DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA-PK

DNA-dependent protein kinase

DNA-PKcs

470-kDa catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase

DS86

the current dosimetry system used to estimate doses to survivors of the atomic-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

DSB

double-strand break


ERR

excess relative risk


FISH

fluorescent in situ hybridization


high-LET

high-linear energy transfer


ICRP

International Commission on Radiological Protection


LET

linear energy transfer

low-LET

low-linear energy transfer


MDS

multiply damaged site


NAS

National Academy of Sciences

NCRP

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

NHEJ

nonhomologous end joining

NIH

National Institute of Health

NRC

National Research Council


PCC

prematurely condensed chromosome

PCNA

proliferating-cell nuclear antigen


Rb

retinoblastoma

RBE

relative biologic effectiveness

RERF

Radiation Effects Research Foundation (located in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan; where studies of the health effects in the atomic-bomb survivors are conducted)

RNA

ribonucleic acid


SSB

single-strand break


TCR

transcription-coupled repair


UNSCEAR

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

UV

ultraviolet

UVC

ultraviolet C

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The committee members would like to express their appreciation to Drs. Ernest Beutler, Sara Darby, R.J. Michael Fry, Samuel Hellman, Dade Moeller, J. Edward Rall and Charles Stevens for their participation in the National Academy of Sciences' review of this manuscript. We would also like to thank Doris Taylor, Peggy Johnson, and Dennis Gleeson for their technical and administrative assistance during the phase-1 study.



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Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DNA-PK DNA-dependent protein kinase DNA-PKcs 470-kDa catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase DS86 the current dosimetry system used to estimate doses to survivors of the atomic-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki DSB double-strand break ERR excess relative risk FISH fluorescent in situ hybridization high-LET high-linear energy transfer ICRP International Commission on Radiological Protection LET linear energy transfer low-LET low-linear energy transfer MDS multiply damaged site NAS National Academy of Sciences NCRP National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements NHEJ nonhomologous end joining NIH National Institute of Health NRC National Research Council PCC prematurely condensed chromosome PCNA proliferating-cell nuclear antigen Rb retinoblastoma RBE relative biologic effectiveness RERF Radiation Effects Research Foundation (located in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan; where studies of the health effects in the atomic-bomb survivors are conducted) RNA ribonucleic acid SSB single-strand break TCR transcription-coupled repair UNSCEAR United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UV ultraviolet UVC ultraviolet C ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The committee members would like to express their appreciation to Drs. Ernest Beutler, Sara Darby, R.J. Michael Fry, Samuel Hellman, Dade Moeller, J. Edward Rall and Charles Stevens for their participation in the National Academy of Sciences' review of this manuscript. We would also like to thank Doris Taylor, Peggy Johnson, and Dennis Gleeson for their technical and administrative assistance during the phase-1 study.