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199 Research has been completed, and the results of the first phase of the study have been published as: NCHRP Report 91, "Effects of Deicing Salts on Water Quality and Biota Literature Review and Recommended Re- search." The results of the experimental phase have been pub- lished as: NCHRP Report 170, "Effects of Deicing Salts on Plant Biota and Soils Experimental Phase." Project 16-2 FY,68 Evaluation of Research on Roadside Devel- opment Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Effective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Western States Landscape Associ- ation Wayne O. Earley October 1, 1967 March31,1969 $100,000 The objective of this project was to review, interpret, and evaluate past and present research on roadside de- velopment, describe areas where additional or continued research is needed, and recommend procedures for re- solving these needs. The study included, but was not limited to, consideration of the relationship of roadside development and (1) highway location and design; (2) vegetation (planning, establishment, and management by plant growth zones is consideration of erosion control and roadside plantings); (3) resource conservation; (4) rest areas, scenic turnouts, and overlooks; (5) safety; and (6) right-of-way, scenic areas, and adjacent land use. Rec- ognition was given to research under way or accomplished in legal authority, but it was not evaluated in this project. The research has been completed, and the project report has been published as: NCHRP Report 137, "Evaluation of Research on Roadside Development." Project 16-3 FY '73 Erosion Control During Highway Construction Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Utah State University Dr. Calvin G. Clyde Dr. C. Earl Israelsen Paul E. Packer Nov. 1, 1973 Mar. 1, 1978 June 30, 1976 Nov. 30, 1979 $179,224 $70,776 Uncontrolled water and wind erosion resulting from construction activities causes significant damage to the environment. The sediment produced pollutes surface water, restricts drainage, fills reservoirs, damages adjacent land, and destroys the natural ecology of lakes and streams. Besides harming the environment, soil erosion during construction increases costs and causes extensive delays and repairs. Research is needed to develop more effective tech niques, devices, and materials to control erosion during construction activities. This need was documented in NCHRP Synthesis 18, "Erosion Control on Highway Construction." The synthesis study, while focusing attention on the need for a major research effort, also uncovered a large quantity of information, often fragmented or undereval- uated, on known erosion control measures likely to have application in highway construction. Because of the ex- istence of this information, the urgency of the problem, and research funding limitations, a logical first step in the eventual solution of the total problem was the de- velopment of recommendations for an interim set of spe- cific guidelines for erosion control based on existing information. Research has been completed, and project objectives have been accomplished. The Universal Soil Loss Equa- tion was used as the basis for estimating soil loss. Existing maps that divide the country into areas of varying soil erosion potential were updated for use in application of the equation. An experimental program was planned and conducted for verifying the applicability of the equation for estimating soil loss from a construction site and for limited testing of erosion control products. An erosion control manual has been prepared for use by highway and transportation agencies and others for estimating soil loss from a specific construction site and assessing the effectiveness of erosion control procedures. The project report has been published in 2 volumes as: NCHRP Report 220, "Erosion Control During High- way Construction Research Report"; and NCHRP Report 221, "Erosion Control During Highway Construc- tion Manual on Principles and Practices." AREA 17: SAFETY Project 17-1 FY,66 Development of improved Methods for Reduction of Traffic Accidents Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory John W. Garrett February 1, 1966 May 31, 1968 $247,847 The objective of this research was to develop motor vehicle accident investigation procedures, records, and statistics, which will more accurately reveal accident caus- ation than the current accident record system. An exten- sive review of the state of the art revealed that the current data collection forms and procedures do not meet research requirements; few statistically trained personnel are em- ployed for data analysis. Also, safety findings are assim- ilated slowly by the agencies responsible for the design, maintenance, and operation of the highway system. Long

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200 term recommendations included an improved centralized accident record system in which accident data were in- tegrated with appropriate nonaccident data. Also pro- posed was a multilevel accident reporting scheme providing minimum data on all accidents, intensive in- vestigative data on a small percentage of accidents, and special study data collected for a statistical sample of accidents. Improved cooperation between operating agen- cies with similar objectives was regarded as essential. Short-term recommendations included increased dissem- ination and utilization of current safety knowledge; uti- lization of modern technology at all levels of the system through the initiation of continuing education seminars and a safety review board; use of trained statistical per- sonnel and techniques for better utilization of data; and use of accurate accident location methods. Location meth- ods were reviewed and evaluated for guidance. Demon- stration studies were performed to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed system and the techniques required. The study demonstrated the use of police to gather factual data in a study where they were provided with special report forms, written instructions, special training, and equipment. Utilization of intensive accident investigation procedures and the use of both accident and nonaccident data in a study also were demonstrated. The project report has been published as: NCHRP Report 79, "Development of Improved Methods for Re- duction of Traffic Accidents." Project 17-2 FY '72 Methods for Evaluating Highway Safety Improvements Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Operations Research Incorporated Harry Denning January 10, 1972 June 20, 1972 $29,973 The objective of the research was to provide a detailed technique in the form of guidelines from which calcula- tions could be made that would allow officials to judge the effectiveness of highway improvements in terms, not only of reduced accidents, but also of cost-benefit of such improvements. Activities prior to the contract's termination included detailed planning for the project and preparation of a detailed working plan. This research was resumed under 17-2A. 1 7-2A FY '72 Methods for Evaluating Highway Safety Improvements Research Agency: Roy Jorgensen Associates Principal Invest.: John C. Laughland Elective