Index

A

Academic research, see University research

Accidents, industrial, 85, 92, 93, 117–118, 129–130

Acid Deposition Monitoring and Evaluation Program, 175

Agricultural sector, 24

biotechnology, 26

chemicals, 87

Air pollution, 1, 4, 5

acid deposition, 175

automobiles, 15, 16, 152, 153, 156

Clean Air Act, 120–121, 137(n.16), 152

historical perspectives, 1, 2, 15

public access to information, 175, 177

supply-chain factors, 128

Air Resources Board, 156

Allenby, Braden, 5, 15–43, 211

American Foundrymen’s Society, 156

American National Standards Institute, 176

Art on the Internet, 193

Attitudes

chemical industry, public opinion, 81

distrust of technology, 75

supply-chain design, public relations, 120–121

AT&T, 27

Automobile industry, 5, 15–19, 123

air pollution and emission control, 15, 16, 152, 153, 156

collaborative efforts, 151–158

fuel efficiency, 15–16, 152

historical perspectives, 1, 2, 15–16, 151–154

international collaboration, 151–152

product design, 17, 18, 152

safety, 16, 152, 153

B

Best practice technology, 11, 62, 69, 70, 89, 106, 118, 120, 133, 134, 196

Biodiversity, 2, 11

Biotechnology, 26

Browner, Carol, 177

Browsers, Internet, 9, 18, 72, 145, 163, 171, 198, 200

Bureau of Census, 36, 39–40

C

Carberry, John, 7, 81–86, 212

Carbon monoxide

Carnot project, see InfoSleuth™

CD-ROMs, 7, 36, 38, 41, 45, 83, 84, 157



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Information Systems and the Environment Index A Academic research, see University research Accidents, industrial, 85, 92, 93, 117–118, 129–130 Acid Deposition Monitoring and Evaluation Program, 175 Agricultural sector, 24 biotechnology, 26 chemicals, 87 Air pollution, 1, 4, 5 acid deposition, 175 automobiles, 15, 16, 152, 153, 156 Clean Air Act, 120–121, 137(n.16), 152 historical perspectives, 1, 2, 15 public access to information, 175, 177 supply-chain factors, 128 Air Resources Board, 156 Allenby, Braden, 5, 15–43, 211 American Foundrymen’s Society, 156 American National Standards Institute, 176 Art on the Internet, 193 Attitudes chemical industry, public opinion, 81 distrust of technology, 75 supply-chain design, public relations, 120–121 AT&T, 27 Automobile industry, 5, 15–19, 123 air pollution and emission control, 15, 16, 152, 153, 156 collaborative efforts, 151–158 fuel efficiency, 15–16, 152 historical perspectives, 1, 2, 15–16, 151–154 international collaboration, 151–152 product design, 17, 18, 152 safety, 16, 152, 153 B Best practice technology, 11, 62, 69, 70, 89, 106, 118, 120, 133, 134, 196 Biodiversity, 2, 11 Biotechnology, 26 Browner, Carol, 177 Browsers, Internet, 9, 18, 72, 145, 163, 171, 198, 200 Bureau of Census, 36, 39–40 C Carberry, John, 7, 81–86, 212 Carbon monoxide Carnot project, see InfoSleuth™ CD-ROMs, 7, 36, 38, 41, 45, 83, 84, 157

