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206 Project 19-2(3) FY '69 Develop Performance Budgeting System to Serve Highway Maintenance Management Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Effective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Roy Jorgensen & Associates J. L. Garner September 2, 1968 October 31, 1968 $6,000 With highway maintenance expenditures rapidly in- creasing due to completion of the Interstate System, rising traffic volumes, trends toward higher standards of phys- ical maintenance, and more traffic services, it becomes increasingly important that maintenance operations be based on reasonable and effective maintenance budgets. The scope of this project was to develop independent work plans to be used as the research plan for the second- phase work. The work plan has been received but will not be published. Refer to Project 19-2~4) for description of the over-all project objectives and details of Phase II of this study. Project 19-2(4) FY '69 Develop Performance Budgeting System to Serve Highway Maintenance Management Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Roy Jorgensen & Associates Roy E. Jorgensen J. L. Garner February 1, 1969 November 30, 1971 $220,000 The objectives of this project were to develop a model highway maintenance performance budgeting system and to pilot test the installation of the system in a State high- way department. The objectives have been accomplished in terms of the development of a model system that can be adapted for use by a State highway department to make most elective use of available maintenance funds and to assist in the process of highway budget and management planning. Pilot installation of the model system in cooperation with the State Highway Department of Georgia indicates that implementation is feasible. The research has been completed, and the project report has been published as: NCHRP Report 131, "Perform- ance Budgeting System for Highway Maintenance Man- agement." Project 19-3 FY,71 Economic Effects of Changes in Legal Vehicle Weights and Dimensions on Highways Research Agency: Wilbur Smith and Associates Principal Invest.: R. E. Whiteside Elective Date: September 15, 1970 Completion Date: June 14, 1972 Funds: $96,728 The objectives of this research were: (1) to critically review past and current research and methodologies re- lating to the consequences of possible changes in legal vehicle weight; (2) to evaluate methodologies and pro- cedures identified in the review as to their reliability, adequacy, ease of application, and other attributes; (3) to assemble from existing knowledge a recommended meth- odology or methodologies identifying all decision points involved in reaching a conclusion regarding costs and benefits associated with changes in legal weights and di- mension limits for vehicles; and (4) to recommend ad- ditional research and development as may be found necessary to fill gaps in present knowledge. The research has been completed, and the project report has been published as: NCHRP Report 141, "Changes in Legal Vehicle Weights and Dimensions-Some Eco- nomic Effects on Highways." AREA 20: SPECIAL PROJECTS Project 20-1 FY ,65, FY '66, and FY '67 Highway Reserch Information Service Research Agency: Highway Research Board Principal Invest.: Dr. Paul E. Irick Elective Date: March 16, 1964 Completion Date: October 31, 1967 Funds: $455,000 The objectives of the Highway Research Information Service were: (1) to select and store input information from current and past highway research that will be of value to users of highway information, (2) to disseminate current information to users, and (3) to retrieve relevant information on request. All storage and retrieval procedures are now opera- tional. The service, available to anyone interested, in- cludes abstracts of publications, new reports on research in progress, and the updating of previously stored reports for ongoing research. Project 20-2 FY '66 Research Needs in Highway Transportation Research Agency: Bertram D. Tallamy Associates Wilbur Smith and Associates Lloyd G. Byrd Paul E. Conrad April 1, 1966 December 31, 1967 $98,760 Principal Invest.: Effective Date: Completion Date: Funds: This project developed a coordinated framework of needed short- and long-range research in the field of high- way transportation. Major areas of needed research were

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207 identified and arranged in the general framework. Tech- nical priorities of need and an estimate of the appropriate level of funding for each are included. The framework was designed in such a manner as to permit updating with minimal effort. The project report gives method or concept for struc- turing research as developed by the research, which in- cludes a method for assigning priorities and costs to proposed research. The methods developed under this research were applied to 900 proposed research project statements considered in the study to formulate an ex- ample research program. The final report has been published as: NCHRP Report 55, "Research Needs in Highway Transportation." Project 20-3 FY '67 and FY '68 Optimizing Freeway Corridor Operation Through Traffic Surveillance, Communi- cation, and Control Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Texas A & M University Research Foundation Dr. J. A. Wattleworth Kenneth G. Courage Dec. 15, 1966 Jan. 1, 1967 Jan. 31, 1969 Dec. 31, 1968 $394,016 $200,540* To meet present and future traffic demands, the com- bined freeway and surface street system must operate more efficiently. Practical