Index

A

Addiction, 20(n.2), 28, 32, 33-34, 36-38, 119, 120

benefit-cost analyses, 170

DSM-IV, 18, 119

general theory, 40-41

historical perspectives, 9-11

prevalence, 80

substitutes for gambling, 194

treatment, 192, 194, 205, 206-208

withdrawal symptoms, 27, 29, 38, 119, 205, 227, 281

see also Alcohol use and abuse;

Substance use and abuse

Adolescents, 42, 118, 249-250, 256, 257

alcohol abuse, 93-94

American Indians, 116

card games, 85, 88, 140

casino gambling, 88, 283-311 (passim)

criminal behavior, 160

diagnostic tools, 43

gambling machines, 88, 113, 255

lotteries, 88, 140, 250

methodological issues, 85-87, 89, 92-93

onset of gambling, 4, 112, 113-114, 117, 118, 140, 274, 276, 280

peer influences, 117

prevalence, 3, 63, 84-94, 113-114

prevention, 219-220

state by state legislative summary, 285-311

state legal age for gambling, by state, 283-284, 285-311

substance abuse, 93-94, 99-100, 110-111, 117

treatment, 222

urban, 109

Advertising, 38, 214, 216, 219, 247, 249, 307

African Americans, 97, 115-116

Age factors, 3, 108, 110-111, 113-115, 133

cohort effects, 65, 94-95, 108, 110-111

elderly persons, 3-4, 63, 94-95, 114, 250, 251, 253

onset of gambling, 4, 112, 113-114, 117, 131, 138, 142, 274, 276, 280

prevalence, 94-95



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--> Index A Addiction, 20(n.2), 28, 32, 33-34, 36-38, 119, 120 benefit-cost analyses, 170 DSM-IV, 18, 119 general theory, 40-41 historical perspectives, 9-11 prevalence, 80 substitutes for gambling, 194 treatment, 192, 194, 205, 206-208 withdrawal symptoms, 27, 29, 38, 119, 205, 227, 281 see also Alcohol use and abuse; Substance use and abuse Adolescents, 42, 118, 249-250, 256, 257 alcohol abuse, 93-94 American Indians, 116 card games, 85, 88, 140 casino gambling, 88, 283-311 (passim) criminal behavior, 160 diagnostic tools, 43 gambling machines, 88, 113, 255 lotteries, 88, 140, 250 methodological issues, 85-87, 89, 92-93 onset of gambling, 4, 112, 113-114, 117, 118, 140, 274, 276, 280 peer influences, 117 prevalence, 3, 63, 84-94, 113-114 prevention, 219-220 state by state legislative summary, 285-311 state legal age for gambling, by state, 283-284, 285-311 substance abuse, 93-94, 99-100, 110-111, 117 treatment, 222 urban, 109 Advertising, 38, 214, 216, 219, 247, 249, 307 African Americans, 97, 115-116 Age factors, 3, 108, 110-111, 113-115, 133 cohort effects, 65, 94-95, 108, 110-111 elderly persons, 3-4, 63, 94-95, 114, 250, 251, 253 onset of gambling, 4, 112, 113-114, 117, 131, 138, 142, 274, 276, 280 prevalence, 94-95

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--> state by state legislative summary, 285-311 state legal age for gambling, by state, 283-284, 285-311 treatment, 114, 217, 222 see also Adolescents; Children Alabama, 285 Alaska, 285 Alcohol use and abuse adolescents, 93-94 American Indians, 131 children of alcoholics, 34, 118, 274 comorbidity, 131, 135, 139, 159, 251, 277 health insurance, 221 pathological gambling compared with, 18, 22, 34, 119, 122, 274 natural recovery, 210 prevalence, 63, 80, 81, 93-94, 99 treatment, 205, 206 spouses, 276 see also Addiction American Academy of Health Care Providers in the Addictive Disorders , 218 American Compulsive Gambling Counselor Certification Board, 218 American Indians, 82, 115-116, 182, 287, 303 alcohol abuse, 131 benefits of gambling, 156 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, 8, 116, 131 American Psychiatric Association, 2, 31, 38, 212 see also Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Anxiety and anxiety disorders, 24, 109, 126, 138, 202, 223 DSM criteria, 274, 276, 278, 281 Antisocial personality disorder, 5, 31, 122, 137-138, 139, 142 DSM criteria, 137, 138, 274-275, 277, 281 substance abuse and, 137-138 Arizona, 246, 285-286 Arkansas, 286 Arousal, see Sensation-seeking Asians, 115-116 Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, 33, 41, 120, 122, 138, 279 Attitudes and beliefs luck, 29-30, 196, 241-242, 243, 245 gamblers, other, 42, 46, 61, 179, 202, 220, 237, 241-246, 250, 276 , 279; see also Risk-taking social, 164; see also Public opinion Australia, 137, 161, 164, 178-181, 186 Autobiography as treatment, 206-207 Aversion therapy, 199-201 B Balanced measurement studies, 174-185, 186 Behavioral-environmental models, 17, 37, 38, 39-40, 46, 112, 115-119 see also Organization of gambling; Social factors; Technology of gambling Behavioral treatments, 199-203, 224, 313-316 Beliefs, see Attitudes and beliefs Benefit-cost studies, 157-158, 162-186 casinos, 163-166, 175, 177-178, 182-184, 186 crime, 176, 177, 178, 180 methodology, 157-158, 162-186 social factors, 163-164, 173-174, 175-178, 180-185 Bingo, 78-79, 80, 238, 248, 250-251, 252 state by state legislative summary, 285-311 (passim) state legal age for participation, by state, 283-284, 285-311 (passim)