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Information Systems and the Environment Chemicals sector accidents, industrial, 85, 92, 93, 117–118, 129–130 cost and cost-effectiveness factors process redesign, 88–90 regulatory compliance, 81, 117, 118 supply-chain factors, 123 DuPont, 7, 81–96 employees, 81, 83, 87, 92 occupational health and safety, 83, 87, 92–93, 119 energy conservation and efficiency, 82, 83 human health issues, 85, 87–93 (passim) occupational health and safety, 83, 87, 92–93, 119 knowledge-management systems, 7, 16, 81–86 liability for environmental damage, 117–119 process control, 83, 87–93 product design, 83, 84, 86 product life cycle, 83, 84, 86, 89 regulatory issues, 81, 88 standards, 82, 83, 89, 90, 91 Toxics Release Inventory, 10, 85, 91, 120, 130, 135, 173, 175, 177, 182 Rhône-Poulenc, information management systems, 7, 87–93 supply-chain design, 116, 117–119, 123, 124 waste management, 83, 84–85 recycling of waste materials, 83, 85, 123 wildlife, effects on, 82, 86 Chips, see Semiconductors Choucri, Nazli, 10, 195–210, 212 Clean Air Act, 120–121, 137(n.16), 152 Clean Water Act, 179 Climate change, 2, 11, 128 see also Greenhouse gases Cohen, Julie, 5–6, 45–55, 212–213 Collections of Information Antipiracy Act, 50–51 Colleges and universities, see University research Communication technologies, 4, 5, 23, 24, 28, 30, 31, 77 see also Internet extranets, 72, 74, 84 historical perspectives, 28, 30, 37, 38 information density of an economy, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39 intranets, 22, 59, 72, 74, 83, 84, 90, 157, 158 synchronous vs asynchronous, 140–141 telecommuting, 5, 77 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 119 Compton, W.Dale, 211–212 Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, 4, 17, 18, 100, 153 Computer Devices International, see General Dynamics Information Systems Computer technologies, general, 23, 140 see also Databases; Electronics industry; Extranets; Internet; Intranets; Networks, computer; Process control; Software automobiles, 16–18 historical perspectives, 27–29 information density of an economy, 38–40, 41 semiconductors, 4, 21 Confidentiality, see Privacy and confidentiality Consortia of firms, 8 Contractors and contracting, see Outsourcing Cooperative Research and Development Act, 152, 153 Copyright, see Intellectual property Copyright Act, 47, 49 Corporate Average Fuel Economy, 152 Corporate-level actions, 2, 6–8, 11(n.1), 59–148 see also Product design; Recycling of waste materials; Small and medium-sized enterprises; Supply-chain factors collaborative efforts, 8, 9, 62, 69–72, 77, 139, 143–144, 151–209 automotive industry, 151–158 databases, 9, 69, 143–144 government role, 8, 9, 62, 69, 70, 71, 73, 143–144, 146, 152–154, 155, 156–157, 165–171 models, 8, 139–148, 185–194 small enterprises, 11, 139–140, 141, 142 technology transfer, 8, 9, 62, 69–72, 77, 139, 143–144, 151–209 databases, 9, 69, 83, 84, 85, 90, 92–93, 143–144 document management systems, 59, 72 DuPont, 7, 81–86 extranets, 72, 74, 84 intranets, 22, 59, 72, 74, 83, 84, 90, 157, 158 outsourcing, 4, 63, 73, 75, 76, 89

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Information Systems and the Environment Rhône-Poulenc, 7, 87–93 standards, 11, 59–60, 176 best practice technology, 11, 62, 69, 70, 89, 106, 118, 120, 133, 134, 196 chemical industry, 82, 83, 89, 90, 91 supply-chain design, 116, 117, 120, 131–133, 135 Cost and cost-effectiveness factors, 4 automobiles, fuel efficiency/air quality regulations, 152 chemical sector, process redesign, 88–90 regulatory compliance, 81, 117, 118 supply-chain factors, 123 energy technologies, 32 historical perspectives, 28, 142–143 information density of an economy, 34, 38 information sharing, 141, 142–143, 147 intellectual property, 6, 53–54 liability, environmental damage, 117–120, 122, 124, 125, 126, 129, 134, 135, 178 intellectual property, 6, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54–55 product design, knowledge-sharing, 95, 96, 97, 98, 102 recycling, modular design for, 105, 107, 108 public access to information, 176 regulatory compliance, 81, 117, 118, 134 substitution of information for energy/ materials, 5, 32 supply-chain design, 117–118, 121, 122–124, 129, 134 Court cases, see Litigation D Database Investment and Intellectual Property Antipiracy Act, 49–50 Databases, 140, 158 see also Knowledge-management systems CD-ROM, 7, 36, 38, 41, 45, 83, 84, 157 corporate-level actions, 9, 69, 83, 84, 85, 90, 92–93, 143–144 distributed data systems, 9, 10, 18, 28, 147, 160, 180, 185 Global System for Sustainable Development, 10, 196–209 InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–171 Environmental Data Exchange Network, 9, 160, 165–171 expert systems, 83, 84 government agency collaboration, 9, 69, 143–144 information density of an economy, 36 InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–171 intellectual property issues, 6, 45–55, 144, 146–147, 155 Internet access, general, 26–27 Internet access software, 9, 159–171 browsers, 9, 18, 72, 145, 163, 171, 198, 200 privacy and confidentiality, 52–53 public access, 9, 85, 173–194 de Geus, Arie, 33 Decision-making systems, 1 corporate-level, 59, 60, 76, 78 see also Product design peer review, 11 public access to information, 174 simulation models for information sharing, 142 Department of Defense, 156 Environmental Data Exchange Network, 9, 160, 165–171 Department of Energy Environmental Data Exchange Network, 9, 160, 165–171 Design of products, see Product design Diffusion of technology, see Intellectual property; Technology transfer Distributed data systems, 9, 10, 18, 28, 147, 160, 180, 185 Global System for Sustainable Development, 10, 196–209 InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–171 Document management systems, 59, 72, 74 Downsizing, 76, 77 DuPont, 7, 81–96 Dutch Management Network, 77 E Eagan, Patrick, 9, 173–184, 213 Ecological approaches, 2–4, 5, 11 see also Biodiversity; Wildlife industrial ecology, 2–6, 13–55, 116 intellectual property rights, 45–55 supply-chain design, 116–135 sustainability, 15–43

