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Index A Absolute rate theory (ART), 134-135 Actinide magnets, 103-105 Adsorbate overlayers, 145-146 Adsorbed gas systems, 87-88 Algorithmic complexity, 226, 231 Almost-broken symmetry, 88-89 Amorphous semiconductors, 121- 122 state, 207-209 physical properties of, 15 Amphiphilic systems, 200 Anderson transition, 47, 49-50 Angle-integrated photoemission, 40-41 Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES), 170 photoemission, 41, 160 Anharmonic systems, 59 Antiferromagnets, disordered, 106-108 Aqueous soap solutions, 198-199 ARPES (angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy), 270 Arrhenius plot for diffusion, 137 ART (absolute rate theory), 134-135 Artificially structured materials, 6-7, 15, 251-252 Astrophysical problems, 232 295 Atom scattering, 156 Atom/phonon interactions, 162 Atom/surface potential, 156 Atomic jump rates, 134-135, 143 mobility, 134-137 resolution defect imaging at, 141-142 experimental probes at, 13-14 Atoms on surface experimental techniques used in study of, 145 interactions of molecules and, 155-157 Attractors, 216-217 strange, see Strange attractors Auger spectroscopy, 130 B Backscattering studies, ion, 150-151 Band calculations, 101 Band-theory density-functional methods, 41 Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory, 165, 176 Bechgaard salts, 251 Bifurcation sequences, 227-228 Biological subcellular structures, 200

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296 INDEX Bipolymers, 212 Block copolymers, 212 Boiling transition, 77-78 Bose condensation temperature, 173, 174 Boundary defects, 127 Bragg beams, 149 Brillouin scattering, 63, 155 Brownian rate theory (BRT), 135 C Cage effect in liquids, 196 CDWs (charge-density waves), 8-9, 278 Chalcogenides, transition-metal, 8, 249- 250 Chaos connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 237, 242, 245 quantum mechanics and, 231 term, 219 Chaotic dynamics, 215 fluid flow, 221-222 motion, 216-217 in conservative systems, 225-226 nonlinear behavior, 12 Charge-density waves (CDWs), 8-9, 278 Chemisorbed adsorbates, 145 CHESS (Cornell High Energy Synchro- tron Source), 267-268 Chevrel phases, 16, 180, 250 Classical liquids, 190-199 dynamical properties of, 193-198 static properties of, 191-193 Cluster approximation, 117 calculation, 143 Codimension-two bifurcations, 227 Coherent Raman spectroscopy, 260 Colloidal systems, 198-199, 200 Complexity, maximum, 226 Computer-enhanced shadowgraph im- ages, 217, 218 Computers, 5 magnetism and, 110-112 need for, 24, 25-26 Condensed matter, 3; see also Con- densed-matter physics at high pressure, 53-54, 55-56 laser spectroscopy of, see Laser spec- troscopy Condensed-matter physics applications of discoveries in, 4 connections between subareas of, 5, 236-245 consequences of research in, 4-6 discoveries in, 6-14 emphasis in, 19 experimental techniques in, 246, 247 impact of new synthesis techniques on, 252-256 importance of, 3-6 needs of, in next decade, 19-35 number of papers by number of au- thors in, 20 ordered microcondensed-matter in, 57 purposes of research in, 3-4 research opportunities in next decade in, 14-18 .< r .~. s~gn~ncance or, vail subareas and subfields of, vat subareas of, 38 Conductance, Hall, 7, 43-44 Conduction electrons, 52-53 Conductors ionic, 70 organic, 250-251 superionic, 70 Conservative systems, 230-231 nonlinear dynamics of, 225-226 Continuous-phase transition, 75-76 Contributors to this volume, 291-294 Convective-pattern evolution, 224 Cooling, nuclear magnetic, 186- 187 Cooperative recombination, 50 Copolymers, block, 212 Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), 267-268 Correlation length, variation of, 83 Couette flow, 228 Crazes and microcracks, 213 Critical phenomena, 75-77 connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 239, 243 history of, 78-80 neutron scattering and, 280 quantities measured in, 80-84 studies of, 100 term, 75

