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Index A Accelerator upgrades, 6 Accelerator-based atomic physics, 48-49, 78-84 Adiabatic motion, 74, 75 AMO physics, see also Atomic, physics; Molecular, physics; Optical, phys- ~cs applications of, 151 - 174 central goals of, 7 contributions to national programs, 2 demographics of, 29-30 economic impact of, 33-35 educational role of, 1-2, 30-31 field of, 7-8 funding of, 38, 39, 40-44 health of, in United States, 35-36 history of support of, 37-41 nature of, 1 plan of action for, 43-45 priorities of research in, 4 recent advances in, 2-3 recommendations in, 4, 37-52 relevance of, to funding agencies, 50-52 research awards in, 42 research opportunities in, 3-4 scientific interfaces and applications with, 31-33 177 scientific interfaces with, 126- 150 size of field, 29-30 with synchrotron radiation, 49-50, 84- 85 in United States today, 29-36 AMO research group, 45-46 Amphiphilic molecules, 133 Antibunching, photon, 120- 121 Associative ionization, 16 Astronomy, 127 Astrophysical chemistry, 130 Astrophysics, 126- 132 laboratory, 127- 128 Atmospheric physics 144- 146 Atom(s) distance between, 156 highly excited. 16 leptonic, 57-58 many-electron, 14- 16 muonic and hadronic, 58 out-of-round, 79 planetary, 14 16 QED effects in, 68-69 Rydberg, see Rydberg atom in solids, 134 in strong fields, 66-67 traps, 160

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178 INDEX Atomic charge transfer, 128 clocks, 10, 11, 12, 152, 159-160 coherence, 79 dynamics, 70-78 pair production in transient superhea- vies, 80-81 physics, 53-87; see also AMO physics accelerator-based, 48-49, 78-84 elementary, 53-62 initiative in, 10-18 neutral-current parity violations in, 59-60 parity violations in, 10- 13 recent advances in, 2-3 requiring larger facilities, 83-87 research opportunities in, 3 theoretical, 47 processes, 128 spectroscopy, 65, 147-149 states collective, 67-68 loosely bound, 63-65 structure, 63-69 systems elementary, 54 transient states of, 16-18 Atomic-nuclear frontier, 150 Auger electron spectroscopy, 143 Aurora, 145 Autoionization, 16, 95-96 Autoionizing resonances, 19 B Band gap, 134 Beam lines, dedicated, 49 Bell's inequalities, 60-61 Bistability, optical, 28, 121-122 Bloch equations, optical, 119, 136 Bose condensation, 14 Boson, second neutral, 60 Bound electronic states, 16 Bromley report, 38 C CAMS (Committee on Atomic and Molecular Science), 29, 42 Carbon dioxide lasers, 161 CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy), 119- 120 Cavity quantum electrodynamics, 123-124 Cesium atomic-beam frequency standard, 152 Chaotic motion, 21, 104, 122 Charge transfer, 81-82 Charge-parity-time (CPT) invariance, 11 Charge-transfer collisions, 128 Chemical reactions, 8, 100 dynamics of, 103-104 laser-driven, 162 resonances in, 105-106 at very low temperatures, 107 Chemistry, astrophysical, 130 Chromodynamics, quantum, 54 Clock, atomic, 10, 11, 12, 152, 159-160 Clusters, 21, 134-136 metal, 139, 141, 142 Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrosco- py(CARS),119-120 Coherent optical transients, 117 Coherent Raman spectroscopy, 119- 120 Collective atomic states, 67-68 Collective coordinates, 68 Collinear quantum calculations, 105 Collision(s), 70 charge-transfer, 128 electron-molecule, 98-99 half-collisions, 22, 23, 106 in laser light, 17-18, 23 molecular, physics of, 18, 22-23 radiative, 102-103 with Rydberg atoms, 74 state-to-state, 100 theory, quantitative, 18 ultraslow, 16-17, 74-75 Combustion, 2 Committee on Atomic and Molecular Sci- ence (CAMS), 29, 42 Communications fiber-optics, 162-163 laser, 160 Computers, large, access to, 5-6, 47-48 Condensed-matter physics, 132-138 Confinement inertial, 158-159 magnetic, 157-158 Conservation laws, approximate, 76-77 Continuum electronic states, 16, 70 Core-excited resonance, 72