measures for increasing oper- ational efficiency by judicious application of traffic sur- veillance, communication, and control were studied for the heavily traveled corridor of the John C. Lodge Free- way in Detroit. The initial research program included an evaluation of the effectiveness of the existing National Proving Ground surveillance, communication, and control system, and its individual components. Methods were determined for in- creasing the effectiveness of the freeway and surface street system, and equipment configurations were recommended to improve the system based on a cost-effectiveness study. A technical report, "An Evaluation of Two Types of Freeway Control Systems," covering the 1967 research work was submitted and accepted. The report includes an evaluation of the initial NPG television and advisory speed and lane-control signs and a description and eval- uation of the ramp-metering system. Six additional reports were prepared covering the 1967 research work. The major work items proposed for completion in 1968 were a pilot study of a freeway-frontage road driver in- formation system, further freeway operations studies us- ing improved detection and refined control techniques, environmental effects studies, pilot equipment studies for traffic-responsive signal control throughout the corridor, *NCHRP funds obligated under the $314,340 four-way agreement among the National Academy of Sciences, Michigan Department of State Highways, Wayne County, and the City of Detroit. and a preliminary design for a more extensive driver- communication system to include the surface streets within the corridor. The project report for the 1968 work, "A Freeway Corridor Surveillance, Information, and Control System," was accepted but not published. A sum- mary of the work has been provided in the report prepared under Project 20-3C. At the end of 1968 the research agency requested, due to extensive other research commitments, to be relieved of further work. A continuation proposal was requested from the University of Michigan. The research was con- tinued under Project 20-3A. Project 20-3A FY 969 and FY '70 Optimizing Freeway Corridor Operation Through Traffic Surveillance, Communi- cation, and Control Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: University of Michigan Dr. Donald E. Cleveland Nov. 20, 1968 Jan. 1, 1969 May 31, 1971 Dec. 31, 1969 $505,631 $20,000: This project was a continuation of the 1967 and 1968 research conducted by the Texas Transportation Institute under Project 20-3. The basic tasks and their respective components of the 1969 research work were designed to develop information required for the ultimate synthesis of a traffic surveillance, driver information, and control system capable of real- time control of traffic throughout an entire network of arterial streets and freeways. The topics included (1) de- tection of capacity-reducing incidents, (2) improved ramp control techniques and environmental effects, (3) pilot studies of freeway-frontage road informational system, (4) an experiment in traffic routing within the freeway cor- rider, and (5) observation of freeway operations. Draft reports on the topics of the 1969 research work have been accepted by the project committee. The 1970 research had the general objective of im- proving the combined level-of-service on the Freeway and the supporting street network. The work was divided into four principal tasks, all of which were completed: (1) improvement of ramp metering and freeway corridor flow; (2) improvement of Davison-Lodge interchange opera- tion; (3) determination of the effect of weather on freeway corridor operations; and (4) long-term motorist response to the information system. Draft final reports on the results from the work under the tasks were accepted and are available on a loan basis upon written request to the NCHRP. They, along with the 1969 reports, have not been published, but are sum- marized in the report prepared under Project 20-3C. tNCHRP funds obligated under the $70,000 five-way agreement among the Na- tional Academy of Sciences, Michigan Department of State Highways, Wayne County, the City of Detroit, and the University of Michigan.

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208 Project 20-3B FY '70 Optimizing Freeway Corridor Operation Through Traffic Surveillance, Communi- cation, and Control Summary Reporting Research Agency: Patrick J. Athol Principal Invest: Patrick J. Athol Elective Date: July 1, 1972 Termination Date: September 27, 1974 Funds: $31,116 Because a substantial body of knowledge relative to more efficient operation of systems made up of freeways and adjacent streets has been acquired through NCHRP Projects 20-3, 20-3A, and studies under other programs, Project 20-3B was established with the following objec- tives: 1. Preparation of a report summarizing the main find- ings of freeway surveillance and control on the John C. Lodge Freeway in Detroit. The end product of this syn- thesis was to have been one report that summarized all historic and technical activities of the research conducted by the State of Michigan and under the NPG and NCHRP Projects 20-3 and 20-3A. The major emphasis was to be placed on reporting on usable results that have been found to be practical on the Lodge project. 