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INDEX Critical point, 75-76; see also Phase tran- sitions examples of, 77-78 liquid-vapor, 87 multicritical points, 88 Cross-linked networks, 209-210 Crossover effects, 208 phenomena, 94 Cryogenic technology, 185- 187 Crystal surface structure, 147- 151 Crystalline solids, 14-15 Crystals, 190 liquid, see Liquid crystals melting of two-dimensional, 89-90 nonlinear optical, 264 plastic, 70 polymer, 210-211 quantum, 136- 137, 182- 184 two-dimensional Wigner, 126 Curie point, 77 Curie-Weiss susceptibility, 101 Cyclotron energy levels, 7 D Dangling bonds, 122 Data communications, connections be- tween subareas of condensed-mat- ter physics and, 236-240 De Broglie wavelength, 149, 152 Deep-level transient spectroscopy, 117 Defect calculations. 132- 134 imaging at atomic resolution, 141 - 142 physics, 127- 128 Defects boundary, 127 connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 237, 242 line, 127 in pair-wave functions, 171 point, see Point defects types of, 127 Density-functional formalism, 40, 133 band-theory, 41 Department of Defense (DOD), 24-25 Deuterium, spin-polarized, 173- 174 297 Diamagnetic materials, 95 Diamond cell, ultrahigh-pressure, 53-54 Dichalcogenides, transition-metal, 8, 249 250 Dielectric relaxation, 195 Diffusion Arrhenius plot for, 137 connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 237, 242 surface, 138- 139 Dilute-solution state, 207 Dilution refrigerator, 186 Dimensionality reduced, 8 future prospects in, 125-126 in semiconductors, 118- 119 spatial, 79 of strange attractors, 222 Dipole interaction, 86-87 Dislocation glide, 139 motion in glasses, 140-141 Disorder, quenched, 91-92 Disordered ferromagnets, antiferromagnets, and paramagnets, 106-108 magnets, 105- 110 materials, 9- 10 systems, 47, 49-53, 70, 215 Displacive phase transitions, 72 Dissipative systems, instabilities in, 223 225 DOD (Department of Defense), 24-25 Dynamic properties of systems, 83-84 random-access silicon memory chip, 114 techniques, 53 Dynamical systems analysis of experiments, 221-222 systems theory, 216, 217 of routes to turbulence, 219-220 E Elastomers, 209-210 Electron energy-loss spectroscopy, 152- 153

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298 INDEX gases, 7 microscopes/microscopy, 13, 151 advances in past decade in, 289-290 facilities for, 31-32, 287-290 scanning transmission, 13-14 transmission, 13, 141 tunneling, 149 U.S. facilities, 288-289 spin resonance (ESR), 117 Electron-charge-density contours, 160 Electron-electron interactions, 41 Electron-hole droplets, 45, 46 Electron-phonon interactions, 65-69 connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 240, 243, 245 neutron scattering and, 278-279 spin resonance (ESR), 117 Electron-stimulated Resorption, 163 Electronic properties connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 238, 243, 245 neutron scattering and, 278 structure determination of, advances in, 40-41 properties of matter and, 39-57 synchrotron radiation and, 270 Electronically ordered states, 45-47 Electrons conduction, 52-53 on helium surfaces, 175-176 Energy, connections between subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 236-240 Enhancement effect, 55 Entropy, metric, 226 Epitaxial materials, 252-253 Epithermal neutrons, 18, 283 Equipment, experimental, need for, 23-25 ESR (electron spin resonance), 117 EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure), 30, 62, 272, 275 Excitations, elementary, on surface experimental techniques used in study of, 145 spectroscopy and, 151-155 Excluded volume problem, 207 Experimental equipment, need for, 23-25 techniques, new, 246, 247 Explosive techniques, 255 Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), 30, 62, 272, 275 F F centers, 139 Faraday effect, 83 Femtosecond laser spectroscopy, 17-18, 262, 263 pulses, 73 Fermi temperature, 172, 187, 188 Fermions, heavy, 10 Ferroelectric liquid crystals, 203, 205 Ferromagnets disordered, 106-108 transition-metal, 100-103, 112 Feynman path integral methods, 136 Field ion microscope, 151, 152 Filamentary materials, 255 First-order phase transition, 92-93 Fixed valence, 10 Flow Couette, 228 fluid, chaotic, 221-222 patterns, evolution of, 223 properties of polymers, 208 turbulent, 218-219 Fluids inhomogeneous, 193 polyatomic, 204 quantum, see Quantum fluids Flux quantization, 51, 52 Four-wave mixing, 260 Fractal structures, 233 Fractional effective dimension, 108 Franz-Keldysh effect, 263 Free-electron lasers, 18 Frustration, property of, 109 Funding, need for, 26-27 G GaAs semiconductors, 116 Gas systems, adsorbed, 87-88 Gases, electron, 7 Gels, 209-210