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Information Systems and the Environment Economic factors, 33 see also Globalization; Intellectual property downsizing, 76, 77 GDP, 32, 34, 37 GNP, Japan, 31 incentive-based approaches, 1, 74, 75 information density, 34–41 Internet, 10, 195, 197 liability, environmental damage, 117–120, 122, 124, 125, 126, 129, 134, 135, 178 intellectual property, 6, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54–55 market forces, 19, 20, 26, 33, 34, 67, 96, 115, 139 see also Globalization intellectual property, 6, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 53–55 recycling, modular design for, 105 regional development initiatives, 72 service sector, general, 3, 22, 24, 25, 33 supply-chain design, 122–128 Economic Policy Advisory Board, 33 Education consumer, 67, 69, 70 corporate personnel, in-house efforts, 78, 88, 90, 91, 106 intellectual property protection and professional, 50 mass media, 81, 185–187, 189–190 public access, 9, 11, 85, 173–194 Educational attainment information density of an economy, 38–39 Electronics industry see also Computer technology, general GDP, 37, 38 information density of an economy, 39, 40 product life cycle, 21–22 publishing, 27, 35 semiconductors, 4, 21 sensor technology, 4, 21, 128 automobiles, 16, 17, 18, 19 intelligent vehicle highway system, 46–47, 48, 49, 51 E-mail, 19, 72, 75 collaborations, 156 information density of the economy, 34, 40 software upgrades, 26 Employment and employees see also Occupational health and safety chemical sector, 81, 83, 87, 92 education, in-house effects, 78, 88, 90, 91, 106 incentives, 74, 75 information density of an economy, 39–40 knowledge management, 74, 75, 76–77 service sector, 24 small manufacturing enterprises, 139–140 telecommuting, 5, 77 Energy conservation and efficiency, 4 automobiles, 15–16, 152 chemical sector, 82, 83 semiconductor manufacturing, 21 Energy consumption, 1, 3, 4, 11, 32 substitution of information for, 28, 32 Energy Information Administration, 32 Energy Policy Act, 124 Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 15 EnviroArts, 193 EnviroLink Network, 59, 192–194 Environmental Data Exchange Network, 9, 160, 165–171 see also InfoSleuth™ Environmental Defense Fund, 72 Environmental management systems, 130–133 Environmental Protection and Community Right-to-Know Act, 85 Environmental Protection Agency, 128, 136(n.6), 156 Environmental Data Exchange Network, 9, 160, 165–171 public access to information, 174–183 Toxics Release Inventory, 10, 85, 91, 120, 130, 135, 173, 175, 177, 182 Europe electronics industry, 22 intellectual property, 49–50, 52, 53 privacy rights, 52 supply-chain design standards, 132 Expert systems, 83, 84 Externalities, 36 Extranets, 72, 74, 84 F Fact System (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources), 174, 175, 178, 179, 181 Feedback systems automobiles, 15, 19 Internet information sharing, 186, 191 supply chain, 8, 117, 119, 127, 129–130, 140