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--> Biological factors, 16, 109, 111, 119-127, 142, 143, 223 addiction, 37-38, 120-127 comorbidity, 128 reward deficiency syndrome, 41 risk-taking, 17 twin studies, 4, 119-120, 143 see also Neurobiological factors; Pharmacological treatments Bipolar disorder, 134, 204 Black persons, see African Americans Brain, 37, 41, 119, 120, 124-127, 142 see also Neurobiological factors Bureau of Economic Analysis, 165-166 C California, 70, 74, 118, 215, 246, 286-287 Canada, 66-67, 114, 135, 139, 161, 179(n.11), 210 Carbamazepine, 204, 313 Card games, 16, 241-242, 244, 251, 255 adolescents, 85, 88, 140 prevalence, 72, 73, 85, 88, 252 Case studies, treatment, 192, 199, 200, 202-203 Casino gambling, 8, 11, 16, 247, 251, 253, 255 adolescents, 88, 283-311 (passim) arousal rates, 35, 40 benefit-cost analyses, 163-166, 175, 177-178, 182-184, 186 family factors, 117 historical perspectives, 238 prevalence, 72, 73, 78-79, 82, 88, 195, 252 state by state legislative summary, 285-311 (passim) state legal age for participation by state, 283-284, 285-311 (passim) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4 Charitable gambling, 80, 283-284 prevalence, 72, 73, 78-79 Children, 17, 33, 40, 113, 249-250, 255, 274 of alcoholics, 34, 118, 274 of gamblers, 4, 159, 168, 207, 250, 274 onset of gambling, 4, 112, 113-114, 117, 138, 140, 142 see also Adolescents Clinical diagnosis, see Diagnosis Clinical studies, 42, 48-49, 108, 179 comorbidity, 128-129, 132-133, 135, 136 DSM criteria and, 26, 27 suicide, 135 treatment, 199, 203, 204-205 Clomipramine, 204 Cognitive factors, 10, 16, 29, 40-41, 240-243, 250, 279 definitional issues, 16 family factors, 118 gambling skills, 16, 48, 72, 73, 88, 117, 238-239, 242, 244-245, 253; see also Mathematical skills organization of gambling, 238-239 prevention, 220 treatment, 202-203, 206-207, 209, 224, 313-316 see also Attitudes and beliefs; Risk-taking Cohort effects, 65, 94-95, 108, 110-111 defined, 110 see also Age factors Colorado, 287-288 Commission on a National Policy Toward Gambling, 42 Comorbidity, 4, 9, 19, 35-36, 80, 107, 127-139, 141, 142-143 alcoholism, 131, 135, 139, 159, 251, 277