Date: February 1, 1973 Completion Date: July 31, 1974 Funds: $98,403 The objective of the research was to provide a detailed technique in the form of guidelines from which calcula- tions can be made that will allow officials to judge the electiveness of highway improvements in terms, not only of reduced accidents, but also of cost-benefit of such im- provements. The research has been completed, and the final report has been published as: NCHRP Report 162, "Methods for Evaluating Highway Safety Improvements." Project 17-3 FY '78 Application of Traffic Conflicts Analysis at Intersections Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Midwest Research Institute Dr. William D. Glauz December 15, 1977 October 31, 1979 $190,000 The objective of this research was to develop a pro- cedure for collecting and using traffic conflicts data to diagnose safety and operational deficiencies and to eval- uate the effectiveness of improvements at intersections. This objective was achieved through an examination of present use of traffic conflicts analysis, development of new procedures, and field testing. The final report was published as: NCHRP Report 219, "Application of Traffic Conflict Analysis at Intersec- tions." Examples that illustrate the methods of data col- lection, data analysis, and application of the traffic conflicts technique are presented. Project 17-4 FY '78 Evaluation of Traffic Controls for Street and Highway Work Zones Research Agency: BioTechnology, Inc. Principal Invest.: Dr. Hugh W. McGee Effective Date: January 2, 1978 Completion Date: June 30, 1979 Funds: $200,000 The objective of this project was to determine the ef- fectiveness of selected work-zone traffic control devices and to determine how these devices should be designed and used. The research was restricted to stationary work zones and did not consider moving operations. Research has been completed; the findings were com- bined with the results of NCHRP Project 17-4(2) and published as: NCHRP Report 236, "Evaluation of Traffic Controls for Highway Work Zones."

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201 Project 17-4(2) FY'80 Evaluation of Traffic Cones and Tubes for Street and Highway Work Zones Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Effective Date: Completion Date: Funds: BioTechnology, Inc. Dr. Richard F. Pain April 23, 1980 September 30, 1981 $125,000 The first phase of this research (NCHRP Project 17- 4) investigated the effectiveness of selected traffic chan- nelizing devices and device markings in stimulating driver awareness of work-zone situations. Because of limited funding, Phase I did not cover the full range of device types and applications. Therefore, additional research was needed to extend the evaluation to other device types and applications and to determine the usefulness of each type under various work zone situations. The objective of this continuation phase was to evaluate various types of cones and tubes and to determine the effects of size, spacing, reflectorization, and illumination on driver performance. The research was restricted to stationary zones and did not consider moving operations. Research has been completed, and the combined find- ings from Projects 17-4 and 17-4~2) have been published as: NCHRP Report 236, "Evaluation of Traffic Controls for Highway Work Zones." Project 17-5 FY '80 Effectiveness of Clear Recovery Zones Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Midwest Research Institute Jerry L. Graham April 1, 1980 April 30, 1982 $200,000 The objective of this research was to investigate and quantify the effectiveness of clear recovery zones of dif- fering slopes and widths in reducing the number and severity of run-o~-the-road accidents. The frequency and severity of run-off-the-road accidents were compared on highways with and without clear zones. Highway sections in Missouri, Illinois, and Minnesota served as the primary data base, supplemented with data collected previously by MRI for a skid-reduction study. Highway sections compared had similar characteristics, (e.g., traffic volume and composition, functional classification, and align- ment). Included in the sample were freeways and non- freeways and both left- (including median) and right-side encroachments. Excluded from the study were low-vol- ume roadways (less than 750 ADT), intersections, inter- changes, and urban facilities. Research has been completed. The final report, includ- ing illustrative examples describing potential applications of the clear area safety relationships in design practice, has been published as: NCHRP Report 247, "Effective- ness of Clear Recovery Zones." Project 17-6 FY '80 and FY '83 Service Vehicle Lighting and Traffic Control Systems for Short-Term and Moving Work Zones Phase Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: BioTechnology, Inc. Dr. Richard F. Pain November 1, 1982 July 24, 1984 $85,069 The objective of this project was to develop guidelines for warning systems on service vehicles and for traffic control in short-term, intermittent moving, and contin- uously moving work zones. In addition to considering the basic traffic and safety requirements, the guidelines will also place emphasis on the operational efficiency and cost- effectiveness of each treatment. The state of the art was determined through a literature review and a review of current practice. Existing literature was reviewed to identify currently recommended stan- dards, actual practice, and potential improvements. The MUTCD, the FHWA utilities handbook, ITE publica- tions, SAE Handbook, representative state and local man- uals, utilities operating practices, and research reports related to vehicle signal lighting and traffic control sys- tems were reviewed. Selected organizations were con- tacted to obtain more detailed information on the most promising techniques, problems with current practice, and the feasibility and desirability of developing stan- dards. Typical situations were identified for which service ve- hicle warning and traffic control systems are needed, and those situations having similar traffic control require- ments were combined to reduce the number of alternative treatments to be developed. Short-term, intermittent mov- ing, and continuous moving activities were included. Some of the variables considered included: type of facility; roadway width, number of lanes, shoulder characteristics; urban or rural; traffic volume and speed; physical sight restriction; adverse visibility; activity period (e.g., day or night, peak or off-peak); duration of activity; length of work zones; extent of lane encroachment; lane blockage; and speed of operation. Service vehicle warning and traffic control systems were developed for each work-type situation. For signal light- ing, consideration was given to the effects of color, flash characteristics, number, size, and intensity, as well as the environment in which the vehicle is operating. Other ve- hicle warning devices such as arrow boards, flags, and vehicle paint schemes were also considered. The traffic control systems include the use, as appropriate, of flag- men, vehicles (e.g., barrier, shadow), and traffic control devices (e.g., signs, channelizing devices, arrow panels).

