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Information Systems and the Environment Improving Environmental Knowledge Sharing DEANNA J. RICHARDS and MICHAEL R. KABJIAN Evidence suggests that information for environmental management purposes is being collected and stored at a rapid pace. The number of commercially available environmental data management programs grew from 200 in 1984 to well over 2,000 in 1996 (Donely, 1997). An analysis of several U.S. chemical companies identified as many as 80 distinct software applications and tools per company to manage environmental information (Kabjian, 1996). Over 40,000 environmentally related Internet sites are accessible through the EnviroLink Network, “the largest online environmental information resource on the planet” (Knauer, 1997). Information technology is enabling the capture, storage, and use of data in ways unimagined previously. Tools such as intranets and document management systems enable firms to achieve new levels of information management, collaboration, and knowledge sharing, and facilitate decision-making processes by providing fundamental support for standard work practices. These trends bolster the argument made by leading management thinkers that the manufacturing, service, and information sectors will be based on knowledge in the future, and that business organizations will evolve into knowledge creators in many ways. Drucker (1993) suggests that one of the most important challenges for every organization in the knowledge society is to build systematic practices for managing a self-transformation.
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Information Systems and the Environment This paper explores how systematic practices in the use of information technologies are enabling organizations to use knowledge to improve their environ mental performance. CAPTURING ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE The availability of a wide range of timely, relevant information plays an important role in environmental decision making. In managing and designing for the environment, information needs to run the gamut from the simple (e.g., emissions data and inventory information) through the more contextual (e.g., best practices and performance metrics), and then to the complex (e.g., life-cycle assessment and supplier-chain management) and the daunting (e.g., societal and equity considerations of sustainable development). Effective decision making depends on the appropriate data, information, and knowledge being brought to bear on a problem. However, each of these inputs has a different role in supporting the decision-making process. Recognizing the distinctions between data, information, and knowledge—not always an easy task—is crucial to developing management approaches that leverage their relative values. The fictional scenario depicted in Box 1 illustrates these distinctions: Data are obtained by observing and documenting facts; information is obtained by analyzing and processing data; and knowledge requires cognition, experience, and understanding. This simplistic hierarchy is shown in Figure 1. The examples of environmental data, information, and knowledge shown in Box 2 illustrate some of the difficulties associated with managing information BOX 1 Data, Information, Knowledge, and Environmental Improvement Jane Q.Green, an employee of WEBEGREEN, Inc., has been asked to recommend ways to improve the environmental performance of a certain manufacturing process. She starts by collecting emissions and operating data for the process— an important task. She analyzes the information and learns what is being emitted and how efficient the process is. She then talks with the people who directly manage the process to hear their insights. She also reviews descriptions of previous attempts to improve the environmental performance of the process. She contacts colleagues within the company and other professionals she knows who deal with similar processes. She develops innovative solutions. She receives the company’s environmental award. Her immediate supervisor now fears that Jane may be in line for his job. Meanwhile, WEBEGREEN’s vice president for environment, health, and safety wishes she could clone Jane to replicate her efforts elsewhere in the many other plants the firm operates!
