69, 317 Parathion, 32, 83 Patent protection, 126-127, 430, 443 Pear-apple interplants, 203 Pear psylla, 406 Penicillin, 133 Penicillium italicum, 353 Penicillium spp., 275 Permethrin, 82, 161, 165, 166 Perthane, 406 Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, 287 Pesticide industry. See Agrochemical industry Pesticide resistance biotechnology role, 130, 133-140 crop loss to pests, percentage, 170- 171 definitions of, 299-300 drug resistance compared, 187

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466 factors influencing evolution of, 157 159, 167, 314-315 frequency and extent of, 21, 24-31 herbicide resistance compared, 187 high-risk pesticides, 314 impediments to development of solutions for, 151-153 incidence, 11-21, 87-88 mechanism, 11, 116 multiple resistance. See Cross resistance new pesticides development, 138 139, 323 pesticide formulation technology, 321 pesticide persistence, 314 prey/predator rates, 145, 147, 184 186, 201-202 problem severity, 1-2 research directions, 2-9, 35-38, 49 52, 153-154 See also specific pest species, pesticides, and resistance mechanisms Phenkapton, 32 Phenmedipham, 68 Phenoxys, 20, 49, 54, 56-59, 309 Phenylphosphonates, 83 Phenyl-urea herbicides, 62-63, 66 Philippines, 12, 26 Phorodon humuli (hops aphid), 12, 24, 286 Phosmet, 284 Phosphorothiolates, 103 Photosynthetic electron transport, 59, 62 Photosystem I, 62 Photosystem II, 59, 63, 66, 68, 307 Phthalimides, 102 Physiological mechanisms. See Biochemical mechanisms Physiology research areas, 121 Phytophthora infestans, 308, 320 Phytophthora megasperma I. sp. medicaginis, 105 Pigweeds, 330 INDEX Pimaricin, 49 Pine voles, 88 Piperonyl butoxide, 29, 30, 82, 322 Pival, 364 Plant pathogens, 100. See also Fungicide resistance Plant Protection Bulletin (FAG), 306 Planthoppers, 286, 308, 343 Plapp, Frederick W., Jr., 74-86 Pleiotropy. See Polygenic resistance Plutella xylostella, 21 Poaceous grasses, 61, 64 Polyene antibiotics, 47 Polygenic resistance, 46, 47, 207-235 epistatic resistance, 146, 212, 217- 218 evolutionary processes, 213-216, 222-223 immigration effects, 214-216 mechanism, 208-212, 223-226 model applications, 223, 226-231 monogenic/polygenic perspectives compared, 146, 171-172, 195- 196, 223, 258 pesticide application strategies based on, 231-233 pleiotropic costs, 161, 209-212, 216 research areas, 216-219, 233-234 shifting balance theory, 207, 212- 213 See also Detoxification; Enzyme kinetics Polyoxin, 100, 103, 106, 352 Polyphagia, 164 Popillia japonica, 163 Population biology. See Biological processes Population genetics. See Genetic mechanisms Potatoes, 308, 318 Preadaptation, 201 Predator resistance prey/predator resistance development (Volterra principle), 145, 147, 184-186, 201-202

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INDEX as resistance management tactic, 324 Prediction. See Risk assessment Prevention. See Resistance management Price factors. See Economic issues Problem soils, 56 Procarbamates, 36 Prochloraz, 391 Prolin anticoagulant, 322 Propoxur, 28, 33, 161, 166 Protein synthesis inhibitors, 100, 105 352 Prothrombin, 89, 90 Pseudomonas lachrymans, 107 Pseudomonas spp., 208 Public sector California, resistance management, 376, 400, 403-409 detection and monitoring roles, 309 education role, 396 funding considerations, 121-126, 378-379, 432-433 industry cooperation, 400-401 information collection and dissemination, 7, 377-378, 394-396 regulatory strategy, 374-377, 397 400, 426-429 resistance management role, 7-8, 242, 315, 325, 353, 373-379, 393-402, 445-446 state and local regulation, 7, 429 support for alternative pest-control methods, 432 Pyrazophos, 100, 108 Pyrethroid Efficacy Group (PEG), 390, 391 Pyrethroid resistance, 284, 342 biochemical mechanisms. 47' 78-79 California management, 406 cross-resistance, 12, 20-21, 27, 162, 166, 284 in flies, 21, 284 genetic mechanism, 76, 160- 162 incidence, 12, 14, 18, 19, 285 industry research, 389, 390 467 management tactics, 379, 414, 416, 418, 443 possible solutions, 36, 81-82 Pyrethrum, 284 Pyricularia oryzae, 105-106, 108 Pyruvate, 69 Q Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, 267 Quarantine measures, 337-338 Quinones, 102 Quintox rodenticide, 365 R R( + )-enantiomer, 90 Rat bites, 360-361 Rattusfuscipes, 88 Rattus norvegicus. See Rodenticide resistance; Warfarin resistance Rattus rattus, 89, 93, 95, 355, 363 Rattus rattus diardii, 355 Rattus tiomanicus, 355 Red squill, 357, 359, 365 Refugia, 165. See also Immigration/ refuges Registration costs and procedures, 113 114, 365 biorational pesticides, 432 California, 404-405 changes to encourage pesticide development, 126-128, 367, 430 international implications, 385 JR-4 program for minor-use pesticides, 8, 381-382 pesticide mixtures, 380-381, 427, 428 regulatory strategy, 397-400 risk assessments and, 342-343, 373, 376, 428 See also Economic issues Regulatory agencies. See Public sector Regulatory genes, 46