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INDEX 299 Glancing-incidence neutron spectrosco- py, 149 Glass atomic structures of, 69 creation of, 251 dislocation motion in, 140-141 importance of, 9-10 physical properties of, 15 pure, 209 spin, 108-109 transition, 56 Glassy metals, 56 Global scaling procedure, 93 Godel's theorem, 231 Government-university-industry rela- tions, 33-35 Green's function Monte Carlo approach, 133 H H centers, 139 Hall conductance, 7, 43-44 effect, 7, 43 T quantized, see Quantized Hall effect resistance, 43 voltage, 43 Hartree-Fock approach, 133- 134 Heisenberg model of magnetism, 85-86 Helium interface between liquid and solid, 184 surfaces, electrons on, 175-176 3He mixtures of, in 4He, 173 superfluid, 10-11, 166-172, 187 4He liquid, in unusual geometries, 174-175 mixtures of 3He in, 173 superfluid, 18, 87, 165, 170 Heterojunctions, 118-119 Heterostructures, 126 quantum-well (QWHs), 118, 120- 121 Hexatic "floating raft" phase, 128 liquid-crystal phase, 89-90 High-magnetic-fields facilities, 285-287 recommendations, 31 High-resolution spectroscopy, 284 Hole burning in inhomogeneously broad- ened spectra, 259-260 Hubbard bands, 50 Hydrogen phase diagrams of, 60-61 spin-polarized, 173-174 Hydrogenated amorphous semiconduc- tors, 121 Hyperfine interaction, 186 I Incommensurate phase transitions, 71-72 Incommensurate structures, 68, 71 Industry-university-government relations, 33-35 Inelastic atom/surface scattering, 152, 153-154 Inelastic-electron-tunneling spectroscopy, 159 Information processing, connections between sub- areas of condensed-matter physics and, 236-240 theory, 226 Infrared lasers, 63 spectroscopy, 154 Inhomogeneous fluids, 193 Instabilities connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 237, 242, 245 in dissipative systems, 223-225 phase transitions and, 225 in semiconductors, 232 sequences of, 219 Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), 31 Instrumentation aging, 24 need for, 23-25 Insulators, magnetic, 95, 96, 97-100 Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), 28-29, 277 Interfaces connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 238, 242, 244 experimental techniques used in study of, 145 between liquid and solid helium, 184

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300 INDEX semiconductor-metal, 116-117, 124 semiconductor-semiconductor, 123 solid-gas and solid-liquid, 145 of solids, 144- 163 between solids and dense media, 157- 159 synchrotron radiation and, 272-273 Interferometry, 284 Intermittency, 219, 220 Internal friction, 128 Intramolecular rearrangement times, 194 Inverse photoemission, 41 Ion backscattering studies, 150- 151 implantation, 131 Ion-beam microfabrication, 131 - 132 mixing, 131 Ionic conductors, 70 IPNS (Intense Pulsed Neutron Source), 28-29, 277 Ising model, 78, 80, 84-85. 97 Isothermal compressibility, 81 Isotope effect, 134 ISSP (Institute for Solid State Physics), 31 J Josephson effects, 177-178, 182, 183 junction oscillators, 223-224 Jump rates, atomic, 134-135, 143 K KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser) theo- rem, 226 Kinetic theory, liquid-state, 196 Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser (KAM) theo- rem, 226 Kondo effect, 100 L Landau energy levels, 7 LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Scatter- ing Center), 28-29, 277 Laser spectroscopy of condensed matter, 258-264 directions for future research, 262-264 femtosecond, 262, 263 picosecond, 261-262 ultrafast, 261-262 Laser-induced Resorption, 157 phonons, 195 Lasers free-electron, 18 infrared, 63 semiconductors and, 254-255 surfaces and, 263 Layered compounds, 47-49 LCD, see Liquid-crystal displays LEED (low-energy electron diffraction), 148, 161 Lennard-Jones pair potential, 192 triple-point viscosities, 197 Light scattering, 62-63 Line defects, 127 Liquid crystals, 199-203 ferroelectric, 203, 205 Iyotropic, 17 Liquid metals, 51 Liquid-crystal displays (LCD), 201-203, 204-205 Liquid-state kinetic theory, 196 physics, 190-205 opportunities for future work in, 203- 205 Liquid-vapor critical point, 87 Liquids, 190-191 cage effect in, 196 classical, see Classical liquids connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 239, 243, 245 Lithography, 132 x-ray, 273 Local tunneling systems, 28 Local-band scheme, 102 Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE), 28-29, 277 Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), 148, 161 Low-temperature physics, 164-189