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INDEX 1 79 Correlated electron dynamics, 14, 16 Correlated motion, 68 Cosmology, 130- 131 CPT (charge-parity-time) invariance, Cutting, laser, 164 D Data Centers, 168- 169 Data-base services, 167- 169 Department of Defense (DOD), 37, 38, 40-44, 50-51 Department of Energy (DOE), 37, 40-44, 51 Deuterated molecules, 129 Dielectronic recombination, 16, 73-74, 157 Dirac-Hartree-Fock self-consistent scheme, 69 DOD (Department of Defense), 37, 38, 40-44, 50-51 DOE (Department of Energy), 37, 40-44, 51 Doppler broadening, 21, 26 Doppler-free spectroscopy, 26, 27, 116 Double-well potentials, 15, 67 Drilling, laser, 164 Dye lasers, 111 E Educational role of AMO physics, 30-31 Electric dipole moment of neutron, 11, 59 Electric fields atoms in, 66-67 positive-energy periodic structure in, 66 Electrodynamics at long wavelengths, 28 quantum, see Quantum, electrody- nam~cs Electron(s) cloud, 19 continuum, structure of, 70-73 dynamics, correlated, 15- 16 excited, 16 magnetic moment of, 11, 13, 55, 56 motion of, in molecule, 19 photodetachment of, 17 promotion model, 16 scattering, 77-78 systems, correlated, 14 transfer, 81-82 two loosely bound, 64 Electron-molecule collisions, 98-99 Electron-muon atom, see Muonium Electron-positron atom, see Positronium Electron-scattering spectroscopy, 21 Electronic states bound, 16 continuum, 16, 70 structure, 88-92 Electronic-structure theory, 92 Electroweak theory, 11 - 12, 54 Excimer lasers, 4, 113-114 Excimers, 113 Excited electron, 16 Excited-state photoionization dynamics, 22 F Fe mto second optics, 124- 125 pulses, 26 spectroscopy, 124- 125 Fiber-optics communications, 162- 163 systems, 31 Fine-structure constant, 55, 131 Fluorocarbons, 146 Free-electron laser, 24, 111, 161 Fundamental tests, 10- 14 Fusion research, 2, 155, 157- 159 G Gauge theories, 54 Gravitational red shift, 61 Gravitational waves, 123 Gravity, time and, 10- 12 H Hadronic atoms, 58 Half-collisions, 22, 23, 106 Hamiltonian, many-body relativistic, 63 High-precision techniques, 10- 14 Hydrogen Lamb shift of, see Lamb shift

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1 80 INDEX in magnetic field, 63 spin-polarized, 137 symmetry of, 66-67 Hydrogen-bonded molecules, 92-93 Hydrogen-like uranium, 11 - 13 Hyperfine measurements, 147 I Inertial confinement, 158- 159 Initiative Areas, 4 Inner-shell molecular orbitals, 81 Inner-shell spectroscopy, 15 Instrumentation for Program of Research Initiatives, 5, 46-47 Interferometry, optical, 11 Interstellar molecules, 129- 130 Ion(s) highly charged, spectroscopy of, 15 implantation, 167 metastable, 82 molecular, 108- 109 production, slow-recoil, 82-83 sources, 17 Ionization rates, 17 Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOLDE) Facility, 148 J Jitter, laser, 21 K K meson decay, 13 L Laboratory astrophysics, 127- 128 Lamb shift, 11-13, 55, 57, 62, 69 Laser, 1, 85, 110-114 applications of, 2 carbon dioxide, 161 collisions in, 17-18, 23 communication, 160 cooling, 117, 153 cutting, 164 Doppler velocimetry, 133- 134 drilling, 164 dye, 111 economic return from, 33 excimer, 24, 113-114 free-electron, 24, 111, 161 jitter, 21 magnetic resonance, 108 metrology, 52 molecular physics and, 19 neodymium-glass, 24, 111 new, 26 rare-gas halide, 113- 114 remote sensing using, 31-32 semiconductor diode, 24, 111, 163 short-wavelength, 25-26 solar-pumped, 107 spectroscopy, 13, 88-94, 114- 120 stabilization techniques, 12 super-stable tunable, 112 surface science and, 141-142 surgery, 169-170 surveying, 126 tunable dye, 24 VUV, 22, 23 welding, 165 Laser-assisted manufacturing, 33-35, 164- 165 Laser-driven chemical reactions, 162 Laser-induced fluorescence, 135 Laser-induced surface chemistry, 166 Leptonic atoms, 57-58; see also Muon- ium; Positronium Light, 1 laser, see Laser in novel statistical states, 28 polarization of, 59 sources new, 24-26 synchrotron, 6 speed of, constancy of, 10, 12 synchrotron, 85 Light-scattering spectroscopy, 27, 132- 134 Local-mode structure, 94 Lyman-alpha radiation, 79 M Magnetic confinement, 157- 158 fields atoms in, 66-67 hydrogen in, 63

