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--> Biographical Memoirs: Volume 74 National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1998

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--> The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for  the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal  government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in  1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of  Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-06086-9 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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--> Contents     Preface   vii     Albert Francis Birch By Thomas J. Ahrens   3     Gregory Breit By Mcallister Hull   27     Warren Lee Butler By Andrew A. Benson   59     George Brownlee Craig, Jr. By Eddie W. Cupp   77     Scott Ellsworth Forbush By James A. Van Allen   93     Ross Gunn By Philip H. Abelson   111     David Harker By Herbert A. Hauptman   127     Yandell Henderson By John B. West   145

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-->     James Lynn Hoard By Robert E. Hughes   161     Joseph Kaplan By William W. Kellogg And Charles A. Barth   179     Stephen W. Kuffler By John G. Nicholls   193     Anton Lang By Hans Kende And Jan A. D. Zeevaart   211     Samuel Colville Lind By Keith J. Laidler   227     Alfred Otto Carl Nier By John H. Reynolds   245     Clair Cameron Patterson By George R. Tilton   267     Berta V. Scharrer By Dominick P. Purpura   289     Frederick Emmons Terman By O. G. Villard, Jr.   309     Victor Chandler Twitty By Norman K. Wessells   333     Frits Warmolt Went By Arthur W. Galston And Thomas D. Sharkey   349     Eugene Paul Wigner By Frederick Seitz, Erich Vogt, And Alvin M. Weinberg   365

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--> Preface On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy's goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject's work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation's contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. PETER H. RAVEN HOME SECRETARY

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