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Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DNA-PK DNA-dependent protein kinase DNA-PKcs 470-kDa catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase DS86 the current dosimetry system used to estimate doses to survivors of the atomic-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki DSB double-strand break ERR excess relative risk FISH fluorescent in situ hybridization high-LET high-linear energy transfer ICRP International Commission on Radiological Protection LET linear energy transfer low-LET low-linear energy transfer MDS multiply damaged site NAS National Academy of Sciences NCRP National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements NHEJ nonhomologous end joining NIH National Institute of Health NRC National Research Council PCC prematurely condensed chromosome PCNA proliferating-cell nuclear antigen Rb retinoblastoma RBE relative biologic effectiveness RERF Radiation Effects Research Foundation (located in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan; where studies of the health effects in the atomic-bomb survivors are conducted) RNA ribonucleic acid SSB single-strand break TCR transcription-coupled repair UNSCEAR United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UV ultraviolet UVC ultraviolet C ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The committee members would like to express their appreciation to Drs. Ernest Beutler, Sara Darby, R.J. Michael Fry, Samuel Hellman, Dade Moeller, J. Edward Rall and Charles Stevens for their participation in the National Academy of Sciences' review of this manuscript. We would also like to thank Doris Taylor, Peggy Johnson, and Dennis Gleeson for their technical and administrative assistance during the phase-1 study.
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