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135 lines to support the successful application of strategic management. The objectives of this research are to: (1) assess the applicability of strategic management approaches, and (2) provide principles and guidance (including relationships with other innovative management techniques) for im- plementation by publicly funded transportation agencies. Accomplishment of these objectives will require at least the following tasks: Task 1 Seek out and evaluate work being done in strategic planning and management with a view to as- sessing applicability to transportation agencies in the pub- lic sector. Specific attention should be given to assessing reasons for success or failure. Task 2 Identify and describe important principles in strategic management processes for publicly funded trans- portation agencies (including relationships with other management processes). Task 3 Compare the relative merits of various ap- proaches to strategic management, considering the needs, responsibilities, and operational procedures of a range of state and local transportation agencies. Given the appli- cability and principles of strategic management and ranges of organizational types, prepare guidelines for the implementation of strategic management in state and local transportation agencies. Task 4 Prepare final report. The agency preliminary draft final report has been sub- mitted and is now under review. AREA 9: BITUMINOUS MATERIALS Project 9-1 FY '64 and FY '65 Asphalt Durability and Its Relation to Pavement Performance Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Dates: Completion Dates: Funds: American Oil Company Dr. A. W. Sisko L. C. Brunstrum Feb. 1, 1964 Nov. 1, 1965 July 31, 1965 Apr. 30, 1967 $50,000 $50,000 The general properties with which this over-all problem was concerned involved theological, chemical, and phy- sio-chemical properties of the asphalt alone and as influ- enced by its interracial relationship with aggregates. These properties and their values in the original asphalt and the retention of these values over a period of time in service are of importance. Research has been completed, and the project report has been published as: NCHRP Report 67, "Relation of Asphalt Rheological Properties to Pavement Durability." Project 9-2 FY '65 Asphalt Durability and Its Relation to Pavement Performance- Adhesion Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Effective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Montana College of Mineral Science and Technology D. W. McGlashan January 1, 1965 October 31, 1967 $101,903 This research was concerned with asphaltic concrete pavement performance, particularly with regard to the influence of asphalt-aggregate adhesion. The research ap- proach was based on the principle that interracial activity occurring at the boundary between an asphalt cement and an aggregate is influenced by the characteristics of the particular asphalt and aggregate and that this activity, measured in electrical quantities, provides a comparative assessment of the adhesion between the asphalt and the aggregate. A data acquisition system was developed for making electrokinetic measurements of interracial activity when asphalt cements were forced through porous plugs under controlled temperature and pressure conditions. The po- rous plugs contained aggregates that were being tested for adhesion. Data were collected and analyzed using 15 asphalt cements and a number of different aggregate types to demonstrate the ability of the procedure for assessing the adhesion of an asphalt-aggregate mixture. The project report was not published in the NCHRP report series; however, microfiche of the report may be purchased (see final page of this section for ordering in- formation). Project 9-3 FY '65 Evaluation of Pavement Plaint and Crack Seating Materials and Practices Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Dr. John P. Cook June 1, 1965 June 30, 1966 $24,996 The objectives of this research were to (1) prepare a state-of-knowledge report on joint and crack sealing ma- terials, joint design, specifications, test methods, and con- struction practice; (2) make a critical analysis of the information and define needs to improve performance; and (3) recommend a feasible research program. Bitu- minous and nonbituminous materials were included, and due consideration was given to such factors as economics and practicalities of usage. Research has been completed, and the project report has been published as: NCHRP Report 38, "Evaluation of Pavement Joint and Crack Sealing Materials and Prac- tices."
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136 Project 9-4 FY '72 Minimizing Premature Cracking of Asphattic Concrete Pavements Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Materials Research & Development F. N. Finn Keshavan Nair November 1, 1971 June 30, 1973 $99,560 The objective of this project was the determination of suitable materials specifications, paving mix design cri- teria, and construction requirements that will result in the ability to design and construct asphaltic concrete pavements to carry design traffic with a minimum of premature cracking. Research has been completed, and the project report has been published as: NCHRP Report 195, "Minimizing Premature Cracking in Asphaltic Concrete Pavement." Project 9-4A FY '76 Bayesian Analysis Methodology for Verifying Recommendations to Minimize Asphalt Pavement Distress Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Woodward-Clyde Consultants F. N. Finn W. S. Smith September 15, 1975 November 1, 1978 $204,194 NCHRP Project 9-4 findings contain recommendations intended to reduce possibility of premature cracking of asphaltic concrete pavements and a proposed verification program. The generally accepted approach to verification has been to monitor performance using statistical analysis for evaluation of the variables. An alternate approach has been to verify an analytical model using a small experi- mental program and case histories of in-service pave- ments. One of the findings of NCHRP Project 9-4 indicates that these two approaches are not realistic for verification of the project recommendations because the cost, time, and scope required for such a program to reach definitive conclusions would be excessive. In the same report, the Bayesian approach is suggested as an alternate for verification and updating of project recommendations. It uses the past experience of engineers in a meaningful statistical format combined with exper- imental data and experience gained from observation of field performance of new construction. The objectives of this project were (1) development of a procedure based on Bayesian statistical concepts for verifying recommendations to minimize pavement distress and (2) pilot implementation of the verification procedure for the specific distress mode of cracking from repetitive traffic loading. Research has been completed, and the project report has been published as: NCHRP Report 213, "Bayesian Methodology for Verifying Recommendations to Mini- mize Asphalt Pavement Distress." Project 9-5 FY ,80 Design of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixtures Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: The Asphalt Institute V. P. Puzinauskas B. F. Kallas Aprill,1980 June 30, 1984 $150,172 The objective of this research was to verify and/or modify the Asphalt Institute and University of Illinois asphalt emulsion mix design methods described in Federal Highway Administration Reports No. FHWA-IP-79-1, "A Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual," and No. FHWA- RD-78-113, "Mix Design Methods for Base and Surface Courses Using Emulsified Asphalt." Research has been completed with partial accomplish- ment of objectives. It was found that neither of the two mix design methods is totally satisfactory for determining optimum asphalt emulsion and water contents and that there is a lack of compatibility between the methods. Modifications to the methods are recommended. The field studies indicate that construction practices and field ac- tivities influence performance of emulsified asphalt pave- ments to a greater extent than laboratory mix design. The project report has been published as: NCHRP Report 259, "Design of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mix- tures." Project 9-6A FY '85 Development of Asphait-Aggregate Mixtures Analysis System: Phase Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: ARE Inc. F. N. Finn June 2, 1986 October 2, 1986 $25,000 Improved asphalt concrete mix design methods should optimize the selection of asphalt binders and aggregate materials to produce pavements uniformly resistant to all forms of distress such as rutting, fatigue cracking and moisture damage. The Asphalt Advisory Committee of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) has recognized that currently used asphalt concrete mix de- sign methods are not adequate for the laboratory evalu- ation of improved or new asphalt binders that are to be developed under SHRP and that any improved binders should be evaluated within the context of an improved asphalt-aggregate mixture analysis system.