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468 Reproductive factors. See Biological processes Resistance. See Pesticide resistance Resistance Action Committees, 301 Resistance detection. See Detection and monitoring Resistance management, 313-326 biotechnology uses, 137- 140 consultants. See Cooperative extension and agricultural consultants cost concerns. See Economic issues development of diagnostic procedures, 116-118 dose or rate variation, 316-317 education needs, 431 exploiting unstable resistance, 322 323 frequency of application, 317 funding proposals, 378-379, 419 420, 433-434 fungicide resistance, 251-256, 349 354 goals, 144, 194 herbicide extenders, 56, 61 herbicide resistance, 330-333 impediments to development of coordinated strategies, 151-153 industry role. See Agrochemical industry insecticide resistance, 81-83, 335 344 international considerations, 382-386 issues and concerns, overview, 313 315, 422-424, 434 less persistent pesticides, 319 life stages of pest, 319, 339 local versus areawide application, 318 mixtures of pesticides, 319-320, 339, 443, 445 modeling applications, 149, 153 154, 194, 203 natural enemies' role, 324 need for insecticides, 111-113, 127 128 INDEX new pest-control tactics, 431-432 new pesticides development, 323, 432 pesticide formulation technology, 49 50, 52, 321, 323 polygenic resistance concerns, 231 233 population genetics, application to, 144-145, 153-154 problems, 341-342, 371-372, 422 423 program components, 424-434 recommendations, 324-326, 353-354 refugia/immigration factors, 165, 180, 324 regulatory agencies. See Public sector research directions, 4-9, 13, 153 154, 167, 324-326, 432-433 rodenticide resistance, 236-243, 364-365, 367 rotations or sequences of pesticides, 320-321 social organizations, 444-446 strategies and tactics, concepts compared, 313 synergists, 138, 140, 322, 339, 352 353 tactics evaluated, table, 315-316 treatments based on economic threshold, 318-319, 446-447 See also Integrated pest management Resistance monitoring. See Detection and monitoring Resistance onset interval, 144 Resistance research foundation, 392, 433 Resistance risk assessment (RRA). See Risk assessment Respiratory systems, 352 Restriction enzyme mapping, 132 Reynolds, Harold T., 335-346 Rhagoletis pomonella, 267 Rice blast pathogen (Pyricularia oryzae), 105-106, 108 Rice pests, 12, 26, 81, 286, 292, 308

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INDEX Risk assessment, 279-297 definition of, 271-272 detection and monitoring relationships, 272 factors involved in, 279-281, 288 fungicide resistance, 288-290 herbicide resistance, 290-291 house fly resistance, Danish and related experiences, 281-286 insect and mite studies, 286-287 interpretation and use of data, 292- 294 laboratory versus field studies, 287- 288 nematicide resistance, 291-292 program elements, 292 program implementation, 276-277 in registration procedures, 342-343, 373, 376, 428 research areas, 6, 276, 294 resistance management role, 426 rodenticide resistance, 291 simulation models, 288 RNA probes, 148 RNA synthesis, 105, 352 Rodenticide resistance, 236-244, 355 369. See also Warfarin resistance agencies' role, 242 British experience, 237-239, 362- 363 Chicago experience, 357, 359-361 cross-resistance, 364 Decatur experience, 361-362 incidence, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 135, 236 industry role, 241-242 management strategies, 237, 317-324 mechanism, 236 natural selection, 239 nonanticoagulant alternatives, 365, 366 predictions and recommendations, 366 research needs, 366-367 risk assessment, 291 469 second-generation anticoagulants, 93- 95, 239-240, 361, 364, 366 users' contributions to, 240-241 See also Anticoagulants Rodents, 275. See also Rattus spp. Roof rat (Rattus rattus), 89, 93, 95, 355, 363 Root maggots, 163 Rotation of pesticide applications, 56, 64, 150-151, 320-321, 329, 330, 339-340, 350-351, 375 Rotenone, 29-30 Roush, Richard T., 257-270, 335-346 S s-triazine, 55, 59-62, 65, 135, 137, 290-291, 329 S( - )-warfarin, 90 Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 102 Safety test requirements, 443 Sales tax, 378, 379, 392 Sanitation procedures, 365 Schizaphis graminum, 417-418 Scotland, 17, 88, 236, 355 Selection process. See Genetic mechanisms Senecio vulgaris, 57, 61, 65, 68 Sensitivity, definition, 348 Sequential pesticide application, 166, 320-321, 340 Shifting balance theory, 207, 212-213 Sigatoka disease, 303 Simazine, 60, 62, 63, 329 Simulation models. See Models Sinking-leaf disc technique, 307 Site-specific inhibitors, 348, 352 Slife, Fred W., 327-334 Soderlund, David M., 111- 129 Solanum nigrum, 68 Somaclonal variation, 131 Somatic cell fusion, 131 South Dakota, 418 Soybeans, 332, 333 Spectroscopy, 118