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INDEX 30 1 connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 236, 241, 244 research opportunities in, 187- 189 technology, 185-187 Lubrication, 17 Lyotropic liquid crystals, 17 M Magnetic dipole interaction, 86-87 fields, high, 31 insulators, 95, 96, 97-100 metals, theories of, 17 superconductors, 180, 250 susceptibility, 81 systems, quasi-one-dimensional, 8 Magnetism, 95-112 computer simulations in, 110-112 connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 236, 241, 244 neutron scattering and, 279-280 synchrotron radiation and, 270 Magnetization, 77 Monte Carlo methods and, 111-1 12 Magnets disordered, 105- 110 metallic, 100- 105 Magnons, 98, 107 Manpower, need for, 21-23 Many-body theory, 6 Many-electron effects, 41-42 Mapping, magnetic, 99 Materials artificially structured, 6-7, 15, 251-252 epitaxial, 252-253 filamentary, 255 major concerns in, 256 modification of, 254-255 neutron scattering and, 281-282 new, 248-257 in last decade, 249-252 projections for the future, 256-257 Matter MD, see Molecular dynamics Mean spherical approximation, 192 Medical field, connections between sub- areas of condensed-matter physics and, 244-245 Melts, 207-209 Memory chip, dynamic random-access silicon, 114 human, 233 Metal clusters, 255-256 Metal-insulator transition, 49-51, 92 Metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS), 7 Metallic films, thin, 252 magnets, 100-105 superlattices, 254 Metallo-organic chemical vapor deposi- tion (MOCVD), 7 Metric entropy, 226 Microcondensed-matter science, 57 Microcracks and crazes, 213 Microfabrication, ion-beam, 131 - 132 Microscopes electron, see Electron microscopes/mi croscopy field ion, 151, 152 Minimum temperature, 185 Mixed or granular media, 53, 56 Mixed valence, 10 Mixed-valence behavior, 104- 105 Mixing, concept of, 226 MOCVD (metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition), 7 Molecular dynamics (MD), 139- 140, 196 197 nonequilibrium (NEMD), 196- 197 Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE), 6, 256 Molecule-surface interactions, 157, 163 Molecules on surface experimental techniques used in study of, 145 interactions of atoms and, 155-157 Monte Carlo methods Green's function and, 133 magnetization and, 111- 112 condensed, see Condensed matter statistical, 42 electronic structure and the properties of, 39-57 MBE (molecular-beam epitaxy), 6, 256 MOS (metal-oxide semiconductor), 7 Mott transition, 50 Multicritical points, 88