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Information Systems and the Environment sustainability, 196 within firms, 8, 59, 117, 119, 127, 129–130 Feist Publications Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co., 47, 50 Financial sector, 3, 25, 26, 33, 34, 67, 96, 115, 139 Foreign relations and trade, see International perspectives Fowler, Jerry, 9, 159–171, 213–214 Freedom of Information Act, 179 G GDP, see Gross domestic product General Dynamics Information Systems, 9 Geographic information systems, 177 Global Partnership on Cyberspace for Sustainability, 197, 208, 209 Global positioning system, 18 Global System for Sustainable Development, 10, 196–209 Globalization, 5, 9, 19, 21, 33, 34, 41, 67, 77, 96, 105 databases, 46, 47, 50, 51, 53–54 information sharing, 139–148, 195–209 Internet information sharing, 185–209 (passim) Government role, 20, 25, 69, 71 see also Europe; Legal issues; Legislation; Regulatory issues; specific U.S. departments and agencies collaborative efforts, 8, 9, 62, 69, 70, 71, 73, 143–144, 146, 152–154, 155, 156–157 Environmental Data Exchange Network, 9, 160, 165–171 public access to information, 9, 85, 173–184 Graedel, Thomas, 7, 95–103, 214 Greenhouse gases, 83 see also Climate change carbon monoxide, 16 Green technology, 3–4, 19, 20 chemical sector, 83 consumer education, 67 Gross domestic product, 32 information density of an economy, 34, 37 Gross national product Japan, 31 Groupware, 72 H Health issues, see Human health issues Heim, Joseph, 8, 139–148, 214 Heptinstall, James, 7, 74, 87–93, 214 Historical perspectives, 1, 4, 22, 23, 24, 27–33, 115–116, 134 automobile industry, 1, 2, 15–16, 151–154 chemicals sector, 81, 87 computer technologies, general, 27–29 information density of an economy, 36, 37, 40 information sharing, 142, 185–186 Internet publishing, 27 Internet use levels, 195 memory chip capacity, 27 product design, 115–116, 142 service sector, 22, 24, 25 Human health issues, 10, 127, 195–196 accidents, industrial, 85, 92, 93, 117–118 automobile safety, 16, 152, 153 chemicals sector, 85, 87–93 (passim) industrial ecology, 19, 20 occupational health and safety chemicals sector, 83, 87, 92–93, 119 Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 92–93, 119, 135 supply-chain factors, 119, 121 Toxics Release Inventory, 10, 85, 91, 120, 130, 135, 173, 175, 177, 182 I Incentive-based approaches, 1, 74, 75 Industry Cooperative for Ozone Layer Protection, 69, 71 InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–171 Intellectual property, 6, 45–55, 144, 146–147, 155 see also Technology transfer chemicals sector, pollution prevention, 85 European Union law, 49–50, 52, 53 knowledge management, 75, 76 licensing of, 6, 45–46, 54, 144, 146–147 public access to information, 9, 85, 173–184 small enterprises, 140 time factors, patent applications, 6, 47 trade secrets, 6, 47–48, 85 International News Service v. Associated Press, 48–49 International Organization for Standardization, 116, 134, 135, 174

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Information Systems and the Environment environmental management systems, 131–133 International perspectives, 32, 188–189 see also Europe; Globalization; Internet; Japan automobile industry, collaboration, 151–152 communications, 28, 30–31 databases, intellectual property, 49–50, 52, 53 privacy rights, 52–53 electronics industry, 22 knowledge management, 69, 71, 73 Internet, 9–10, 26–27, 59, 72, 185–209 (passim) see also E-mail Art on the Internet, 193 automobiles linked to, 18–19 browsers, 9, 18, 72, 145, 163, 171, 198, 200 chemicals sector, 84 consumer information, 69 database access software, 9 economic factors, 8, 26, 27 EnviroLink Network, 59 feedback systems, 186, 191 globalization and information sharing, 185–209 (passim) income from e-commerce, U.S., 195 information density of an economy, 34, 40 information pollution, 34, 189–190 InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–171 intellectual property issues, 45, 48 misinformation, 189–191 number of users, 195 Program on Technology and Sustainable Development, publications , 11(n.1) public access issues, 9, 85, 173–194 software distribution, 8, 26, 27 software for access, 9, 159–171 browsers, 9, 18, 72, 145, 163, 171, 198, 200 sustainability, 10, 195–196 telecommuting, 5, 77 Intranets, 22, 59, 72, 74, 83, 84, 90, 157, 158 Inventory techniques, 4, 85 see also Supply-chain factors Ishii, Kosuke, 7, 105–113, 214–215 J Japan, 11, 31 automobile industry, 151 communication, 31 electronics industry, 22, 31 recycling, design for, 107 Just-in-time inventories, 4, 85 K Kabjian, Michael, 5, 7, 59–79, 215 Killgoar, Paul Jr., 8–9, 151–158, 215–216 Kleindorfer, Paul, 8, 115–138, 216 Knauer, Joshua, 9, 185–194, 216 Knowledge-management systems, 1, 5 see also Intellectual property corporate-level, 2, 6–7, 59, 60–78 chemical sector, DuPont, 7, 81–86, 91–92 sustainable development, 2, 195–209 Global System for Sustainable Development, 10, 196–209 trade secrets, 6, 47–48, 85 L Language factors, human, 162, 197, 200, 204–205 Languages, computer, 143, 208 object-oriented programming, 144–145, 147 query, 159 Legal issues, 2, 76 see also Intellectual property; Regulatory issues liability, environmental damage, 117–120, 122, 124, 125, 126, 129, 134, 135, 178 intellectual property, 6, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54–55 litigation, intellectual property rights, 45, 47–49, 50 Legislation acid deposition (Wisconsin Acid Rain Law), 175 Clean Air Act, 120–121, 137(n.16), 152 Clean Water Act, 179 Collections of Information Antipiracy Act, 50–51 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 119 Cooperative Research and Development Act, 152, 153 Copyright Act, 47, 49

