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PHYSICS THROUGH THE 1990s N 1 Ph Nuclear Physics Pane! Physics Survey Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1986

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineermg and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The Board on Physics and Astronomy is pleased to acknowledge generous support for the Physics Survey from the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Commerce, the American Physical Society, Coherent (Laser Products Division), General Electric Company, General Motors Foundation, and International Business Machines Corporation. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: Nuclear physics. (Physics through the 1990s) Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Nuclear physics. 2. Nuclear physics Research United States. 3. National Research Council (U.S.). Nuclear Physics Panel. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Nuclear Physics Panel. II Series. QC776.P59 1985 539.7 85-10584 ISBN 0-309-03547-3 Printed in the United States of America First Printing, April 1986 Second Printing, September 1986 Third Printing, January 1988

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PANEL ON NUCLEAR PHYSICS *JOSEPH CERNY, University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Chairman PAUL T. DEBEVEC, University of Illinois, Urbana ROBERT A. EISENSTEIN, Carnegie-Mellon University NOEMIE BENCZER KOEEER, Rutgers University STEVEN E. KOONIN, California Institute of Technology *PETER D. MAcD. PARKER, Yale University R. G. HAMISH ROBERTSON, Los Alamos National Laboratory STEVEN E. VIGDOR, Indiana University JOHN D. WAEECKA, Stanford University *Member of Physics Survey Committee.

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PHYSICS SURVEY COMMITTEE WILLIAM F. BRINKMAN' Sandia National Laboratories, Chairman JOSEPH CERNY, University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory RONALD c. DAVIDSON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN M. DAWSON, University of California, Los Angeles MILDRED s. DRESSEEHAUS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology VAL L. FITCH, Princeton University PAUL A. FLEURY, AT&T Bell Laboratories WILLIAM A. FOWLER, w. K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory THEODOR w. HANSCH, Stanford University VINCENT JACCARINO, University of California, Santa Barbara DANIEL KEEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology AEEXE! A. MARADUDIN, University of California, Irvine PETER D. MACD. PARKER, Yale University MARTIN L. PERK, Stanford University WATT w. WEBB, Cornell University DAVID T. WILKINSON, Princeton University DONALD c. SHAPERO, Sta~Director ROBERT L. RIEMER, Sta~Ogicer CHARLES K. REED, Consultant 1V

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BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY HANS FRAUENFEEDER, University of Illinois, Chairman FELIX H. BOEHM, California Institute of Technology RICHARD G. BREWER, IBM San Jose Research Laboratory DEAN E. EASTMAN, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center JAMES E. GUNN, Princeton University LEO P. KADANOFF, The University of Chicago W. CARE LINEBERGER, University of Colorado NORMAN F. RAMSEY, Harvard University MORTON S. ROBERTS, National Radio Astronomy Observatory MARSHAEL N. ROSENBEUTH, University of Texas at Austin WIEEIAM P. SEICHTER, AT&T Bell Laboratories SAM B. TREIMAN, Princeton University DONALD C. SHAPERO, Sta.f[Director ROBERT L. RIEMER, Staff Officer HELENE PATTERSON, Sta.ffAssistant SUSAN WYATT, Sta.ffAssistant v

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COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND RESOURCES HERBERT FRIEDMAN, National Research Council, Chairman THOMAS D. BARROW, Standard Oil Company (Retired) ELKAN R. BLOUT, Harvard Medical School WILLIAM BROWDER, Princeton University BERNARD F. BURKE, California Institute of Technology GEORGE F. CARRIER, Harvard University CHARLES L. DRAKE, Dartmouth College MILDRED s. DRESSELHAUS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOSEPH L. FISHER, Office of the Governor, Commonwealth of Virginia JAMES c. FLETCHER, University of Pittsburgh WILLIAM A. FOWLER, California Institute of Technology GERHART FRIEDEANDER, Brookhaven National Laboratory EDWARD D. GOLDBERG, Scripps Institution of Oceanography MARY L. GOOD, Signal Research Center J. Ross MACDONALD, University of North Carolina THOMAS F. MALONE, Saint Joseph College CHARLES J. MANKIN, Oklahoma Geological Survey PERRY L. MCCARTY, Stanford University WILLIAM D. PHILLIPS, Mallinckrodt, Inc. ROBERT E. SIEVERS, University of Colorado JOHN D. SPENGEER, Harvard School of Public Health GEORGE w. WETHERIEE, Carnegie Institution of Washington RAPHAEL G . KASPER, Executive Director LAWRENCE E. MCCRAY, Associate Executive Director Vl

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Preface This volume is the report of the Panel on Nuclear Physics of the Physics Survey Committee, established by the National Research Council in 1983. The report presents many of the major advances in nuclear physics during the past decade, sketches the impacts of nuclear physics on other sciences and on society, and describes the current frontiers of the field. It concludes with a chapter on the recommended priorities for this discipline. The Panel on Nuclear Physics developed this report through its meetings in May 1983 and January 1984 and through extensive corre- spondence. We also joined with the Nuclear Science Advisory Com- mittee (NSAC) of the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation during its week-long Workshop in July 1983, when the major draft of its 1983 Long Range Plan was formulated. Appendix B lists those who attended the Workshop, which included broad partic- ipation beyond the members of NSAC or our Panel. ' Most of the comments from 11 reviewers (see Appendix By, chosen to provide a representative viewpoint from the nuclear-science com- munity, were incorporated into the manuscript, which was submitted to the National Research Council in May 1984 for further review. Additional comments were subsequently incorporated, and the final manuscript was submitted in August 1984. Clearly, a comprehensive coverage of the field of nuclear physics would be impossible in a report of this size. Of necessity, only an . . V11

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viii PREFACE overview of selected topics can be given, and the Panel has attempted to maintain a reasonable balance throughout. Although no explicit reference to nuclear chemistry per se is made in this report, we wish to note that nuclear chemists and nuclear physicists are working toward the same goal of understanding the nucleus. They thus have many interests in common and share the same experimental facilities. The Panel wishes to thank the reviewers as well as the members of the Physics Survey Committee, the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council, and a number of other individuals for their help in this task. We wish particularly to thank Fred Raab for his outstanding and invaluable assistance in the technical rewriting and editing of this report. .