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302 INDEX N National facilities, 265-290 general recommendations concerning, 32-33 support for, 27-33 National Magnet Laboratory (NML), 31, 285-286 National Science Foundation (NSF), 24- 25 National security, connections between subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 241-243 National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), 268 Nematic phase, 91, 199 NEMD (nonequilibrium molecular dynamics), 196-197 Networks, research on, 233 Neural networks, 232-233 Neutron facilities, 28-29 guides, 283-284 scattering, 61-62 small-angle (SANS), 208, 285 spin-echo spectrometer, 62 Neutron-scattering facilities, 276-285 description of existing U.S., 276-278 future directions, 282-284 growth of community using, 284-285 research highlights of, 278-282 Neutrons epithermal, 18, 283 fundamental characteristics of, 266 NML (National Magnet Laboratory), 31, 285-286 NMR, see Nuclear magnetic resonance Noise in pattern selection, 228 quantum limits of, 182 Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMO), 196- 197 superconductivity, 179 systems, 92, 231-232 Nonlinear dynamics, 216 connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 237, 242, 245 of conservative systems, 225-226 excitations, 72 optical crystals, 264 optical spectroscopy, 259-260 stability theory, 222 numerical simulations and, 228-229 NSF (National Science Foundation), 24- 25 NSLS (National Synchrotron Light Source), 268 Nuclear magnetic cooling, 186- 187 magnetic resonance (NMR), 176, 177 in superfluid 3He, 170 Nucleation theory, 92, 93 Nuclei, 58 Numerical simulations, nonlinear stability theory and, 228-229 o appease transition, 66-67 Onsager solution, 97 Open-crystal structures, 250 Optical breakdown in solids, 263-264 crystals, nonlinear, 264 fibers, 264 spectroscopy nonlinear, 259-260 transient, 260 Optoelectronics, 119-120 Order parameter, 78, 80 correlation function, 83 susceptibility, 81, 83 Ordered microcondensed matter, 57 Organic compounds, 17 conductors, 250-251 p Pair interactions, 191 Pair-distribution function, 192 Pairing transition temperature, 188 Paramagnetic materials, 95-96 refrigerant, 186 Paramagnets, disordered, 106-108 Paramagnon model, 102

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INDEX Participating research teams (PRTs), 33, 268 Pattern evolution, 223, 224 in condensed-matter systems, 228 noise in, 228 Percolation, 76, 92, 108 Period doubling, 219, 220 PES (photoemission spectroscopy), 261 Phase diagrams of hydrogen, 60-61 of solids, 60 generation, radiation, 129 microstructure, 129 transitions, 15-16; see also Critical point boiling, 77-78 connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 239, 243, 245 continuous-phase, 75-76 displacive, 72 examples of, 77-78 first-order, 92 incommensurate, 71-72 instabilities and, 225 neutron scattering and, 280 synchrotron radiation and, 270-271 theory of, 11 Phason excitations, 71 Phonon dispersion curves, 61 surface, 153 focusing, 65, 66 transport, 64-65 research in, 73 transport coefficient, 64 winds, anisotropic, 65 Phonon/atom interactions, 162 Phonon-electron interactions' 65-69 connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 240, 243, 245 neutron scattering and, 278-279 Phonons, 59 connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 240, 243, 245 high-frequency, 64 laser-induced, 195 303 low-frequence transverse, 65 neutron scattering and, 278-279 Photoacoustic spectroscopy, 157 Photochemical processes, 139 Photodesorption, 139 Photoelectron spectroscopy, 275 Photoemission, 40-41, 148, 162 Photoemission spectroscopy (PES), 261 Photon monochromators, 30 spectroscopy, 158 Photon-stimulated Resorption, 163 Physics condensed-matter, see Condensed-mat- ter physics defect, 127- 128 liquid-state, see Liquid-state physics low-temperature, see Low-temperature physics Physisorbed adsorbates, 145, 146 Picosecond laser spectroscopy, 261-262 Plastic crystals, 70 Poincare maps, 221-222 Point defects, 127 in simple solids, 137- 138 Point-contact spectroscopy, 68 Point-defect mechanism, 89 Polariton, surface, 154 Polyacetylene, 9, 46, 72, 211-212 Polyatomic fluids, 204 Polymer crystals, 210-211 Polymers, 200, 206-214 connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 240, 243, 245 electrical properties, 211-212 flow properties of, 208 neutron scattering and, 281 opportunities in, 213-214 properties of, 212 research problems with, 207-212 rheology of, 208 Polyvinylidene fluoride, 212 Potts model, 88 Powder profile analysis, 284 Power law, 80-81 Pressure, high, condensed matter at, 53- 54, 55-56 PRTs (participating research teams), 33, 268