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--> clinical studies, 128-129, 132-133, 135, 136 defined, 32, 127-128 DSM, 32, 129, 133, 137, 139 methodological issues, 128-139 (passim), 141, 259 personality disorders, 137-138, 142, 196, 279 population studies, 131, 135, 136, 139 psychiatric disorders, 9, 37, 126, 129, 133, 137-138 substance abuse, 130-132, 135, 139, 142, 196, 207, 224, 276, 279 treatment issues, 128-129, 133, 138, 196, 198, 205 see also Depression; Mood disorders; Suicide Compulsive gambling, 29, 38, 205, 240, 275-277, 278 defined, 12, 20, 24, 26, 27, 30, 31-33 Gamblers Anonymous, 20 questions, 11, 271-272 legalization of gambling and, 80 national prevalence, 65-66 pathological gambling vs, 23-24 see also Impulse control disorders Compulsive Gambling Society of New Zealand, 135 Computer technology, 5, 251-252, 253, 256-257, 258 research methodology, 143 see also Internet; Gambling machines Connecticut, 70, 74, 82, 83, 86, 90, 179(n.11), 215, 216, 288 Cooccurrence, see Comorbidity Costs to individuals, 79, 156-157 adolescents, 92 benefit-cost analyses, 157, 158-160, 163, 180-181 debt, 158, 160, 161, 163, 168-171, 176, 177, 181 DSM criteria, 158, 273-279 (passim), 282 Gambler's Anonymous 20 questions, 271-272 longitudinal studies, 259 treatment issues, 194, 196, 206-207, 212 see also Debt Counseling, 135, 207, 213, 217-218 behavioral, 200, 224 certification, 217-218, 222-223 psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, 197-199, 205, 313-315 telephone help lines, 114-115, 135, 214-217 therapist characteristics, 224-225 see also Gamblers Anonymous; Self-help treatments Crime and criminal behavior adolescents, 160 benefit-cost analyses, 176, 177, 178, 180 gamblers involved in, 2, 5, 11, 26, 48, 135, 137, 158-159, 160-161 , 176, 177, 178, 180, 196, 272 DSM criteria, 273-274, 275, 276, 281 illegal gambling, 65, 72, 73, 88, 248 organized, 7-8 pathological gambling as exculpatory condition, 30-31 see also Substance use and abuse Cultural factors, 1, 7, 16, 18, 19, 38, 219 moral viewpoints, 5, 8, 16, 26, 39 religious influences, 11, 194, 239 stigmatization of gamblers, 5, 26; see also Shame and guilt see also Minority groups; Social factors

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--> D Debt, 3, 48, 158-159, 271 benefit-cost analyses, 158, 160, 161, 163, 168-171, 176, 177, 181 crime, gamblers involved in, 2, 5, 11, 26, 48, 135, 137, 158-159, 160-161, 176, 177, 178, 180, 196, 272 DSM criteria, 273-279 (passim), 281, 282 historical perspectives, 9-10 treatment issues, 196, 207, 212 Definitional issues, 15-62 adolescents, 22 cognitive factors, 16 cohort effects, 110 comorbidity, 32, 127-128 compulsive gambling, 12, 20, 24, 26, 27, 30, 31-33 diagnosis, 15-41, 49-50 etiology, 107 excessive gambling, 20, 21-22 historical perspectives, 16, 23, 25-27 incidence, 64 medicalization of gambling, 19-20, 22, 38, 108 pathological gambling, 21-25 problem gambling, 20-25 psychiatric disorders, general, 21-24, 44, 45, 49-51, 106, 121 recreational gambling, 21 research methodology, 15-41, 48-50, 64 self-help treatments, 25, 37 social factors, 16, 18, 19, 32, 38 DSM criteria, 27, 273, 277, 278 treatment, 193-194 see also Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Delaware, 215, 289 Demographic factors, 97-98, 109, 112-118, 141, 142, 239 disabled persons, 98 educational attainment, 98, 99, 109, 195, 244 rural areas, 142 treatment seekers, 195, 216-217 see also Age factors; Family factors; Gender factors; Minority groups; Urban areas Department of Commerce, BEA, 165-166 Depression, 28, 35, 126, 132-134, 136, 159, 196, 198, 204, 207, 212 , 278, 279, 281 see also Escapism; Shame and guilt; Suicide Descriptive studies, 45, 141, 160, 171, 173-174 Diagnosis, 2-3, 12, 42-47, 108 definitional issues, 15-41, 49-50 historical perspectives, 10-11 prevalence research and, 64 tools, table, 43 see also Etiology; Screening Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 2, 18, 21, 30, 38, 48-49, 50, 114, 142, 203 addiction, 36-37 comorbidity, 32, 129, 133, 137, 139 compulsive behavior, 24, 33 crime, 273-274, 275, 276, 281 family factors, 25, 273-277 (passim), 281 gender factors, 115, 274, 276, 277, 279-280 gradations of gambling problems, 23, 24 historical perspectives, 25-27, 48-49, 108, 273-282 individual costs, 158, 273-279 (passim), 282 legal issues, pathological gambling as exculpatory condition, 30-31