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470 Sphaerotheca fuliginea, 302 Spider mites. See Tetranychus spp. Spodoptera littoralis, 83, 339 Spodoptera spp., 21, 79, 275, 286, 390 Spotted alfalfa aphid, 164 Spotted root maggot, 186 State programs. See Public sector Sterilants, 365 Sterols, 352 Stored grain pests, 264, 287, 307, 317 Streptomycin, 20, 47, 100, 103, 107 Structural genes, 46, 136, 137 Sugar beet leaf spot, 302, 308 Sugarcane wireworm, 163 Sulfite, 64 Sulfonyl-urea herbicides, 69, 130, 134 135, 137 Sulfur, 102 Sumitomo Co., 389 Summer oil, 32 Superoxide dismutase, 48, 62 Surveys of resistance. See Detection and monitoring Susceptibility recovery interval, 144, 150 Synergists, 74, 81-83, 138, 140, 322, 339, 352-353 T Tabashnik, Bruce E., 194-206 Tagamet, 131 Taiwan, 12, 26, 163 Tammar wallaby, 88 Taxes on pesticides, 378-379, 392, 433-434, 447 Taylor, Charles E., 157-169 Temephos, 82-83, 161, 166 Tetrachlorvinphos, 284 Tetranychus spp. (spider mites), 77, 266-267, 286, 336, 417, 418. See also Acarina Tetranychus urticae, 258, 264, 265 Texas, 417-418. Thiocarbamates, 63, 328 Thiophanate, 20 INDEX 32 kD protein, 66 Thylakoids, 59, 60 Ticks. See Acarina Tobacco, 134, 135 Tobacco blue mold, 318 Tobacco budworm, 82, 407, 414 Tolerance, 55n, 348 Toxaphene, 82 Trade secrets, 443 Training programs. See Education and training Transition-state theory, 118-119 Triazine resistance, 319, 320, 329 cross-resistance, 62-64 incidence, 12, 20, 54-56 mechanisms, 59-61, 65-68 monitoring programs, 308-309 population genetics model, 56-59 Triazinones, 62, 290 Triazole, 245, 249-251, 254-255, 308 Tribolium casteneum, 77, 264 Trichlorphon, 162 Trichoderma spp., 324 Tridiphane, 61, 322 Trifluralin, 20, 54, 62, 64 Tubulins, 352 Turkey, 21, 27 2-aminopyrimidine fungicides, 103 2,4-D herbicide, 20, 49, 328 U United Fruit Company, 303 United Kingdom, 12, 24, 286, 308, 309, 390 fungicide resistance, 245, 249-251, 253-255 rodenticide resistance, 88-89, 237- 239, 242, 323, 355, 362-365 University research, 125-126, 152 153, 276, 309 Uracil herbicides, 63, 66 Urban Rat Control Program, PHS, 356, 357 Urea resistance, 20, 290

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INDEX USDA. See Agriculture Department User fees, 378-379, 433-434 Ustilago maydis, 105, 108 Uyenoyama, Marcy K., 207-221 V Vacor rodenticide, 359 Vengeance rodenticide, 365 Venturia inaequalis (apple scab fungus), 103, 317, 416, 418 Via, Sara, 222-235 Vietnam, 12, 26 Viruses, 100, 119 Vitamin D, 320, 365 Vitamin D3, 323 Vitamin K, 87, 89-92, 239, 322, 363 Vitamin K hydroquinone, 89-90, 92 Vitamin Kit, 89-92 Vitamin Kit 2,3-epoxide, 90-91, 363 Vitamin K2, 91 Vitamin K3, 89, 91, 92 Volterra principle, 145, 147, 184-186, 201-202 W Wales, 88-89, 238, 362 Warfarin resistance, 87-99 biochemical mechanism, 48, 89-93, 363 biotechnology applications, 139- 140 British experience, 362, 363 471 Chicago experience, 357, 359-360 cross-resistance, 239-240, 364 definition, 355-356 genetic mechanism, 88-89, 93, 236 incidence, 17, 48, 88-89, 236, 355- 357, 363-364 warfarin/vitamin D mixture, 320 See also Anticoagulants; Rodenticide resistance Weddle, Patrick, 410-421 Weeds, 275. See also Herbicide resistance Wheat, 56-59, 62 White flies, 21 Wolfe, M. S., 245-256 World Bank, 384 World Health Organization (WHO), 273, 276, 286-287, 292, 301, 307, 355, 378, 383, 385 X Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, 47-48, 102 X-ray crystallography, 118, 133 y Yeast, 102, 134, 135 z Zinc phosphide, 238, 359, 362, 365, 366

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