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II A Decade of Condensed-Maner Ph~ro'' In this part we summarize some of the advances in con- densed-matter physics in the past decade, including significant and interesting milestones that will ensure the continuing live- liness of the discipline. These summaries are accompanied by descriptions of areas that provide particularly exciting research opportunities in the next decade. The division of condensed-matter physics into the subareas represented by the following chapters was made because it corresponds to the communities of scientists who relate most directly with each other, for example through the organization of workshops and international conferences. It consists roughly of two broad categories devoted, respectively, to solids and to liquids. The distinction between these two phases can be made on the basis of their symmetry properties, i.e., on whether they are left unchanged uncter uniform displacements (translations) and rotations. Chapters I-7 are devoted to solids, and the discussion of liquids that follows is prefaced by a chapter on quantum fluids, which span both the solid and the liquid state. The importance of new experimental techniques,
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laser spectroscopy, new materials, and the national facilities to the advances that have been made, and can yet be made, in the subareas of condensed-matter physics is delineated in the appendixes. Finally, the emphasis in what follows is on the discoveries and opportunities: no attempt was made to identify the individuals responsible for the discoveries or their institu- tions.