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--> natural recovery, 210 prevalence, 68, 70-71, 76, 80, 86-87, 99, 276, 279-280 problem gambling, 23-24 text of, 273-282 twin studies, 119 Disabled persons, 98 District of Columbia, 289 Dog racing, see Horse and dog racing Dopamine system, 37-38, 120-122, 124, 125, 205 Drug abuse, see Alcohol use and abuse; Substance use and abuse Drugs, treatment of gamblers, see Pharmacological treatments DSM, see Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders E Economic factors, 4, 12, 15, 19, 156-186, 252-253 benefit-cost analyses, 157-158, 162-186 benefits of gambling, 8, 156, 160, 172 health insurance, 5, 211-212, 214, 221, 222 indirect effects, 165 input-output models, 165-166, 172-173 natural recovery, 210 socioeconomic status and prevalence, 97-98, 99, 157-158, 249 taxes, 156, 176, 213-214, 219, 273 tourism, 156, 178 transfer effects, 164-165, 167-170, 179 treatment costs, 194, 206-207, 213-214, 221-222; see also "health insurance" supra benefit-cost analyses, 181, 183-184, 220-222 see also Costs to individuals; Debt; Employment issues; Funding; Poverty Educational attainment, 98, 99, 109, 195, 244 Elderly persons, 3-4, 63, 94-95, 114, 250, 251, 253 Employment issues, 97-98, 156, 160, 161, 165, 166, 180, 182-183, 185, 196 DSM criteria, 275, 277, 278, 282 Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 129, 133, 135-136, 139 Escapism, 26, 27, 29, 35-36, 40 Ethnicity, see Minority groups Etiology, 2-3, 28-30, 45, 107-155 associations vs causal relations, 108-109, 111-112 defined, 107 diagnostic criteria, 108, 114, 115, 129, 133, 137, 139, 142, 273-282 (passim) see also Clinical studies; Comorbidity; Diagnosis; specific risk factors (Age factors, Biological factors, Suicide, etc.) Excessive gambling, defined, 20, 21-22 Extraversion, 109 F Family factors, 4, 38, 109, 114, 117-118, 142, 249, 254, 257 benefit-cost analyses, 163, 176, 180-181 DSM criteria, 25, 273-277 (passim), 281 gambling promotions, 219 impact on, 3, 11, 25, 48, 156-157, 158-159, 163, 168

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--> psychoanalytic treatment, 198, 199 spouses of gamblers, 159, 201, 207, 209, 215, 225, 274, 275, 305, 311 treatment, 198, 199, 207, 209, 225 see also Children Federal government, see Legislation; specific departments and agencies Financial impacts of gambling, see Debt Financial market gambling, 72, 73, 88 Florida, 86, 90, 177-178, 177-178, 216, 289 Fluvoxamine, 204-205 Foreign countries, see International perspectives; specific countries Friends, see Peer influences Funding, 222 telephone help lines, 215 treatment, other, 213-214, 221-222 G Gam-Anon, 213 Gamblers Anonymous, 11, 20(n.2), 182, 204, 207, 208-209, 213, 224 definitional issues, 23 etiological studies, 115, 121, 134-135, 160 families, 159 meetings by state, 317-318 twenty questions, 11, 271-272 Gambling machines, 5, 215, 238, 242, 244, 245, 252, 253, 254-257, 258 adolescents, 88, 113, 255 arousal, 35, 124 escapism, 29 prevalence, 72, 73, 88 state by state legislative summary, 294-295 state legal age for participation, by state, 283, 294-295 Gender factors, 29, 109, 115, 140-141, 142, 238-239, 244, 250-251, 253 children, 113 DSM criteria, 115, 274, 276, 277, 279-280 escapism, 29 prevalence of gambling, 63, 95-96, 99, 255, 277, 279-280 risk-taking, 28 skill level of games, 238-239, 244, 253 treatment issues, 195, 198, 217, 222 Genetic factors, see Biological factors Georgia, 70, 74, 86, 90, 116, 289-290 Germany, 179(n.11) Government role, see Federal government; State government Gross impact studies, 172-173 Guilt, see Shame and guilt H Hawaii, 290 Health insurance, 5, 211-212, 214, 221, 222 Hispanics, 97, 115-116, 217 Historical perspectives, 7, 9-12, 16-17, 42, 48-49, 80 definitional issues, 16, 23, 25-27 DSM, 25-27, 48-49, 108, 273-282 input-output models, 165-166 organization and technology of gambling, 238-240 treatment approaches, 197 Home gambling, 256-258 Horse and dog racing, 11, 124, 248, 251, 253-254 arousal, 35, 124 family factors, 117