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Information Systems and the Environment FIGURE 1 Decision hierarchy. and knowledge. Because information is codifiable (e.g., data and decision or design criteria), information sharing involves the relatively simple process of transmission either through documentation or verbal communication. Knowledge sharing, on the other hand, requires contextual understanding (i.e., it is not BOX 2 Environmental Data, Information, and Knowledge Examples of Data Criteria for air pollutant emissions Toxics Release Inventory reports Chemical and physical properties of materials Examples of Information Operating and production rates Energy and materials efficiencies Environmental performance metrics Process models showing how planned modifications will affect performance Examples of Knowledge Ideas and strategies to enhance product or packaging composition or design Descriptions of past successes and failures in design for environment Best-practice guidelines for pollution prevention and waste minimization
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Information Systems and the Environment codifiable) and is open to interpretation (i.e., it is not articulated easily). Improvements in capturing and managing knowledge in the environmental sphere represent an unexplored opportunity in making improvements in business performance. Although information management practices in many organizations have a long history and are evolving rapidly, knowledge management practices are somewhat less developed. For example, Current knowledge transfer is haphazard in most instances, and there are few tools to support it. Knowledge within organizations is scattered, and effective collaboration and knowledge sharing occur inconsistently. Institutional memory is short. Very little knowledge is captured and retained for future use. As a result, the same problems are addressed repeatedly by different individuals. In some situations, not being encumbered by history can bring fresh approaches, but in most situations, learning from past experience can be beneficial. In the case of environmental improvement, vast amounts of information and knowledge have been generated, and many lessons have been learned from successes and failures in addressing environmental concerns. Learning has not been lost—it can be found in best-practice manuals and textbooks, on the Internet, in anecdotes and conference proceedings, and in the memories of people who have worked on the issues. Given the rapid advances in information technology, the key is to more effectively manage and use this information and knowledge. MANAGING ENVIRONMENTALLY RELATED INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE The opportunities to improve and apply knowledge management are many, and they cross traditional organizational boundaries. Such opportunities may exist throughout a firm’s organizational structure (design, manufacturing, environmental, legal, purchasing, accounting, marketing, sales, distribution, customer service, public relations, etc.) upstream of operations along the supply chain or life cycle of a product, involving the various suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, customers, and recyclers downstream of operations in terms of customer and consumer relations in collaborations among the numerous stakeholders, including industry associations, industry peers, government agencies, environmental interest groups, and academia The objectives and approaches are different in each instance, and certain components of information and knowledge may cut across the four areas described
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Information Systems and the Environment above, but each is relatively distinct within the stakeholder organizations involved (see Figure 2). Internal Opportunities Opportunities for effective management of environmental information and knowledge are apparent in a typical firm’s operations. In many instances, broad multifunctional teams are called upon to use various knowledge-sharing tools for work related to compliance, product design, production operations, marketing, response to regulatory initiatives, etc. Figure 3 illustrates techniques that may be used to gather and share knowledge at various stages of product development. Figure 4 shows examples of tools used to support information sharing among various manufacturing functions and the types of questions or concerns that may lead to knowledge sharing across work functions. The tools used to support knowledge management should be designed to meet the varied objectives and diverse backgrounds of team participants who may perform various functions throughout the firm. The tools must be able to capture and translate knowledge derived from projects and other activities and make it available to others within the organization for use in their activities. FIGURE 2 Scope of information sharing from the corporate perspective.
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Information Systems and the Environment FIGURE 3 Knowledge sharing at various stages of product and project development.
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Information Systems and the Environment FIGURE 4 Knowledge sharing internal to an organization: product design, manufacturing, and packaging.
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Information Systems and the Environment Upstream and with the Supply Chain Today, many firms engaged in the production cycle are more likely to add value to complex production functions by providing services—such as better design, marketing, and distribution capabilities (all information and knowledge value-added activities)—rather than by actually making products. Actual manufacturing is more likely to be accomplished through complex and diverse supplier chains that span the globe. Recent advances in transportation and information technologies have made this model the norm of production functions. To meet production goals, companies have to leverage these techniques, making the complex web of upstream supplier-chain activities operate as one seamless unit. Two other classes of participants are also part of the upstream process: users and customers, who, through their purchasing decisions and patterns, which often are monitored, can help to fine-tune production runs or product requirements. As companies take on responsibility for the environmental impacts of the products they market, the supplier chain that they manage may include recyclers and remanufacturers (who are traditionally thought of as “downstreamers” but who may also supply recycled materials or components). The wide array of stakeholders upstream in the production function makes the transfer