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Information Systems and the Environment Database Investment and Intellectual Property Antipiracy Act, 49–50 Energy Policy Act, 124 Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 15 Environmental Protection and Community Right-to-Know Act, 85 Freedom of Information Act, 179 intellectual property, 46, 47–48, 49–51, 53, 54 National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act, 153, 154 National Cooperative Research and Production Act, 153 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, 120 Technology Transfer Act, 152, 153 Liability environmental damage, 117–120, 122, 124, 125, 126, 129, 134, 135, 178 intellectual property, 6, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54–55 Liebl, David, 9, 173–184, 217 Life cycle, see Product life cycle Litigation, intellectual property rights, 45, 47–49, 50 M Manufacturing sector, 3, 4, 11(n.1), 24, 65, 139 see also Automobile industry; Chemicals sector; Electronics industry; Materials management and use; Product design; Product life cycle; Recycling of waste materials; Supply-chain factors accidents, industrial, 85, 92, 93, 117–118, 129–130 automobile industry, 5, 15–19 knowledge-sharing, 95–103, 139–148 process control, 4, 8, 75, 83, 87–93, 95–96, 99, 107, 116–117 small and medium-sized enterprises, 11, 71, 132–133, 139–140, 141, 142 Martin, William, 5–6, 45–55, 217 Mass media, 81, 185–187, 189–190 see also Internet Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 208 Material Safety Data Sheets, 92–93, 119 Materials management and use, 1–2, 3, 4–5, 7, 11, 67, 95, 100, 106–107 see also Inventory; Recycling of waste materials; Waste management intellectual property issues, 46 packaging, 65, 67, 82, 99, 121, 128 product design, 7, 99, 100 substitution of services for products, 5, 22, 26, 28, 32–33 Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–172 Microsoft, 33 Models and modeling, 4, 9 information density of an economy, 34–36 information sharing and collaboration, 185–194 simulations, 8, 139–148 N National Basketball Ass’n v. Motorola, Inc., 49 National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act, 153, 154 National Cooperative Research and Production Act, 153 National Institute of Standards and Technology Environmental Data Exchange Network, 9, 160, 165–171 NCR Corporation, 9 Networks, computer, 9, 10, 18, 22, 41, 72, 93, 143, 146, 159–172 see also Internet distributed data systems, 9, 10, 18, 28, 147, 160, 180, 185 Global System for Sustainable Development, 10, 196–209 InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–171 EnviroLink, 59 extranets, 72, 74, 84 intranets, 22, 59, 72, 74, 83, 84, 90, 157, 158 O Object-oriented programming, 144–145, 147 Occupational health and safety chemicals sector, 83, 87, 92–93, 119 supply-chain factors, 119, 121 Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 135 Material Safety Data Sheets, 92–93, 119 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 41 Outsourcing, 4, 63, 73, 75, 76, 89