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--> gambling skills, 16, 238, 244 prevalence, 78-79, 252 social factors, 238-239 state by state legislative summary, 285-311 (passim) state legal age for participation by state, 283-284, 285-311 (passim) technology, 238, 252 Hot lines, see Telephone help lines Hypomania, see Mania I Idaho, 290 Illegal activities, see Crime and criminal behavior Illinois, 174-175, 179(n.11), 290-291 Impulse control disorders, 2, 20, 23, 27, 30, 31-36, 41, 119, 120, 122, 143, 159, 199, 205, 273, 275-281 see also Compulsive gambling Incidence of gambling acute treatment, 181 defined, 64 prevalence vs, 64-65, 101 research methodology, 51, 64-65, 101, 179-180, 181 see also Prevalence of gambling Indiana, 70, 74, 291-292 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, 8, 116, 131 Indians, see American Indians Input-output models, 165-166, 172-173 Insurance, see Health insurance International perspectives, 178-181 children, 113 comorbidity, 129 see also specific countries Internet, 5, 213, 216, 246, 251, 252, 253-254, 256-258 Interventions, see Preventive interventions; Treatment issues In-transition gamblers, see Problem gambling Iowa, 70, 74, 82, 83, 216, 292 K Kansas, 292-293 Kentucky, 293 L Laboratory studies, 35, 40, 240, 258-259 neurobiological factors, 121, 123, 124-127 Legal issues legal-age gambling, by state and type, 283-312 legalization of gambling, 80-84, 100, 237, 247-250, 253, 259 see also Crime and criminal behavior Legislation committee charge, 8-9 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, 8, 116, 131 lotteries, 7, 283-312 state by state analysis, 285-312 state legal-age gambling, by state and type, 283-312 Longitudinal research, 4, 65, 142, 210, 259 Lotteries, 7, 8, 17, 80, 82, 242, 244, 245-246, 248, 251, 253, 254 -255 adolescents, 88, 140, 250 family factors, 117 prevalence, 72, 73, 78-79, 88, 195-196, 249, 252 state by state legislative summary, 285-311 (passim) state legal age for participation, by state, 283-284, 285-311 (passim) Louisiana, 70, 75, 86, 90, 215, 293-295

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--> M Machines, see Gambling machines Maine, 295 Managed care, 222 Mania, 133, 134, 274, 277, 281, 282 Maryland, 70, 75, 195, 216, 295-296 Massachusetts, 70, 75, 86, 90, 296 Mass media advertising, 38, 214, 216, 219, 247, 249, 307 Internet, 5, 213, 216, 246, 251, 252, 253-254, 256-258 television, 251, 252, 254, 257, 258 Mathematical skills, 16, 238, 239, 241, 243-244 Medicalization of gambling, 19-20, 22, 38, 108 comorbidity, general, 32, 127 see also Biological factors Men, see Gender factors Methodology, see Research methodology Michigan, 86, 90, 296-297 Minnesota, 70, 75, 76, 82, 83, 86, 91, 114, 195, 215, 216, 217, 297 -298 Minority groups, 97, 115-117, 141, 217, 222, 239 poverty, 126, 141 prevalence of gambling, 63, 96-97, 99, 114, 141 research methodology, 115-116 see also specific groups Mississippi, 70, 72, 75, 76, 298-299 Missouri, 70, 299-300 Montana, 70, 75, 300 Mood and mood disorders, 4, 122, 125, 126, 132-134, 142, 204, 274, 277, 279 see also Depression; Mania Moral viewpoints, 5, 8, 16, 26, 39 N Naltrexone, 205, 206 Narcissism, 198, 179 National Center for Responsible Gaming, 66 National Comorbidity Survey, 80 National Council on Compulsive Gambling, 30, 177 National Council on Problem Gambling, 212, 213, 214, 218 National Gambling Impact Study Commission, 67, 77-78, 81, 92, 93 National Institute of Mental Health, 129 National Institute on Drug Abuse, 220-221 National Institutes of Health, 4 National Opinion Research Center, 67, 77-78, 81, 92, 93 National prevalence, 1, 3, 8, 19, 65-67, 71, 77-78, 98-100 Natural recovery, 193, 210-211 Native Americans, see American Indians Nebraska, 300-301 Neurobiological factors, 4, 45, 111, 120-127, 142, 143 brain studies, 37, 41, 119, 120, 124-127, 142 comorbidity, 128 dopamine system, 37-38, 120-122, 124, 125, 205 laboratory studies, 121, 123, 124-127 methodology, 121, 124-127 norepinephrine, 120, 205 pharmacological treatments, 203-206, 224, 225, 313, 314 serotonin, 122-123, 204-205 Neuroticism, 109, 126 Nevada, 7, 11, 71, 87, 91, 114, 238, 246, 301-302 New Hampshire, 8, 302 New Jersey, 71, 75, 87, 91, 114, 216, 218, 302-303 New Mexico, 71, 75, 76, 303 New York State, 71, 72, 75, 82, 83, 87, 91, 114, 215, 216, 303-304