of knowledge daunting. Successful management of this process provides numerous opportunities to identify and exercise options for improving performance, particularly environmental efficiencies. Participants in the process and potential applications of supplier-chain knowledge sharing are shown in Box 3. BOX 3 Potential Participants and Applications of Upstream Knowledge Management Potential Upstream Participants Suppliers of materials and equipment Manufacturers Providers of outsourced manufacturing and related services Distributors Immediate users End users, consumers Recyclers, remanufacturers Potential Upstream Applications Supplier evaluation discussions—exchanging evaluations of suppliers and providing direct lines of communication to articulate supplier/customer needs Customer information and feedback Collaborative development initiatives Use of emerging applications of electronic data interchange standards to transfer data more seamlessly between organizations Information exchanges that bring suppliers and customers together
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Information Systems and the Environment At each stage of the product life cycle, stakeholders may exchange knowledge on how to more effectively use, handle, dispose of, or remanufacture a product or material. Effective knowledge transfer along the supply chain can lead to changes in the material composition, in the product design to enable more effective remanufacture, and in the packaging to reduce waste. Figure 5 shows the tools used to support information sharing among the supply-chain players and the types of questions or concerns that may lead to knowledge sharing across functions. Information technology is likely to play an increasingly important role as an enabler of knowledge management; of more effective communication; and of collaboration across organizational lines, borders, and time zones. Downstream and the Consumers Downstream factors in complex production operations take on greater significance when services—as distinguished from manufacturing, natural resource industries, and agriculture—are factored into the discussion of knowledge management. Accounting for 60 percent of output and employment (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1996), industries in the service sector provide fundamental economic and societal functions such as transportation, banking and finance, health care, public utilities, retail, wholesale, education, and entertainment. The companies in this sector (e.g., Wal-Mart, Kmart, Target) have great leverage on upstream activities through their merchandise purchasing, in providing food service and delivery (e.g., McDonalds), through their use of logistics and distribution channels to deliver packages [e.g., United Parcel Service (UPS), Federal Express (FedEx)], through the management of hospitals and hotels (e.g., Marriott), in providing health management services (e.g., HMOs), and in providing entertainment (e.g., Busch Gardens, Disney theme parks). Because companies in this sector also interact with a large consumer base, they are a source of knowledge about consumer preferences downstream in the production-consumption system, and they can play a critical role in conveying environmental information to consumers. The upstream leverage that service firms have on manufacturers is quite evident. As purchasing agents for millions of consumers, these companies exert tremendous leverage over their suppliers by creating markets for environmental improvement. Their downstream influence is yet to be tapped fully. These service firms, to be successful, must be very close to their consumers, and several companies in this sector provide their consumers with environmental information. For example, Starbucks provides information about their environmental practices; Home Depot provides “green” products next to more common brands; and some hotels provide guests with the option to change hotel sheets or towels less frequently to conserve resources. Firms that provide this sort of consumer education also provide early insights into consumer tastes, preferences, and regional buying habits.
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Information Systems and the Environment FIGURE 5 Knowledge sharing along the supply chain.
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Information Systems and the Environment Many firms in the service sector, and indeed most industrial operations, are also providing environmental education and information about their practices via the World Wide Web. Knowledge sharing (including validation of claims) is an untapped information and knowledge management challenge that involves collaborating beyond the firm with educators, environmental groups, risk communicators, consumer advocates, graphic designers, and information organizers. Box 4 shows potential participants in knowledge sharing in downstream production activities. Figure 6 shows tools used to support information sharing among downstream players and the types of questions or concerns that may lead to knowledge sharing across functions. Collaborations Always dependent on information and knowledge sharing, the success or failure of a collaboration depends on a common understanding of the project’s objectives and the establishment of trust among collaborators. Information management systems cannot solve these concerns but they can facilitate collaborative efforts for a wide range of objectives. Figure 7 shows examples of questions that may be addressed by an industry group or consortium. Collaborations are often initiated to address specific concerns: Technology development and diffusion. The Industry Cooperative for Ozone Layer Protection is one prominent example of an industry BOX 4 Potential Participants and Applications for Downstream Knowledge Management Potential Downstream Participants General public and consumers Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and consumer groups Government agencies Retailers (e.g., Wal-Mart, QVC) Food and beverage suppliers (e.g., restaurants, grocery stores) Distribution services (e.g., FedEx, UPS) Potential Downstream Applications Consumer information databases containing environmentally related product and service information Educational and awareness-building materials (e.g., brochures, courses, projects, games) Best-practice knowledge databases and discussion forums—exchange information between downstream service providers, government, and NGOs Public discussion forums—exchange information between consumers, government, companies, and others
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Information Systems and the Environment FIGURE 6 Knowledge sharing in the downstream product life cycle (service delivery).