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304 INDEX Q Quantized Hall effect, 7-8, 42-45, 125 fractionally, 16, 45 Quantum crystals, 136-137, 182-184 fluids, 164-176 novel, 172 term, 164 limits of noise, 182 mechanics, chaos and, 231 turbulence, 230 Quantum-well heterostructures (QWHs), 118, 120-121 Quasi-periodic oscillations, 217 Quasi-periodicity, 219 Quenched disorder, 91-92 QWHs (quantum-well heterostructures), 118, 120-121 R Radiation, synchrotron, see Synchrotron radiation entries Radiation-induced homogeneous precipitation, 142 phases, 129 Raman scattering, 62-63, 158 spectroscopy, 154-155 coherent, 260 Rare-earth magnets, 103- 105 Rare-gas atom/surface interactions, 156 Rayleigh number, 220 Reduced dimensionality, 8 Re-entrant spin glasses, 110 Refrigerant, paramagnetic, 186 Refrigerator, dilution, 186 Relaxation process, collective, 195 rates, 84 times, 194 Renormalization group techniques, 11, 79-80, 219 Researchers individual, support for, 21-27 need for, 21-23 Resonance scattering, 63 Reynolds numbers, 92 Rheology of polymers, 208 Rubber, 209-210 S SANS (small-angle neutron scattering), 208, 285 SAXS (small-angle x-ray scattering) ge- ometry, 271 Scaling law, 82 Scanning transmission electron microscopes, 13- 14 vacuum tunneling microscopes, 13 Schottky barriers, 124-125 Scientists, need for, 21-23 Screening, concept of, 207-208 Second-sound pulse, 171 Secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), 130 Self-avoiding walk problem, 207 Semiconductor growth techniques, 125 Semiconductor-insulator interfaces, 123- 124 Semiconductor-metal interfaces, 116-117, 124 Semiconductor-semiconductor interfaces, 123 Semiconductors, 6, 113-126 amorphous, 121-122 compound, optical properties of, 119- 121 connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 236, 241, 244 defects in, 117-118; see also Defect en- tries future prospects in, 124-125 GaAs, 116 instabilities in, 232 lasers and, 254-255 reduced dimensionality in, 118-119 small structures for, 125-126 surfaces and interfaces of, 115-117 future prospects in, 122-124 Semidilute solutions, 207 SEXAFS (surface-extended x-ray absorp- tion fine structure), 272 Shadowgraph images, computer-en- hanced, 217, 218 Shear viscosity, 197 Silicon, surface of, 149, 150 SIMS (secondary-ion mass spectrome- try), 130

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SLs, see Superlattices Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), 208, 285 x-ray scattering (SAXS) geometry, 271 Smectic A-to-nematic transition, 90-91, 94 phases, 90, 199 Soap solutions, 198-199 Solid-gas interface, 145 Solid-liquid interface, 145 Solid-state catalysts, 146-147 Solidification patterns, 232 Solids crystalline, 14-15 defects and diffusion in, 127-143; see also Defect entries interfaces of, see Interfaces optical breakdown in, 263-264 phase diagrams of, 60 reduced dimensionality of, 8 simple, point defects in, 137-138 structures and vibrational properties of, 58-74 surface of, see Surface entries theoretical calculations of properties of, 59-61 Solitons, 59, 72, 73-74, 127-128, 171 fractionally charged, 65 topological, 211 Solutions, 207-209 Space technology, connections between subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 241-243 Spallation sources, 62, 73 Spatial dimensionality, 79 Specific heat, 82 Spectral brightness, 267 Speech, connections between subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 236-240 Spin freezing, 108 glass, 108-109 Hamiltonians, 96 wave, 161 Spin-polarization analysis, 101, 102 Spin-polarized hydrogen and deuterium, 173-174 Spinodal decomposition, 92, 93 SQUIDS (superconducting quantum in- terference devices), 182, 183 INDEX 305 SRC (Synchrotron Radiation Center), 269 SSRL (Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory), 268-269 Stability theory, 222 Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Labora- tory (SSRL), 268-269 Statistical Monte Carlo methods, 42 Stoner model, 101 Strained-layer superlattices, 120, 126 Strange attractors, 217 dimensionality of, 222 String model of dislocations, 137 Structure, experimental techniques used in study of, 145 Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), 182, 183 Superconductivity, 165, 176-182 future of, 189 nonequilibrium, 179 research in, 178-179 Superconductors heavy-fermion, 180 high-transition-temperature, high-mag- netic-field, 180-181 magnetic, 180, 250 new, 251 novel, 179-180 type II, 177 Superfluid flow, 172 3He, 10-11, 166-172, 187 4He, 18, 87, 165, 170 interparticle spacing, 175 mass fraction, 172 Superfluidity, 165 Superionic conductors, 70 Superlattices (SLs), 120, 147 metallic, 254 strained-layer, 120, 126 Support for individual researchers, 21-27 for national facilities, 27-33 SURF (Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radia- tion Facility), 269-270 Surface(s) connections between other subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 238, 242, 244 crystal, structure of, 147- 151 diffusion on, 138-139 elementary excitations on, see Excita