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--> New Zealand, 135 Norepinephrine, 120, 205 North Carolina, 304 North Dakota, 71, 75, 76, 304-305 O Ohio, 71, 305 Oklahoma, 87, 91, 114, 305 Older persons, see Elderly persons Oregon, 195, 246, 305-306 Organization of gambling, 237-251, 257-260 advertising, 38, 214, 216, 219, 247, 249, 307 legalization of gambling and, 80-84, 100, 237, 247-250, 253, 259 research methodology, 238, 240 see also Technology of gambling P Parents, see Family factors Pari-mutuel gambling, 7, 80, 238 adolescents, 88 prevalence, 72, 73, 88 state by state legislative summary, 285-311 (passim) state legal age for participation, by state, 283-284, 285-311 (passim) see also Horse and dog racing Peer influences, 3, 48, 109, 114, 117, 239, 249-250, 251, 254, 257 , 276 adolescents, 117 alienation of friends, 159 American Indians, 116 Pennsylvania, 216, 306 Personality disorders, general, 4, 5, 137-138 antisocial personalities, 5, 31, 122, 137-138, 139, 142, 274-275, 281 comorbidity, 137-138, 142, 196, 279 historical perspectives, 9, 10, 11-12 treatment seekers, 196 Pharmacological treatments, 203-206, 224, 225, 313, 314 Population studies, 2, 3, 115-116, 124, 142 clinical studies vs, 43 comorbidity, 131, 135, 136, 139 Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 129, 133, 135-136, 139 screening tools, use in, 44, 47 Posttraumatic stress disorder, 109-110 Poverty, 176, 184 depressed areas, benefits of gambling, 1, 160 minority status and, 126, 141 prevalence of gambling among the poor, 3-4, 63, 97-98, 99 see also Debt Prevalence of gambling, 1, 3, 8, 19, 44, 63-101, 276, 279-280 adolescents, 3, 63, 84-94, 113-114 onset of gambling, 4, 112, 113-114, 117, 118, 140, 274, 276, 280 age at onset of gambling, 4, 112, 113-114, 117, 131, 138, 142, 274 , 276, 280 alcohol abuse compared with, 63, 80, 81, 93-94, 99 benefit-cost analyses, 169, 175, 177-178 card games, 72, 73, 85, 88, 252 casino gambling, 72, 73, 78-79, 82, 88, 195, 252 charitable gambling, 72, 73, 78-79 DSM, 68, 70-71, 76, 80, 86-87, 99, 276, 279-280 gender factors, 63, 95-96, 99, 255, 277, 279-280 horse and dog racing, 78-79, 252 incidence vs, 64-65, 101

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--> legalization of gambling and, 80-84, 100, 237, 248-249 lifetime, 1, 23, 48, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 72, 73-75, 77, 80-81 adolescents, 85, 88, 89, 90, 113-114 lotteries, 72, 73, 78-79, 88, 195-196, 249, 252 methodological issues, 64-71, 76, 79, 86-87, 89, 92-93, 99, 100-101 national prevalence, 1, 3, 8, 19, 65-67, 71, 77-78, 98-100 natural recovery, 210 pari-mutuel wagering, 72, 73, 88; see also ''horse and dog racing" supra past-year, 3, 64, 67, 69, 72, 73-75, 76, 77-78 adolescents, 85, 88, 90 technology of gambling and, 238, 252 poor persons, 3-4, 63, 97-98, 99 regional factors, 65, 67(n.2), 71, 101 screening and, 64, 77, 100-101 socioeconomic status, 97-98, 99, 157-158, 249; see also Minority groups South Oaks Gambling Screen, 68, 71-72, 76, 77, 86-87, 99, 114 sports gambling, 72, 73, 78-79, 85, 88, 252 state-level, 66, 67, 68, 69-76, 81-84, 101 substance abuse, 63, 80, 81, 93-94 see also Incidence of gambling Preventive interventions, 12, 107, 211, 219-220 adolescents, 219-220 relapse, 28, 194, 202, 206, 207, 208-209, 211 see also Screening Problem gambling, 19 adolescents, 85-93 benefit-cost analyses, 177-181, 182-185, 186 definitional issues, 20-25 etiology of, 107-156 pathological gambling vs, 22-25, 65 prevalence, 64-101 (passim), 177-178 see also Costs to individuals; Diagnosis; Gamblers Anonymous; Screening; Treatment issues Psychiatric disorders, 122 classification issues, 21-24, 44, 45, 49-51, 106, 121; see also Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders comorbidity, 9, 37, 126, 129, 133, 137-138 pathological gambling as, 12 posttraumatic stress disorder, 109-110 see also American Psychiatric Association; Impulse control disorders; Mood and mood disorders; Personality disorders Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic treatments, 197-199, 205, 313-315 Public opinion, 21, 156, 249 advertising, 38, 214, 216, 219, 247, 249, 307 lotteries, 245-246 Puerto Rico, 307 Pull-tab, state by state legislative summary, 285-311 (passim) R Race/ethnicity, see Minority groups Racetrack betting, see Horse and dog racing