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INDEX 181 moment of electron, 11-13, 55, 56 of positron, 55, 56 Magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI), 170- 173 Manufacturing, laser-assisted, 33-35, 164- 166 Many-body relativistic Hamiltonian, 63 Many-electron atom, 14-16 time-dependent, 16 Materials processing, 166- 167 science, 132-138 Medical physics, 169- 173 Metal clusters, 139, 141, 142 Metastable ions, 82 Meter, defined, 27, 155 Military technology, 159- 162 Molecular beam, 22 supersonic, 108 magnetic resonance technique, 60 scattering, 101 surface scattering, 138- 139 collisions, physics of, 18, 22-23 dynamics, 99-107 fields, shape resonances in, 96-97 fractionation, 129 ions, 108-109 negative, 64 orbitals, inner-shell, 81 photoionization, 22, 94-95 physics, 88-109; see also AMO physics initiative in, 18-23 lasers and, 19 recent advances in, 3 research opportunities in, 3 species novel, 107- 109 transient, 21 spectroscopy, 20-21 structure, 19 Molecular-bond-breaking processes, 106- 107 Molecular-structure calculations, 92 Molecule(s) amphiphilic, 133 deuterated, 129 in high vibrational state, 91 hydrogen-bonded, 92-93 interstellar, 129-130 isolated, physics of, 18-22 motions of electrons in, 19 in open-core states, 91-92 polyatomic, vibrational structure of, 93-94 quasi-molecules, 80 Rydberg, 89-91 Van der Waals, 19, 109 MQDT (multichannel quantum defect theory), 96 MRI (magnetic-resonance imaging), 170- 173 Multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT), 96 M ul ti p ho to n ionization, resonant, 97-98 processes, 15-16 spectroscopy, 27 Muonic atoms, 58 Muonium, 13, 57-58, 62 N National Aeronautics and Space Admin- istration (NASA), 37, 40-43, 52 National Bureau of Standards (NBS), 37. 40-43 National Science Foundation (NSF), 37, 38, 40-43, 51-52 National security, 159- 162 National Standard Reference Data Sys- tem, 169 NBS (National Bureau of Standards)' 37, 40-43 Near-threshold ionization, 74 Neodymium-glass lasers, 24, 111 Neutral-current parity violations in atom- ic physics, 59-60 Neutrino flux, solar, 28 Neutron electric dipole moment of, 12-13, 59 rotation method, 60 Nonlinear optics, 24, 26, 110 Normal-mode frequencies, 93 NSF (National Science Foundation), 37, 38, 40-43, 51-52 Nuclear magnetic resonance, 33 spectroscopy, 172 physics, 146-150

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1 82 INDEX sources, polarized, 149 Nucleus, optical studies of, 147-149 o Optical bistability, 28, 121-122 Bloch equations, 119, 136 frequency-counting methods, 2 interferometry, 11 physics, 110-125; see also AMO physics initiative in, 23-28 recent advances in, 3 research opportunities in, 3 studies of nucleus, 147- 149 transients, coherent, 117 transitions, ultranarrow, 119, 136 Optics femtosecond, 26, 124- 125 nonlinear, 24, 26, 110 quantum, 24, 28, 120- 124 Optogalvanic spectroscopy, 115 Order-disorder transitions, 132- 133 Overtones, 93 p Pair production in transient superheavies, 80-81 Parity violations in atomic physics, 10-13 neutral-current, 59-60 Periodic structure, positive-energy, 66 Perturbation theory, 55 Phonon spectroscopy, surface, 138- 139 Phosphorous imaging, 171 Photoacoustic detection, 115 Photodetachment of electrons, 17 Photodissociation, 23 Photoelectrons, 95 Photofragmentation process, 106-107 Photoionization, 71 dynamics, excited-state, 22 molecular, 22, 94-95 resonant, 116 Photon antibunching, 120- 121 polarization of, 61 Physics AMO, see AMO physics astrophysics, 126-132 atmospheric, 144- 146 atomic, see Atomic, physics condensed-matter, 132- 138 of isolated molecules, 18-22 medical, 169- 173 of molecular collisions, 18, 22-23 molecular, see Molecular, physics nuclear, 146-150 optical, see Optical, physics plasma, 143-144 space, 131-132 Pi state, 79 Pionium, 13 Planetary atom, 14, 16 Plasma diagnostics, 31 physics, 143-144 reactive, 22 resonances, 142 Polarization of light, 59 of photons, 61 Polarized nuclear sources, 149 Positive-energy periodic structure, 66 Positron magnetic moment of, 55, 56 scattering, 77-78 Positronium, 13, 55, 57-58, 78 thermal, 58 Potential energy surfaces. 103, 105 Potential resonance, 72 Precision measurement techniques, 151- 155 Program of Research Initiatives, 3, 7-28, 36, 43-45 base support for, 45-46 goals of, 9 instrumentation and, 5, 46-47 introduction to, 9-10 organization of report on, 8-9 recommendations in, 45-48 support for, 4-5 Promotion model, 76 Proton imaging, 172 Protonium, 150 Pulses. femtosecond. 26 Q QED, see Quantum, electrodynamics Quantitative collision theory, 18

