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OCR for page 246
B New Experimental Techniques Important experimental methods or techniques have come into being in the last decade or, if discovered earlier, have been extensively developed and utilized in recent times. In the main their descriptions have been interwoven with the discussion given in the text and in the following three appendixes. In Table B. 1 we present the utilizations of various new experimental techniques to the individual subdiscipline areas of condensed-matter physics. Most represent new horizons in higher frequencies, magnetic fields, or pressures, while others provide new ways of probing or analyzing surface structures. Undoubtedly, the advances that were achieved in condensed-matter physics in the past decade have been intimately tied to the development and extensive utilization in varying degrees of the techniques given in the table. For example, all the new discoveries in the superfluid properties of liquid 3He are a direct result of the existence of the dilution refrigerator (Chapter 81. The observa- tion of the quantized and fractionally quantized Hall effect was made possible by the development of high magnetic fields (Appendix E). Numerous examples of the utilization of the various surface-science probes (e.g., the scanning tunneling microscope, atom/surface scatter- ing, low-energy electron diffraction) are to be found in Chapter 7, without which our understanding of the nature and structure of the surface would be considerably less sophisticated. The reader is re- ferred to individual chapters and appendixes for detailed descriptions of these techniques and their applications. 246
OCR for page 247
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