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Information Systems and the Environment FIGURE 7 Opportunities for collaboration. collaboration that developed alternatives to the use of ozone-depleting solvents for cleaning electronic components. The leaders of the group, AT&T and Northern Telecom, were industry competitors. Their collaboration brought other companies in the electronics industry together to work on sharing information about alternative technologies. Meant to be a “skunk works” operation, the collaborators worked on technologies that were critical to their firms’ operations but that were not key to their market competition. The group also developed an electronic system to share the information they generated. Collaboration among related companies or competitors in the same industry is not rare, and it can fundamentally change the way a business operates. Such collaborations often occur through industry groups and consortia that are intermediary agents in sharing knowledge. Examples of such intermediaries include the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, and the United States Council for Automotive Research. Technical assistance. At the state level, information exchange is critical to enhancing environmental improvement in small and medium-size companies. This information is often garnered with the assistance of universities, environmental groups, and others.
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Information Systems and the Environment Partnerships for innovations in environmental management and design. These partnerships are modeled on the experiment between McDonald’s and the Environmental Defense Fund which resulted in McDonald’s reengineering its processes to substitute paper wrapping for clamshell packing of its food. Regional economic development. Regional planning efforts often blend economic and environmental concerns to arrive at a consensus. They also can entail an assessment of regional environmental performance. Collaborations based on these issues involve industry, government, academia, and public-interest groups. Fulfilling research agendas. Whether the issues are global (e.g., global climate change) or local (e.g., water quality), university researchers, environmental groups, government agencies, and industrial firms are key players in defining the problems and arriving at solutions. Figure 8 illustrates the links among various stakeholders and the potential collaborations that could address specific functional needs. HARNESSING INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TO MANAGE KNOWLEDGE There are many technologies that support knowledge management. Examples of common information technology tools that are used to manage environmental knowledge include: Data management. Relational database management systems and their associated data management tools provide the ability to store, extract, and analyze large quantities of data arranged in a tabular format. Document management systems. These systems are used to store text, images, and other types of electronic documents so that they can be more easily searched and retrieved. This provides the ability to create a common repository of documents that is widely accessible and not limited to one location. Groupware and collaborative applications. Software applications such as Lotus Notes and Novell Group Wise® can include functionality for e-mail, bulletin boards, group scheduling, conferencing, document management, and workflow management. These technologies can help users to work collaboratively and exchange numerous forms of data, information, and knowledge. Networking, intranets, extranets, and the Internet. This is a broad set of software and hardware technologies that allows computers to connect and share information. The most widely known applications for communications are e-mail and Web browsers (e.g., Netscape Navigator™).
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Information Systems and the Environment FIGURE 8 Overlapping roles in knowledge sharing.
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Information Systems and the Environment Intranets often involve the use of Web browsers to transfer information within an organization; extranets extend the reach beyond the organization’s walls but still limit access, and the Internet can provide general, worldwide access. Information retrieval. Data miners, intelligent agents, spiders, gophers, and other tools help to retrieve useful tidbits from ever-growing repositories of information. From Web search engines to complex classification systems, these tools help us identify the most relevant data, information, and knowledge for a range of needs. These technologies are key enablers, but their successful use depends on their ability to support the framework and culture within an organization. To implement these technologies successfully, it is important to know the roles of different organizational groups, how work is performed, and how information flows between groups. The technologies used to manage environmental knowledge are only as good as the organizational structure that supports the work processes through clear roles and responsibilities. The policies, procedures, and guidelines that identify the goals, expectations, and suggested practices within an organization must be clearly articulated and known; only then can the systems and tools that support the framework and culture be successful. As Heptinstall (this volume) shows, implementing a successful environmental information system requires an understanding of the following steps: Setting goals. Determining the environmental goals of a company is the first step in defining the information that needs to be managed. Information management goals for environmental regulatory compliance are going to be different than those for business practices for sustainable development. Defining processes. Defining the processes used to generate, retrieve, use, and share information can help to determine the needed infrastructure. Installing the infrastructure. Computers and communications technologies will be the largest and most expensive portion of the infrastructure. However, there are also noninformation technology aspects to be considered, such as human networks and knowledge-transfer processes. Motivating and providing rewards. Attempts to improve information sharing are doomed to failure unless people are encouraged to share. Policies and cultural environments that reward and encourage information hoarding should be revisited and replaced with compensation contingent on knowledge-sharing activities. Measuring the results. Measuring results is a difficult task. It is important to attach milestones and feedback mechanisms to information management projects and to document anecdotal evidence that goals are being met.