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--> Recreational gambling, 16, 156, 260 age at onset of gambling, 4, 112, 113-114, 117, 131, 138, 142, 274 , 276, 280 benefit-cost analyses, 163-164, 167 children, 113 defined, 21 DSM criteria, 274, 277, 280 minority groups, 116 pathological gamblers returning to, 19-20, 25 pathological gambling vs, 28 prevalence, 66 promotional activities, 219 substance abuse and, 26 Recovering gamblers, 20(n.2), 24, 193, 210, 211 natural recovery, 193, 210, 211 stages, general, 193 withdrawal symptoms, 27, 29, 38, 119, 205, 277, 281 see also Treatment issues Regional factors benefit-cost analyses, 164, 165-168 minority groups, 116-117 prevalence, 65, 67(n.2), 71, 101 telephone help lines, 216 Regional Input-Output Modeling System, 165-166 Relapse, 28, 136, 140, 142, 194, 198, 202, 206, 207, 208-209, 211, 221, 224 preventive interventions, 28, 194, 202, 206, 207, 208-209, 211 Religious factors, 11, 194, 239 Research methodology, 3, 4, 21-22, 250, 258-260 adolescent studies, 85-87, 89, 92-93 balanced measurement studies, 174-185, 186 benefit-cost analyses, 157-158, 162-186 classifications and definitions, 15-41, 48-50, 64; see also Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders cohort effects, 65, 94-95, 108, 110-111 comorbidity studies, 128-139 (passim), 141, 259 construct validity, 45-47, 49-50, 100-101 descriptive studies, 45, 141, 160, 171, 173-174 DSM criteria development, 25-27 etiological, 107-112, 121, 124-142 (passim) excessive gambling, 21-22 gender factors, 115 gross impact studies, 172-173 incidence studies, 51, 64-65, 101, 179-180, 181 input-output models, 165-166, 172-173 longitudinal studies, 65 minority groups, 115-116 neurobiological studies, 121, 124-127 organization of gambling, 238, 240 prevalence studies, 64-71, 76, 79, 86-87, 89, 92-93, 99, 100-101 South Oaks Gambling Screen, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 68, 99, 114 treatment evaluation, 192, 199, 200-201, 202-203, 207-208, 220, 223 -224, 313-318 see also Case studies; Clinical studies; Laboratory studies; Population studies Rhode Island, 215-216, 207 Risk-taking, 16-18, 48, 237, 239, 242-243, 253 gender factors, 28-29 impulse control disorders, 33, 34-35 see also Sensation-seeking Rural areas, 142

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--> S Screening, 42-45, 47-48 NORC DSM SCREEN, 77 population studies and, 44, 47 prevalence research and, 64, 77, 100-101 see also Diagnosis; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; South Oaks Gambling Screen Self-esteem, 10, 116, 159, 198 see also Depression; Shame and guilt Self-help treatments, 25, 209, 211 age factors, 114 definitional issues, 25, 37 see also Gamblers Anonymous Sensation-seeking, 17, 33, 34-35, 40, 119, 121-122, 123, 125, 198-199, 239, 278 behavioral treatments, 199-202, 224 see also Risk-taking Serotonin, 122-123, 204-205 Sex-based factors, see Gender factors Shame and guilt, 10-11, 26, 28, 159, 198, 278 Slot machines, see Gambling machines Social factors, general, 4, 15, 17, 38, 110, 112-118, 142, 247-251 , 254, 256-258 antisocial personalities, 5, 31, 122, 137-138, 139, 142, 274-275, 281 benefits of gambling, 8, 12, 156, 157 benefit-cost analyses, 163-164, 173-174, 175-178, 180-185 cohort effects, 110 costs of gambling, 12, 15, 19, 156-186 definitional issues, 16, 18, 19, 32, 38 DSM criteria, 27, 273, 277, 278 historical perspectives, 7, 16, 18 legalization of gambling and, 80-84, 100, 237, 247-250, 253, 259 natural recovery, 210 organization of gambling, 237-239; see "legalization. . ." supra see also Cultural factors; Demographic factors; Family factors; Peer influences; Public opinion; Religious factors Social gambling, see Recreational gambling South Carolina, 308 South Dakota, 71, 75, 82, 83, 175-177, 215, 308-309 South Oaks Gambling Screen, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 118 alcoholism, comorbidity, 131 methodology, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 68, 99, 114 prevalence studies, 68, 71-72, 76, 77, 86-87, 99, 114 Spiritual factors, see Religious factors Sports betting, 8, 242 adolescents, 85, 88, 140 family factors, 117 prevalence, 72, 73, 78-79, 85, 88, 252 Spouses of gamblers, 159, 201, 207, 209, 215, 225, 305, 311 DSM criteria, 274, 275, 276 State government, 1, 7, 8, 11, 80 counselor certification boards, 218, 222-223 gambling promotions, 219 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, 8, 116, 131 legal age for gambling, by state and type, 283-284, 285-311 (passim) legislative review, by state, 285-312 telephone help lines, 215-216