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Information Systems and the Environment P Packaging, 65, 67, 82, 99, 121, 128 Patent and Trademark Office, 47 Patents, see Intellectual property Peer review, 11, 62, 63, 73 Performance metrics, 11(n.1), 135 Pitts, Greg, 9, 159–171, 217 Plug-and-play software, 8, 143 Privacy and confidentiality, 52–53 see also Trade secrets Process control, 4, 8, 75 chemical sector, 83, 87–93 knowledge-sharing, 95–96, 99 recycling, design for, 107 supply-chain design, 116–117 ProCD, Inc. v. Zeidenberg, 45 Product design, 4, 7–8, 11, 63, 64, 65, 115–116 see also Supply-chain factors automobiles, 17, 18, 152 chemical sector, 83, 84, 86 computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, 4, 17, 18, 100, 153 cost and cost-effectiveness factors, knowledge-sharing, 95, 96, 97, 98, 102 recycling, modular design for, 105, 107, 108 electronics, general, 21–22 historical perspectives, 115–116, 142 knowledge-sharing, 95, 96–101 materials management and use, 7, 99, 100 recycling factors, 95, 99, 102, 105–113 Product life cycle, 7, 21, 62, 67, 70 see also Recycling of waste materials chemical sector, 83, 84, 86, 89 electronics, 21–22 knowledge-sharing, 96, 97, 100–101, 102 public access to information, 174, 177–178 supply-chain design, 116, 118, 122, 124, 127, 128, 129, 132, 136(n.3), 137(n.13) Public access, 9, 11, 85, 173–194 consumer education, 67, 69, 70 mass media, 81, 185–187, 189–190 Public opinion chemical industry, general, 81 distrust of technology, 75, 135 regulatory issues, 175, 176, 177, 179–181 supply-chain design, public relations, 120–121, 125, 126, 129–130, 135 Q Quality control, 1, 11 see also Standards peer review, 11, 62, 63, 73 performance metrics, 11(n.1), 135 Quality of life, 19, 21, 22, 32 information density of an economy, 34, 35 R Raytheon Systems, 9 Recycling of waste materials, 7, 68, 73, 124, 129 automotive sector, 153 chemical sector, 83, 85, 123 cost-effectiveness, 105, 107, 108 knowledge-sharing, 95, 99, 102 product design, 95, 99, 102, 105–113 time factors, 105–106, 108 Regulatory issues, 10, 11(n.1) see also Intellectual property; Standards automobiles, fuel efficiency/air quality regulations, 152 chemical sector, 81, 88 corporate-level actions, 63 cost of compliance, 81, 117, 118, 134 Global System for Sustainable Development, 197, 200 Material Safety Data Sheets, 92–93, 119 public access to information, 175, 176, 177, 179–181 supply-chain factors, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 125, 127, 126, 128, 134, 135, 177–178 Toxics Release Inventory, 10, 85, 91, 120, 130, 135, 173, 175, 177, 182 Reichman, J.H,, 53 Reverse logistics, 116, 122, 123, 124, 127, 128, 129 Rhône-Poulenc Inc., 7, 87–93 Richards, Deanna, 5, 7, 59–79, 217–218 Rickard, Maurice, 9, 185–194, 218 Romer, Paul, 33 Royal Dutch Shell, 33 S Samuelson, Pamela, 53 Schlumberger, 9