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Information Systems and the Environment PITFALLS IN FACILITATING INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT It is not unusual to have even the best-laid plans run into difficulty along the way. In the case of implementing an effective information and knowledge management system, difficulties may arise in relation to the following factors: Work process changes. Tools to support knowledge management can require substantial changes to the way a person behaves and performs work. Whether it necessitates communication via e-mail rather than by phone, or referring to electronic documents rather than printed ones, work process changes can be a substantial barrier to success. Tools need to be developed that are compatible with existing, effective work processes. Proactive management of change will be required to improve inefficient work processes and to overcome the traditional resistance to new technologies. Measuring the effects of knowledge management. The inherent value of knowledge management is difficult to quantify or demonstrate and therefore is often ignored. The most substantial portion of an organization’ s knowledge assets, or intellectual capital, is embedded in its people as represented by their skills, experience, and intellect. Although the valuation of more traditional corporate assets such as equipment and infrastructure is well developed, it is much more difficult to quantify the value of knowledge assets, and accordingly, to quantify the benefits of preserving them. Implementation. When implementing a new information system, it is important to focus on how the system supports the use of knowledge in decision making and to avoid the trap of simply collecting knowledge for knowledge’s sake. In building knowledge systems, simply collecting information is insufficient; one has to be smart about how to apply the information as well. Hype and distrust. As is the case in many emerging areas in information technology, there may be more talk than actual practice. As a result, expectations may become distorted and the realized value reduced. Also, fear and distrust are common reactions to the introduction of new technologies. In a survey of management consulting firms—self-proclaimed experts in managing knowledge capital—“less than a quarter of firms in [the] survey said they used the much touted Internet to support” basic knowledge management activities (Reimus, 1997). Hoarding of knowledge. The notion of knowledge as power can run deep, and the practice of hoarding information is well established in many organizations. To encourage the notion of sharing knowledge, firms need to institute appropriate incentives and reward schemes.
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Information Systems and the Environment Bureaucracy of knowledge management. Overly bureaucratic approaches to knowledge management can stifle the creative and collaborative processes. To be successful, knowledge management systems must facilitate work processes and be free of unnecessary encumbrances. Overly technical solutions. A tendency to design approaches that over-emphasize information technology will not satisfy real needs. Advanced technology is of little value if it is difficult to use. Legal issues. Intellectual property and data ownership issues that protect electronic forms of information are examples of legal issues that can hamper knowledge transfer. Also, antitrust concerns can stifle discussions among similar industries working on common solutions. Awareness of these and other issues is important to any knowledge management scheme. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT The more successful organizations at the turn of the century can be characterized as those that use their soft resources—intellectual capital and knowledge—as effectively, if not more so, than they do their hard assets and infrastructure. Indeed, this trend is true in the economy as a whole, where 60 percent of employment and output is in the services sector (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1996). In services as diverse as consulting, retailing, air transportation, hotel management, real estate management, freight transportation, and entertainment, knowledge is a prime commodity. Inputs to production are no longer limited to labor, materials, or capital. Technology and information are equally critical. In addition, the systems used to manage complex enterprises are also information intensive. Finally, the values that are being factored into business decisions are no longer as simple as the notion of profit, but include less tangible factors such as the environment, knowledge, and sustainable development. In addition, there are a number of trends that point to the potential drain of knowledge and the deterioration of organizational memory within corporations. These include Increased corporate outsourcing and contracting. Although outsourcing and contracting can bring in new knowledge from outside corporate boundaries, they can also deplete the internal knowledge base. Design, manufacturing, and environmental services are prime areas where the use of outsourcing can affect environmental efficiencies. This creates a need to enhance knowledge sharing and collaboration across organizational boundaries and with those providing outsourcing and contracting services. Rapid employee turnover, downsizing, and early retirement. These business trends heavily affect both the environmental and the information technology fields. Individual employees can possess vital and almost