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137 The overall objective of Project 9-6 research was to develop an asphalt-aggregate mixture analysis system for the laboratory evaluation of asphalt binders and aggregate materials with regard to resistance to all forms of distress, both loads and environment associated, when used in the construction of asphalt concrete pavements. The evalu- ation included such elements as the preparation of test specimens, conditioning of the specimens, testing the spec- imens, and criteria for acceptance. This project was funded from a portion of the $1,000,000 included in the FY '85 program for research on properties of asphalt cements with the provision that the research be coordinated with the strategic Highway Research Program activities on asphalt research. The objective of Phase I of the research was to develop a concept for the design of an asphalt-aggregate mixture analysis system (AAMAS) and a research plan for the conduct of Phase II. This was one of three Phase I con- tracts. Research has been completed, and the report has been reviewed in connection with the selection of an agency for conduct of Phase II. The report will not be published in the NCHRP report series. Project 9-6B FY '85 Development of Asphatt-Aggregate Mixtures Analysis System: Phase Research Agency: Principal Invests.: Effective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Brent Rauhut Engineering Inc. C. S. Hughes H. L. Von Quintus June 2, 1986 October 2, 1986 $25,000 See Project 9-6A for project description and status. Project 9-6C FY '85 Development of Asphalt-Aggregate Mixtures Analysis System: Phase Research Agency: Principal Invests.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: University of Maryland Dr. M. W. Witezak V. P. Puzinauskas June 2, 1986 October 2, 1986 $24,879 See Project 9-6A for project description and status. Project 9-6~1) FY '85 Development of Asphalt-Aggregate Mixtures Analysis System: Phase I! Research Agency: Brent Rauhut Engineering, Inc. Principal Invests.: L. Von Quintus Elective Date: January 5, 1987 Completion Date: November 4, 1988 Funds: $425,000 The highway community recognizes the need for im- proved procedures and analysis systems for the design of asphaltic concrete pavement mixtures that will be resist- ant to heavy truck loads, the use of higher tire pressures, and the wide extremes of climate. Such systems should optimize the selection, proportioning, and processing of asphalt binders and aggregate materials to produce pave- ments resistant to all forms of distress. The Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) plans to develop improved asphalt and/or new binders, tests and specifications for these binders, and perform- ance-related specifications for asphaltic concrete paving materials. Improved procedures and analysis systems could be used for evaluation of the improved and/or new binders and for the design of the paving mixtures for test sections of the SHRP to obtain the necessary pavement performance information to develop performance-related specifications. Research is needed to develop and refine an asphalt- aggregate mixture analysis system (AAMAS) for design of optimum paving mixtures based on performance-re- lated criteria. These criteria would encompass a wide variety of failure modes, e.g., fatigue cracking, thermal cracking, permanent deformation, moisture damage, age hardening, etc. The AAMAS should be capable of ac- commodating conventional asphalt binders, modified as- phalts, mixture modifiers, and the range of aggregate materials used in the United States. It should also be capable of evaluating the mixtures under conditions anal- ogous to those found in service, including a wide range of climate, traffic, and age factors. The objective of this research is to develop an asphalt- aggregate mixture analysis system (AAMAS) for the lab- oratory evaluation of asphaltic concrete mixtures. The system shall be based on specimens that as nearly as possible duplicate the characteristics of the mixtures in the field. Its application shall be limited to hot-mixed asphaltic concrete, excluding open-graded friction courses and drainage layers; and shall accommodate mixture var- iables, such as modified binders, aggregates, and fillers, used in the construction of asphaltic concrete pavements and shall provide for resistance to all forms of distress associated with both load and environment. The evalu- ation system shall include such elements as the prepa- ration of test specimens, conditioning of the specimens, testing the specimens, and criteria for mixture selection. Research is being coordinated with other SHRP research in the asphalt area. The objectives of Phase II of the research are to (1) develop the AAMAS in accordance with the concepts and plans prepared during Phase I, (2) conduct a labo- ratory evaluation of the system, and (3) prepare guidelines for its use. Major emphasis during development of the AAMAS will be on preparation, conditioning, testing, and analysis of asphalt-aggregate laboratory specimens that duplicate as nearly as possible the construction, en