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Information Systems and the Environment Semiconductors, 4, 21, 27 information density of an economy, 40, 41 Sensor technology, 4, 21, 128 automobiles, 16, 17, 18, 19 intelligent vehicle highway system, 46–47, 48, 49, 51 Service sector, 1, 3, 22, 25, 26, 67–69, 76 see also Outsourcing; Transportation services consumer education, 67, 69 financial sector, 3, 25, 26, 33, 34, 67, 96, 115, 139 product support, 66, 70 substitution of services for products, 5, 22, 26, 28, 32–33 Small and medium-sized enterprises information sharing and collaboration, 11, 139–140, 141, 142 supply-chain design standards, 132–133 technical assistance, 71 Snir, Eli, 8, 115–138, 218 Social factors. 3, 11, 195, 196 see also Human health; Occupational health and safety corporate relations, 2, 10 Global System for Sustainable Development, 10, 196–209 language factors, human, 162, 197, 200, 204–205 public access to information, 9, 11, 85, 173–184, 189 Software, 8, 9, 23, 26 collaborative knowledge sharing, 157 corporate-level knowledge sharing, 59 groupware, 72 information density of an economy, 38, 39–40, 41 Internet database access, 9, 159–171 browsers, 9, 18, 72, 145, 163, 171, 198, 200 Internet distribution of, 8, 26, 27 languages, 143, 144–145, 146, 147, 159, 208 object-oriented programming, 144–145, 147 plug-and-play, 8, 143 Soil pollution, 2, 128, 177 Solid waste, 2 see also Materials management and use; Recycling of waste materials Standards, 1, 2, 11 American National Standards Institute, 176 corporate-level, 11, 59–60, 176 best practice technology, 11, 62, 69, 70, 89, 106, 118, 120, 133, 134, 196 chemical industry, 82, 83, 89, 90, 91 supply-chain design, 116, 117, 120, 131–133, 135 environmental management systems, 131–133 industrial classifications (SIC), 22, 24–25 information density of an economy, 36–41 International Organization of Standardization, 116, 131–133, 134, 135, 174 plug-and-play software, 143 quality of life, 19, 21, 22, 32, 34, 35 recycling, modular design for, 106, 107 Stanford University, 106, 112 Sun Microsystems, 27 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, 120 Supply-chain factors, 8, 18, 62, 66–67, 68, 102, 115–138, 158 see also Inventory techniques cost-effectiveness, 117–118, 121, 122–124, 129, 134 feedback systems, 8, 117, 119, 127, 129–130, 140 inventory techniques, 4, 85 occupational health and safety, 119, 121 product life cycle, 116, 118, 122, 124, 127, 128, 129, 132, 136(n.3), 137(n.13) public access to information, 174, 177–178 public relations, 120–121, 125, 126, 129–130, 135 regulatory issues, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 125, 127, 126, 128, 134, 135, 177–178 reverse logistics, 116, 122, 123, 124, 127, 128, 129 small enterprises, standards, 132–133 standards, 116, 117, 120, 131–133, 135 transportation factors, 121, 123–124, 128 waste management, 121–122, 124 Sustainability, 2, 5, 15–43 global, 10, 195–210 information density of an economy, 34 Internet applications, 10, 195–196 Sustainable Business Network, 192–193

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Information Systems and the Environment T Technical assistance, 71 Technology transfer, 7, 8–10, 11(n.1), 71, 84–85, 88, 139–148 see also Intellectual property corporate-level, 5, 7, 59, 69, 71, 78, 84–85, 88, 95–103; see also Knowledge management collaborative efforts, 8, 9, 62, 69–72, 77, 139, 143–144, 151–209 global sustainability, 10, 195–209 InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–171 public access, 9, 85, 173–194 historical perspectives, 22 Internet, 9, 26–27, 159–171, 185–194 product life cycle, 96, 97, 100–101, 102 Technology Transfer Act, 152 Telecommuting, 5, 77 Texas Instruments, 9 Time factors see also Produce life cycle competition, 115, 139 database property protections, 6 information density of an economy, 40 intellectual property protection, 50, 52–53 just-in-time inventory, 4, 85 knowledge management, 77 patent applications, 6, 47 recycling, modular design for, 105–106, 108 Torts, see Liability Toxic materials, 10 see also Chemicals sector Toxics Release Inventory, 10, 85, 91, 120, 130, 135, 173, 175, 177, 182 Trade secrets, 6, 47–48, 85 Transportation services, 3, 5, 24, 70 see also Automobile industry chemical industry, tankers, 82 intelligent vehicle highway system, 46–47, 48, 49, 51 just-in-time inventories, 4, 85 supply-chain design, 121, 123–124, 128 TRW, 9 U United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, 197 United States Council for Automotive Research, 154, 155, 156 University research, 5, 51, 53, 72, 105, 106, 113, 116, 139, 143–144, 146, 155, 208 V Volatile organic compounds, 16 W Waste management, 2, 33, 67 see also Recycling of waste materials chemical sector, 83, 84–85 intellectual property issues, 46 packaging, 65, 67, 82, 99, 121, 128 substitution of services for products, 5, 22, 26, 28, 32–33 supply-chain design, 121–122, 124 Water pollution, 2, 177 acid deposition, 175 chemical industry, 82 Clean Water Act, 179 supply-chain factors, 128 Wiese, Lynda, 9, 173–184, 218 Wildlife chemical industry, 82, 86 habitat loss and, biodiversity, 2, 11 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 174, 175, 178, 179, 181, 182 World Intellectual Property Organization, 50 World Wide Web, see Internet Z Zeidenberg, Michael, 45