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Information Systems and the Environment exclusive knowledge of certain activities within an organization. It can be difficult, if not impossible, to capture the intrinsic value of an employee’s experience and knowledge of the company’s successes and failures. In a survey of 80 organizations conducted by the Dutch Management Network, 80 percent of respondents reported that only one or two persons within their organization had knowledge of critical business processes (Brooking, 1996). In the oil industry it is estimated that downsizing and restructuring have resulted in the loss of over 450,000 person-years of experience in the recent past (Elliot, 1997). Dispersement of the work force through telecommuting and globalization. To accommodate telecommuters and project teams made up of individuals dispersed around the globe, knowledge-sharing techniques must evolve beyond communication that occurs around the water cooler or in a conference room. Barriers caused by distance, time zones, or telecommuting create the need for more effective means of sharing knowledge. Much knowledge sharing is now achieved via electronic communication, which both facilitates and requires more effective knowledge management. Increasing reliance on multifunctional and multiorganizational teams. These teams, or “communities of practice,” break the barriers of departments, companies, and even industries and are focused on functions such as design, logistics, or planning. Because the project efforts are dispersed, these teams require mechanisms that allow the group members to work collaboratively, share information and knowledge, and keep a knowledge base of the group’s experiences. Fast-paced work environments. Even as the need for knowledge management increases, the time needed to build knowledge within an organization is often difficult to muster. It is important to recognize that providing access to relevant knowledge can minimize the loss of time and resources due to covering old ground or reinventing the wheel. As described above, many of today’s changing business trends present challenges to environmental knowledge management. On the other hand, many recent developments provide opportunities for improvements. Improved information and communication technology. The rapid development and deployment of technologies that facilitate collaboration, knowledge capture, and information dissemination provide the technological underpinnings for new knowledge management systems. Increasing experience and sophistication in addressing environmental issues. As environmental efforts have grown in recent decades, so have the related bodies of knowledge and experience, and thus the opportunities to benefit from knowledge management. The complex nature of
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Information Systems and the Environment many environmental issues will further enhance innovation in the field and encourage professionals to collaborate on the interdependent aspects of their work. The growing importance of organizational learning and knowledge management. The management of intellectual capital has become a mainstream idea, aided by books such as The Fifth Discipline (Senge, 1990) and Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of Organizations (Stewart, 1997). Indeed, many companies have created new positions responsible for knowledge management, such as vice president of learning and organizational development (at Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce), director of intellectual asset management (at Dow Chemical), and chief knowledge officer (at Ernst and Young). CONCLUSIONS The appropriate use of data, information, and knowledge is fundamental to improving environmental efficiencies of production and consumption. Whether information transfer occurs within a company, between customers and suppliers, or among competitive organizations in an industry, the management of information is key to the management of environmental efforts. The rapid growth of information technology continues to provide more effective tools to support knowledge management and transfer. New information tools offer much promise, but in and of themselves are not a panacea. The effective management of environmentally related information is brought about not by making available large quantities of information, but by delivering information that is appropriate for the decision-making tasks at hand. Although many efforts to date have focused on data management, substantial opportunities exist to leverage available knowledge to address environmental performance issues. By undertaking a balanced approach that incorporates data, information, and knowledge, we can begin to more effectively support environmental decision-making objectives as well as longer-term sustainable development goals. REFERENCES Brooking, A. 1996. Intellectual Capital: Core Asset for the Third Millennium Enterprise. London: International Thomson Business Press. Donely, E. 1997. Trends in Environmental Management Software. Paper presented at Environment, Health, and Safety Management Information Systems Conference, Washington, D.C., March 11–12. Drucker, P.F. 1993. Post-Capitalist Society. Oxford: Butterworth. Elliot, S. 1997. APQC conference attendees discover the value and enablers of a successful KM program. Center View 5:5–7. Houston, Tex.: American Productivity and Quality Center. Kabjian, M.R. 1996. Current Approaches and Trends for Environmental Compliance Systems. Paper presented at the American Institute of Chemical Engineers Spring Meeting: Celebrating the Parade of Technology, Washington, D.C., February 25–29.
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Information Systems and the Environment Knauer, J. 1997. The EnviroLink network. Personal communication. Reimus, B. 1997. Knowledge Sharing Within Management Consulting Firms. Fitzwilliam, N.H.: Kennedy Publications. Senge, P.M. 1990. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York: Doubleday. Stewart, T.A. 1997. Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of Organizations. New York: Doubleday. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1996. Service Industries and Economic Performance. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Commerce.
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