American Academy of Family Physicians
American Academy of Pediatrics
American College of Nurse Midwives
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol number 076
American with Disabilities Act
AIDS Drug Assistance Program
AIDS Education and Training Center
Aid to Families with Dependent Children
AIDS Health Education Center
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
American Medical Association
Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs
AIDS Public Information Data Set
AIDS Policy Center for Children, Youth and Families
Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses
Bureau of Primary Care
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
(Ryan White) Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (Act)
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--> Appendix O Acronyms and Glossary Acronyms AAFP American Academy of Family Physicians AAP American Academy of Pediatrics ACNM American College of Nurse Midwives ACOG American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ACTG 076 AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol number 076 ADA American with Disabilities Act ADAP AIDS Drug Assistance Program AETC AIDS Education and Training Center AFDC Aid to Families with Dependent Children AFP alpha-fetoprotein AHEC AIDS Health Education Center AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome AMA American Medical Association AMCHP Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs APIDS AIDS Public Information Data Set APPCYF AIDS Policy Center for Children, Youth and Families AWHONN Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses BPHC Bureau of Primary Care BRFSS Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System CARE (Ryan White) Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (Act)
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--> CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CHIP Child Health Insurance Program CIP consumer information program CPCRA Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS DHHS Department of Health and Human Services DSH disproportionate share hospital ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay FDA Food and Drug Administration HCFA Health Care Financing Administration HEDIS Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act HIV human immunodeficiency virus HRSA Health Resources and Services Administration IOM Institute of Medicine IDU injection drug users JCAHO Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations MCHB Maternal and Child Health Bureau MCO managed care organization MSA metropolitan statistical area MSAFP maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein NAS National Academy of Sciences NCQA National Committee for Quality Assurance NIH National Institutes of Health NMA National Medical Association NRC National Research Council NTD neural tube defect OPA Office of Population Affairs PACTG Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group PCP Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia PCR polymerase chain reaction PGEP Perinatal Guidelines Evaluation Project
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--> PHS Public Health Service PKU phenylketonuria PRAMS Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System PRWORA Personnel Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 PSD Pediatric Spectrum of Disease SAMHSA Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration SCBW Survey of Childbearing Women SCD sickle cell disease SPNS Special Projects of National Significance SSDI Social Security Disability Insurance SSI Supplemental Security Income SSIDCP SSI Disabled Children's Program STD sexually transmitted disease STEP Surveillance to Evaluate Prevention TANF Temporary Assistance for Needy Families WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children WIN Women's Initiative for HIV Care and Reduction of Perinatal Transmission WORLD Women Organized to Respond to Life-threatening Diseases ZDV zidovudine, previously known as AZT Glossary acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): an acquired, as opposed to inherited (congenital), disease characterized by the progressive deterioration of host immune defenses that renders the affected individual susceptible to an array of infectious and malignant disorders that do not normally afflict persons with intact immune systems. AIDS results from infection with human immunodeficiency virus, and is formally defined by a case definition issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). AIDS exceptionalism: phenomenon where HIV/AIDS is treated differently from other diseases, especially with regard to clinical testing and public health screening programs. alpha-fetoprotein (AFP): normal fetal protein that is usually present in maternal serum, used to diagnose neural tube defects and other conditions during pregnancy.
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--> case finding: identifying a previously unknown or unrecognized condition in apparently healthy or asymptomatic persons and offering presymptomatic treatment to those so identified. completely mandatory: situation in which a government agency requires citizens to undergo a screening test, and sanctions those who do not comply. conditionally mandatory: situation in which either government or a private institution makes access to a designated service or opportunity contingent on participation in a screening program. counseling: communication process by which individuals and their family members are given information about the nature, risks, burden and benefits of testing, and the meaning of test results. HIV: the retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, that is responsible for most cases of AIDS worldwide. Neural tube defect (NTD): major birth defect affecting the brain and spinal column. Non-directive patient choice: situation in which individuals are provided information about a test and the choice is explicitly left to them. phenylketonuria (PKU): hereditary metabolic disorder, in which a deficiency of an enzyme leads to the accumulation of the amino acid phenylalanine, resulting in severe mental retardation if not appropriately treated. routine with notification: situation in which individuals are informed that a certain test is a standard part of prenatal care, and of their right to refuse before the testing is done. routine without notification: situation in which individuals are routinely and automatically tested unless they expressly ask that a test not be done. screening: application of a test to all individuals in a defined population. sickle cell disease (SCD): an autosomal recessive hemolytic anemia occurring most frequently in African Americans, but also in persons of Mediterranean origin and others. surveillance: monitoring the incidence or prevalence of a disease in a defined population over time, or comparing the incidence or prevalence among different populations. testing: application of a test or measurement to selected individuals for the purpose of identifying a disease or medical condition. zidovudine (ZDV) (also knows as AZT): antiretroviral drug found to significantly reduce perinatal transmission of HIV.
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