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The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

This volume has been reviewed according to procedures approved by a National Academy of Engineering report review process. The interpretations and conclusions expressed in the papers are those of the authors and are not presented as the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering.

This activity was undertaken in partnership with the H.John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment.

International Standard Book Number: 0-309-06243-8

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 2001093506

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Cover Art: Untitled (detail) by Maurice Golubov, courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Patricia and Phillip Frost.

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