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INDEX 1 83 Quantum beats, 79 chromodynamics, 54 defect, 64 electrodynamics (QED), 11- 14 advances in, 54-55 cavity, 123- 124 effects in atoms of, 68-69 of highly charged systems, 79-80 fluids, spin-polarized, 136- 138 mechanics, 60-61 optics, 24, 28, 120- 124 Quantum-scattering calculations, approxi- mate, 105 Quark-antiquark bound-state systems, 55 Quasi-bound region, 91 Quasi-classical trajectories, 105 Quasi-elastic light scattering, 132- 133 Quasi-molecules, 80 R Radiative collisions, 102- 103 Raman spectroscopy coherent, 119- 120 coherent anti-Stokes (CARS), 119- 120 stimulated (SRS), 119- 120 Rare-gas halide lasers, 113-114 Reactive plasmas, 22 Recombination rates, 17 Red shift, gravitational, 61 Relativistic beams, spectroscopy with, 73 Remote sensing using lasers, 31-32 Research awards in AMO physics. 42 Research group, AMO, 45-46 Research Initiatives, Program of, see Program of Research Initiatives Research Instrumentation Program, 46 Resonance states, 72 Resonances, 19 Resonant multiphoton ionization, 97-98 Resonant photoionization, 116 Retardation effects, 63 Rydberg atom, 16, 64-65, 123- 124, 128- 129 collisions with, 75 Rydberg molecule, 89-91 S Saturation spectroscopy, 21, 116 Scattering positron and electron, 77-78 experiment, complete, 17, 77 Security, national, 159- 162 Semiconductor diode lasers, 24, 111, 163 Shape resonances, 19 in molecular fields, 96-97 Short-wavelength laser, 25-26 Sigma state, 79 Slow recoil-ion production, 82-83 Soft x rays, 25 Solar neutrino flux, 28 Solar-pumped lasers, 107 Space isotropy of, 10, 61 physics, 131 - 132 time and, 61-62 Space Shuttle glow, 146 Spectroscopy, 114 advanced, 24, 26-28 atomic, 65, 147- 149 Auger electron, 143 of chemical reactions, 102 Doppler-free, 26, 27, 116 electron-scattering, 21 femtosecond, 124- 125 of highly charged ions, 15 inner-shell, 15 laser, 13, 88-94, 114- 120 light-scattering, 27. 132- 134 molecular, 20-21 multiphoton, 27 nuclear magnetic resonance, 170- 173 optogalvanic, 115 Raman, see Raman spectroscopy with relativistic beams, 73 saturation. 21, 116 surface phonon, 138- 139 trapped ion, 13- 14 ultraprecise, 27 115 ultrasensitive, 115- 116 Speed of light, constancy of, 10, 12 Spin-polarized hydrogen, 137 quantum fluids. 136- 138 Squeezed states, 122- 123 SRS (stimulated Raman spectroscopy), 119-120 State-to-state chemistry, 23, 100- 102 collisions, 100

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1 84 INDEX Stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS), 119-120 Supersonic molecular beam, 108 Super-stable tunable lasers, 112 Surface chemistry, laser-induced, 166 phonon spectroscopy, 138- 139 scattering, molecular-beam, 138- 139 science, 138- 143 lasers and, 141 - 142 Summary, 1-6 Surgery, laser, 169- 170 Surveying, laser, 126 Synchrotron light, 6, 85 radiation, 111 AMO physics with, 49-50, 84-85 T Theoretical atomic community, 5 atomic physics, 47 Thermal positronium, 58 r. _. . ,Ime gravity and, 10- 12 space and, 61-62 Time-dependent many-electron system, 16 Time-reversal invariance, 10 symmetry, 13, 58-59 Time standard, 52 Transition-state theory, variational, 104- 105 Trapped-ion methods, 62, 107, 118- 119 spectroscopy, 13- 14 Trimers, 135 Tunable dye laser, 24 Tunable x rays, 83 U Ultranarrow optical transitions, 119, 136 Ultraprecise spectroscopy, 27, 115 Ultrasensitive detection, 27-28 Ultrasensitive spectroscopy, 115- 116 Ultraslow collisions, 16- 17, 74-75 Uranium, hydrogen-like, 11, 13 V Van der Waals molecules, 19, 109 Variational transition-state theory, 104- 105 Velocimetry, laser Doppler, 133- 134 Vibrational structure of polyatomic mole- cules, 93-94 VUV lasers, 22, 23 W Wannier-ridge resonances, 72 Welding, laser, 165 X X-ray spectrum, 153 X rays molecular orbital, 81 soft, 25 tunable, 83