2. Preparation of a report in the vein of "Getting the Most Service from Freeways," using published research reports and the experience available from past and on- going freeway traffic operations projects. Objective 1 was advanced only to the point of a pre- liminary report that was submitted to the NCHRP project panel for an acceptance review. Based on this review, extensive revisions were required. They were begun but were never completed; therefore, a revised report was never submitted. Some work was carried out toward Ob- jective 2, but, although the original completion date had been overrun by a year, it was not substantial and never progressed to the point of a preliminary report. Still an- other extension was imminent; however, the contractor chose to quit without fulfilling the objectives set forth in his proposal. By mutual agreement, the project was ter- minated. This research was resumed under Project 20- 3C. Project 20-3C FY '70 Summary of the Lodge Freeway Research Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Asriel Taragin Asriel Taragin November 15, 1975 July 15, 1976 $10,183 This project was initiated to prepare a summary report outlining the main findings from a long series of freeway surveillance and control studies on the John C. Lodge Freeway in Detroit. The historical research has been com- pleted, and a report has been submitted. It covers the objectives, organization, and data, as well as the results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with each stage of the traffic research studies. References to all published and unpublished reports as well as file docu- ments pertinent to the background of the studies have been appropriately identified. The agency's final report has been distributed to the sponsoring agencies; microfiche of the report may be pur- chased (see final page of this section for ordering infor- mation). Project 20-3D FY '70 Summary of All Freeway Surveillance, Com munication and Control Experience Research Agency: Alan M. Voorhees & Associates Principal Invest.: Dr. Donald G. Capelle Elective Date: - May 15, 1977 Completion Date: December 31, 1978 Funds: $40,000 This project complements Project 20-3C. It was estab- lished to prepare a summary report of all experience with the surveillance, communications, and traffic control as- pects of freeway operations. Published reports and other experience available from relevant research projects were reviewed. The final report provides a synthesis of past and present practices to aid highway administrators in decisions related to freeway operation problems. Research has been completed. Because the final report is of a nontechnical nature and is directed to top-level administrators, it was published as a special publication rather than in the regular NCHRP series. The report, "Freeway Traffic Management," is available for $5.00 (see final page of this section for ordering information). Project 20-4 FY '68 Public Preference for Future Indiviclual Trans- portation Research Agency: Chilton Research Services (CRS) National Analysts (NA) Robert K. McMillan James M. Marshall May 2, 1967 January 21, 1969 (CRS) January 2, 1968 (NA) $279,171 Principal Invest.: Effective Date: Completion Date: Funds: The objective of this research was to determine the attitudes and behavior of the public related to transpor- tation and identify the factors that influence such attitude and behavior. A first-phase report was published in 1968 as: NCHRP Report 49, "National Survey of Transportation Attitudes and Behvior Phase I Summary Report." This report

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209 presents a preliminary analysis of the nationwide survey data. It includes a comparison of household and individ- ual characteristics for both survey samples and a question- by-question analysis of the total sample. A second-phase report has been published as: NCHRP Report 82, "National Survey of Transportation Attitudes and Behavior Phase II Analysis Report." This report presents results of a more advanced statistical analysis of the data. This analysis is multi-variant in nature; that is, it considers many variables simultaneously to obtain a comprehensive view of transportation attitudes, their re- lation to behavior and demographic characteristics, and profiles of people holding these views. The report includes 16 charts that indicate attitudes, according to eight demographic variables, toward spend- ing for roadways and highways and public transportation. The report deals comprehensively with data by describing the methodology, statistical methods used, and the de- tailed findings. Project 20-5 FY '68 and continuing Synthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Transportation Research Board T. L. Copas H. A. Pennock December 15, 1967 Continuing $100,000 annually, $200,000 annually, $300,000 annually, $330,000 $360,000 annually, $380,000 $650,000 $600,000 $600,000 $650,000 $550,000 Administrators, practicing engineers, and researchers are continually faced with highway problems on which much information exists, either in documented form or in terms of undocumented experience and practice. Un- fortunately this information is often fragmented, scat- tered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full information on what has been learned about a problem is frequently not brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may be unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. In this project, particular highway problems, or sets of closely related problems, will be designated as topics for information synthesis. For each topic the objectives are: 1. To locate and assemble documented information. 2. To learn what engineering practice has been used for solving or alleviating the problem. 3. To identify all ongoing research. 4. To learn what problems remain largely unsolved. 