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--> treatment issues, 213-214, 222 see also Casino gambling; Horse and dog racing; Lotteries; specific states State-level factors, other benefit-cost analyses, 166, 167-168 Gamblers Anonymous meetings, by state, 1995-1998, 317-318 health insurance coverage, 212, 213 prevalence, 66, 67, 68, 69-76, 81-84, 101 see also specific states Statistics Gamblers Anonymous meetings, by state, 317-318 types of gambling, 8 see also Incidence of gambling; Prevalence of gambling Substance use and abuse, 4, 5, 9 adolescents, 93-94, 99-100, 110-111, 117 antisocial personality disorder, 137-138 benefit-cost analyses, 170 children of abusers, 118 cohort effects, 110-111 comorbidity, 130-132, 135, 139, 142, 196, 207, 224, 276, 279 pathological gambling compared to, 25-26, 28-29, 31, 37, 122, 124-126 adolescents, 93-94, 99 natural recovery, 210, 211 prevalence, 63, 80, 81, 93-94 treatment, 193, 196, 206, 212, 220-221, 224 recreational gambling, 26 see also Addiction; Alcohol use and abuse Suicide, 3, 5, 10, 48, 134-137, 159-160, 196, 272, 274 Survey of American Gambling Attitudes and Behavior, 42 T Taxes, 156, 176, 213-214, 219, 273 Technology of gambling, 12-13, 237, 239, 251-260 see also Computer technology; Gambling machines; Internet; Mass media Telecommunications, 5, 246, 252, 253-254, 255-256 see also Internet Telephone help lines, 114-115, 135, 214-217 Television, 251, 252, 254, 257, 258 Tennessee, 309 Texas, 71, 75, 82, 83, 87, 91, 114, 131, 215, 216-217, 309 Tourism, 156, 178 Transfer effects, 164-165, 167-170, 179 Treatment issues, 2, 5, 12, 107, 109, 192-236 acute intervention, 193 addiction, general, 192, 194, 205, 206-208 age factors, 114, 217, 222 alcoholism, 205, 206 autobiography, 206-207 availability of and access to, 211-214 aversion therapy, 199-201 behavioral approaches, 199-202, 224 benefit-cost analyses, 181, 183-184, 220-222 characteristics of treatment seekers, 195-196 clinical studies, 199, 203, 204-205 cognitive factors, 202-203, 206-207, 209, 224, 313-316 comorbidity, 128-129, 133, 138, 196, 198, 205 cost of, 194, 206-207, 213-214, 221-222; see also "benefit-cost analyses" supra and "health insurance" infra

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--> costs to individuals, 194, 196, 206-207, 212 debt, 196, 207, 212 defined, 193-194 evaluation methodology, 192, 199, 200-201, 202-203, 207-208, 220, 223-224, 313-318 gender factors, 195, 198, 217, 222 health insurance coverage, 5, 211-212, 214, 221, 222 incurability, 20(n.2) literature on, summary table, 313-316 maintenance, 193 mood disorders, 133 multimodal, 207-208, 314 natural recovery, 193, 210-211 pharmacological treatments, 203-206, 224, 225, 313, 314 psychoanalytic/psychodynamic approaches, 197-199, 205 rehabilitation, 193 relapse, 28, 136, 140, 142, 194, 198, 202, 206, 207, 208-209, 211, 221, 224 stages, general, 193 telephone help lines, 114-115, 135, 214-217 see also Counseling; Health insurance; Preventive interventions; Recovering gamblers; Screening; Self-help treatment Twin studies, 4, 119-120, 143 U United Kingdom, 113, 134-135, 137, 160, 250-251, 255 Urban areas, 109, 114, 116, 131, 133, 135, 139, 142, 174-175 Utah, 309 V Vermont, 309 Veterans, see Posttraumatic stress disorder Veterans Administration, 115, 118, 134, 206 Video games, see Gambling machines Virginia, 310 Virgin Islands, 309-310 W Washington, D.C., 289 Washington State, 71, 75, 87, 310 West Virginia, 310-311 Wisconsin, 71, 75, 87, 179(n.11), 181-185, 186, 216, 311 Withdrawal symptoms, 27, 29, 38, 119, 205, 277, 281 Women, see Gender factors World Wide Web, see Internet Wyoming, 311-312