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306 INDEX tions, elementary, on surface experimental techniques used in study of, 145 helium, electrons on, 175-176 interactions of atoms and molecules on, 155-157 lasers and, 263 and near-surface constitution of solids, 130-131 neutron scattering and, 280-281 opportunities for research on, 160- 163 phonon dispersion curves, 153 polariton, 154 reconstruction, 146 of silicon, 149, 150 of solids, 144- 163 synchrotron radiation and, 272 Surface-extended x-ray absorption fine structure (SEXAFS), 272 Surface/inelastic-atom scattering, 152' 153-154 Surface/molecule interactions, 163 Surface/rare-gas-atom interactions, 156 Synchrotron radiation, 12- 13, 18, 267 research, 267-276 future directions in, 275-277 sources present, 267-270 recommendations, 29-30 techniques in use in studies, 271 Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC), 269 Synchrotron-radiation-based spectrosco- py, 148-149 Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facili- ty (SURF), 269-270 Synthesis loop, 249 techniques, new, 252-256 T Temperature minimum, 185 pairing transition, 188 Tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodi- methane (TTF-TCNQ). 9, 46 Texture, property of, 167 Textures in liquid crystals, 128 Thermodynamic equilibrium, 231 Thin metallic films, 252 Time complexity theory, 231 Time-resolved studies, 273-274 Topography, improvements in field of, 273 Topological solitons, 211 Transient optical spectroscopy, 260 Transition-metal chalcogenides/dichalcogenides, 8, 249- 250 ferromagnetism, 112 ferromagnets, 100-103 Translational invariance, 105- 106 Transmission electron microscopes, 13, 141 Transportation, connections between subareas of condensed-matter physics and, 241-243 TTF-TCNQ (tetrathiafulvalene-tetracya- noquinodimethane), 9, 46 Tunneling centers, 10 electron microscope, 149 spectroscopy, 68 states, 56 Turbulence, 12, 16, 17, 92, 215 dynamical systems theory of routes to, 219-220 quantum, 230 strong, 229 transition from weak to fully devel- oped, 229-230 weak, 219 Turbulent flow, 218-219 Two-dimensional superfluid and XY model, 89 Wigner crystal, 126 Two-photon spectroscopy, 259, 262 U Ultrafast laser spectroscopy, 261-262 Ultrahigh-pressure diamond cell, 53-54 Ultrasound in superfluid 3He, 170- 171 Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), 6 Undulator devices, 30, 267 Universality classes, 79, 84-87

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INDEX 307 University-industry-government rela- tions, 33-35 UPS (ultraviolet photoelectron spectros- copy), 6 V Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range, 270, 271 Valence fixed and mixed, 10 instability, 104 Van der Waals interactions, 156 Very-large-scale integration (VLSI), 113 Vortex excitations in XY model, 99 Vortices as defects, 172 VUV (vacuum ultraviolet) range, 270, 271 W Weak itinerant model, 102 localization, 50-51 turbulence, 219 Wetting problem, 193 Wiggler devices, 30, 267 Wigner crystal, two-dimensional, 126 lattice, 176 X X-ray beams, fundamental characteristics of, 266 edge problem, 42 lithography, 273 microscopy, 273 photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), 6 spectral range, 270, 271 XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), 6 XY model of magnetism, 85, 87, 89 vortex excitations in, 99 z Zeolites, 250 Zero sound mode, 170

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