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202 Spacing and size of devices, as well as the placement and number of all elements, are included. In development of the alternatives, consideration was given to the infor- mation needs of the motorist, equipment availability, characteristics of service vehicles, cost-e~ectiveness, port- ability, traffic operations, and motorist and worker safety (including the added hazard due to the placement and removal of devices). The above activities complete the Phase I effort. Be- cause of staff changes at the research agency, this contract had to be terminated at this point. Phase II is being conducted under a new contract as NCHRP Project 17-6A. The research findings from both phases will be published together at the end of Project 17-6A. Project 17-6A FY '80 and FY '83 Service Vehicle Lighting and Traffic Control Systems for Short-Term and Moving Work Zones (Phase Il) Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Transportation Research Corp. Fred R. Hanscom October 15, 1984 May 16, 1988 $252,277 The objective of this project is to develop guidelines for warning systems on service vehicles and for traffic control in short-term, intermittent moving, and contin uously moving work zones. In addition to considering the basic traffic and safety requirements, the guidelines will also place emphasis on the operational efficiency and cost- duct new field studies effectiveness of each treatment. This research consists of two phases Project 17-6 and Project 17-6A. Please refer to the Project 17-6 description for details regarding Phase I. In Phase II, indoor laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate and optimize the vehicle warning and traffic control systems. Closed field studies were conducted in Maryland to further test the most promising systems. Field tests will be conducted in early 1986, under actual highway conditions, using real or simulated work activ ities, in New York and Louisiana as a final validation of each system. A final report and an operations guide have been pre pared describing recommended vehicle warning and traffic control systems developed under this project. This guide is designed to facilitate direct incorporation into state and local manuals used by service personnel in short term and moving work zones. The final draft report is currently being reviewed. Project 17-7 FY'86 Guidelines for Converting STOP to YIELD Control at Intersections Research Agency: Bellomo-McGee, Inc. Principal Invest.: Dr. Hugh W. McGee Elective Date: December 1 6, 1 9 8 5 Completion Date: December 16, 1988 Funds: $200,000 Studies of low-volume intersections have concluded that control type has no appreciable effect on accident experience. These studies indicate YIELD control is more economical than STOP control because of the reduced delay and road user costs. For higher traffic volume in- tersections, however, insufficient accident data have been collected to demonstrate the relative safety of STOP ver- sus YIELD control. The objectives of this research are (1) to determine the accident experience when STOP-controlled intersections are converted to YIELD control, and (2) to develop guide- lines for converting STOP control to YIELD control. In order to meet these objectives, the following tasks will be performed: Task 1- Determine the current traffic engineering practice and safety experience at STOP- and YIELD- controlled intersections through a review of the technical literature and contacts with State and local highway agen- c~es. Task 2 Prepare a study design to determine the safety consequences of converting STOP control to YIELD control for the full range of applicable volumes. Submit an interim report on the findings of Task 1 and the study design developed in Task 2. Task 3 Collect existing accident data and/or con Task 4 Relate the accident findings to intersection and operating characteristics. Interpret the results to ex- plain the meanings associated with the statistical findings. Task 5 Obtain the results from previous studies of user costs and benefits related to STOP and YIELD con- trol. Integrate the safety results obtained from this project and develop criteria for converting from STOP control to YIELD control. Develop improved warrants for STOP and YIELD control. Task 6 Prepare a final report including the guide- lines for converting STOP control to YIELD control and suggested wording for improved STOP and YIELD con- trol warrants for potential inclusion in the MUTCD. Tasks 1 through 5 have been completed and the final report is being prepared. Project 17-8 FY'88 Traffic Barrier and Control Treatments for Re stricted Work Zones Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Texas A&M Research Foundation Dr. Hayes E. Ross, Jr. June 1, 1988 May 31, 1991 $450,000