develop a sound strategy for addressing the nation's environmental problems. Research in the molecular sciences will also have far-ranging effects on many other DOE missions, including energy efficiency and national defense. Also, the new approach to collaborative research embodied in the EMSL—which makes full use of the latest advances in computing and communication technologies—will serve as a model for focusing the country's scientific resources on other vital national issues.


I thank Sunney Xie, Michael Kennedy, David Feller, and Robert Harrison for providing the research material discussed here. I dedicate this paper to the memory of William R. Wiley, for his vision and steadfastness, and to Michael L. Knotek, for teaching us how to identify and cope with the myriad issues in establishing the EMSL. Without them, there would not have been an EMSL.

"Ultimately a hero is a man who would argue with the gods, and so awakens the devils to contest his vision."

(special preface to the 1st Berkeley Edition of The Presidential Papers [1976]). I also dedicate this article to the staff of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, in whose hands the future of the EMSL rests.


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