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. 1 INTRODUCTION TO NUCLEAR PHYSICS The Atomic Nucleus, 10 The Nuclear Many-Body Problem, 12 The Fundamental Forces, 13 The Elementary Particles, 16 I=eptons, 17 Quarks, IS Elementary Vector Bosons, 21 Conservation Laws and Symmetries, 24 Accelerators and Detectors, 28 Projectiles and Targets, 28 Energies, 30 Nuclear Interactions, 32 Particle Detectors, 32 I MAJOR ADVANCESIN NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2 NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS Elementary Modes of Excitation, 39 1X ... . . 9 ~ 37

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X CONTENTS Giant Electric Resonances, 40 Giant Spin Vibrations, 44 Deltas in Nuclei, 45 Electron-Scattering Results, 46 The Interacting Boson Model, 50 Macroscopic Nuclear Dynamics, 52 Resonances in Heavy-Ion Systems, 54 Deep-Inelastic Collisions, 57 The Nuclear Many-Body Problem, 59 The Three-Nucleon Nucleus and Infinite Nuclear Matter, 60 Properties of Finite Nuclei, 61 The Effective NN Interaction at Intermediate Energies, 63 Expanding the Traditional Many-Body Theory, 64 3 FUNDAMENTAL FORCES IN THE NUCLEUS Nonnucleonic Constituents of Nuclei, 68 Probing Quark Structure with Leptons, 70 The Physics of Hypernuclei, 73 Quantum Chromodynamics at Low Energies, 75 The Nucleus as a Laboratory for Fundamental Symmetries, 77 Right-Handed Bosons in Beta Decay, 79 The Mass of the Neutrino, 80 Neutrino Oscillations, 81 Double Beta Decay, 83 Parity Violation in Nuclei, 85 4 N UCLEI UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS Nuclei at High Temperature and Density, 88 High Nuclear Temperatures, 89 High Nuclear Densities, 91 Nuclear-Matter Equation of State, 92 The Heaviest Elements, 94 New Transfermium Elements, 94 The Search for Superheavy Elements, 96 Highly Unstable Nuclei, 97 67 - 87

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CONTENTS Xi Exotic Radioactivities, 97 Long Isotopic Sequences, 101 Nuclei with Extremely High Spin, 102 II IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS . . . . . . . . . . 107 Nuclei Under Extreme Astrophysical Conditions, 108 Nucleosynthesis of Light Elements, 108 Supernova Explosions and Neutron-Star Formation, 111 Weak-Interaction Processes in Supernovas, 113 Nuclear Reactions in Stars, ~ 14 The Solar-Neutrino Problem, 115 Stellar Evolution, 118 6 SCIENTIFIC AND SOCIETAL BENEFITS Condensed-Matter Physics, 121 Atomic Physics, 124 Geology and Cosmology, 125 Nuclear and Radiation Medicine, 127 Materials Modification and Analysis, 130 Energy Technology, 131 The Fine Arts, 134 . III CURRENT FRONTIERS OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS 120 7 APPROACHING THE QUARK-GLUON PLASMA 137 States of Nuclear Matter, 138 Achieving Quark Deconfinement, 141 Detecting the Quark-Gluon Plasma, 143 Additional Relativistic Heavy-Ion Physics, 146 8 CHANGING DESCRIPTIONS OF NUCLEAR MATTER Quarks in Nuclei, 151 ~ 150

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xii CONTENTS Mesons and Baryon Resonances in Nuclei, 154 Nuclear Properties Under Extreme Conditions, 156 9 THE ELECTROWEAK SYNTHESIS AND BEYOND The Standard Model, 160 Physics with Neutrino Beams, 162 Testing the Grand Unified Theories, 163 Time-Reversal-Invariance Violation, 164 The Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron, 164 Rare Muon and Kaon Decays, 165 10 RECOMMENDED PRIORITIES FOR NUCLEAR PHYSICS Accelerators in Nuclear Physics, 170 Existing Facilities, 171 The Planned Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, 172 The Next Major Initiative: The Relativistic Nuclear Collider, 173 Recommendations from the NSAC 1983 Long Range Plan, 175 Complementary Aspects of CEBAF and the RNC, 176 Further Recommendations, 178 Additional Facility Opportunities, 178 Nuclear Instrumentation, 180 Nuclear Theory, 181 Accelerator Research and Development, 18 Training New Scientists, 183 Enriched Stable Isotopes, 184 Nuclear Data Compilation, 185 APPENDIXES A NATIONAL AND DEDICATED UNIVERSITY ACCELERATOR FACILITIES ....... B ADVISORS AND REVIEWERS 160 169 189 196

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CONTENTS Xiii BIBLIOGRAPHY GLOSSARY INDEX 201 203 215

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