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A National and Dedicatec! University Accelerator Facilities The nine national accelerator facilities devoted to basic nuclear- physics research in the United States are listed in Table A. 1. Table A.2 lists 13 dedicated university accelerator facilities. Included in this list are those facilities that are fully supported for basic nuclear-physics research. Not included are additional university and national- laboratory facilities that are only partially supported for basic nuclear- physics research. The accelerators listed in Tables A. 1 and A.2 are of four basic kinds: Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerators, linear accelerators, cyclo- trons, and synchrotrons. Because they are all charged-particle accel- erators, the charge state of the ion is a determining factor in their energy output. Most commonly, the maximum energy available per nucleon decreases with increasing projectile mass; where a range in energy is given with a corresponding mass range, the high energy corresponds to the low mass, and vice versa. The energy is usually expressed in MeV or GeV per nucleon, where approximately: 5 MeV per nucleon is needed to overcome the Coulomb barrier. 10 MeV per nucleon will produce moderate excitations of nuclear matter. 100 MeV per nucleon will produce high nuclear temperatures and pion creation. 1 GeV per nucleon will produce high nuclear energy densities and the formation of exotic states of nuclear matter. 189

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APPENDIX A Somewhat arbitrarily, as described in Chapter 1, these energies can be classified in ranges as follows: Low energy: less than about 10 MeV per nucleon Medium energy: 10 to 100 MeV per nucleon High energy: 100 MeV to 1 GeV per nucleon Relativistic energy: greater than about 1 GeV per nucleon (elec trons become relativistic at about 0.5 MeV) It is important to note that this classification scheme is not universally accepted; for various reasons, both technical and historical, the interpretations of the first three terms vary considerably among dif- ferent groups of physicists. Similarly arbitrary but useful is the following classification of pro- jectile masses. Light ions are considered to be the hydrogen ions (protons, deuterons, and tritons) and the helium ions (masses 3 and 41. Lithium ions (masses 6 and 7) begin the medium-ion range (although lithium is sometimes included in the light-ion definition), which extends to about mass 40. Above mass 40 the projectiles are classified as heavy tons.

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