5. To organize, evaluate, synthesize, and document the useful information that is acquired. 6. To evaluate the effectiveness of the synthesis after it has been in the hands of its users for a period of time. The 143 published syntheses of highway practice that have been prepared under this project are listed in Table 6. Additional information on the project may be found in Research Results Digest 168. Project20-6 FY '69 and continuing Legal Problems Arising out of Highway Programs Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Effective Date: Completion Date: Funds: $200,000 FY '69 $125,000 FY '72 $50,000 FY '73 $ 185,000 FY '74 $125,000 FY '75 $85,000 FY '76 FY '68-'71 $75,000 FY '77 FY '72-'75 FY '76-'77 FY '78 FY '79-'83 FY '84 FY '85 FY '86 FY '87 FY '88 FY '89 Transportation Research Board Robert W. Cunliffe November 1, 1968 Continuing $100,000 Ann. FY '78-'79 $ 150,000 Ann. FY '80-'81 $100,000 FY '82 $ 150,000 FY '83 $200,000 FY '84 $280,000 FY '85 $200,000 FY '86 & '88 $100,000 FY '89 A major and continuing need of State highway de- partments involves the assembly, analysis, and evaluation of operating practices and the legal elements of special problems involving right-of-way acquisition and control and highway law in general. Individual State experiences need to be compared and made available for possible application nationally. Need exists with respect to both immediate and longer-range right-of-way and legal prob- lems. In spite of this critical need, there has been no present mechanism that is capable of responding in time to be of practical assistance to State highway departments. The Right-of-Way and Legal Affairs Committee of the Amer- ican Association of State Highway Officials has tried all of the known channels in an effort to initiate such re- search, but the response has been negative for one reason or another. Accordingly, State highway officials have agreed that an appropriate mechanism be initiated under which needed research of the type suggested can be undertaken and with dispatch. Prototypes of such a device may be found in the various AASHO and HRB road-test projects that have been undertaken and, perhaps more closely

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210 related, in the 1956-60 special HRB Highway Laws Project. NCHRP Project 20-6 has been established to meet the aforementioned need and is a continuing effort involving research on a priority listing of topics selected by the cognizant NCHRP project committee. The topics of con cern to date are: Study No. 1 Relocation Assistance Under Chapter Five of the 1968 Federal-Aid Highway Act (Research Results Digest No. 3) Study No. 2 Standing to Sue for Purposes of Securing Judicial Review of Exercise of Admin- istration Discretion in Route Location of Federal-Aid Highways (Research Re- sults Digest No. 6) Study No. 3 Valuation Changes Resulting From In- fluence of Public Improvements (Re- search Results Digest No. 11) Study No. 4 Advance Acquisition Under the 1968 Federal-Aid Highway Act (Research Results Digest No. 19) Study No. 5 Valuation in Eminent Domain as Af- fected by Zoning (Research Results Di- gest No. 22) Study No. 6 Federal Environmental Legislation and Regulations as Affecting Highways (Re- search Results Digest No. 25) Study No. 7 Changes in Existing State Law Required by the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 (Research Results Digest No. 32) Study No. 8 Proposed Legislation to Authorize Joint Development of Highway Rights-of- Ways (Research Results Digest No. 31) Study No. 9-Legal Effect of Representations as to Subsurface Conditions (Research Re- sults Digest No. 39~** Study No. 11 Personal Liability of State Highway De- partment Officers and Employees (Re- serch Results Digest No. 79~** Study No. 12 Tort Liability of Highway Departments Arising Out of Skidding Accidents (Re- search Results Digest Nos. 83 and 95~** Study No. 13 - Appeal Bodies for Relocation Assistance (Research Results Digest No. 40) Study No. 15- Trial Strategy and Techniques to Ex- clude Noncompensable Damages and Improper Valuation Methods in Emi- nent Domain Cases (Research Results Digest No. 41) Study No. 16 Supplemental Condemnation: A Discus- sion of the Principles of Excess and Sub- stitute Condemnation (Research Results Digest No. 42) Study No. 17 Liability of State Highway Departments for Design, Construction, and Mainte- nance Defects (Research Results Digest No. 80~** Study No. 23 Exclusion of Valuation Changes Result- ing from Influence of Public Improve- ment: A Study of the Provisions of 42 U.S.C. 4651 (3) (Research Results Di- gest No. 45) Study No. 24 Eminent Domain: An Overview* Study No. 25 Where Does Police Power End and Em- inent Domain Begin?* Study No. 26 Just Compensation and the Doctrine of Damnum Absque Injuria* Study No. 27 The Meaning of Highway Purpose (Re- search Results Digest No. 68~* Study No. 28 Valuation of Outdoor Advertising Rights* Study No. 30 Liability for Drainage Damage* Study No. 31 Trial Strategy and Techniques Using the Income Approach to Valuation (Re- search Results Digest No. 54~* Study No. 32 Trial Strategy and Techniques Using the Comparable Sales Approach to Valua- tion (Research Results Digest No. 47~* Study No. 33 Trial Strategy and Techniques Using the Reproduction Cost Less Depreciation Approach to Valuation* Study No. 34-Trial Aids in Highway Condemnation Cases* (Research Results Digest No. 111) Study No. 35 Model Airspace Act: A Vehicle for Joint Development* Study No. 36-Formation of the Contract** (Research Results Digest No. 109) Study No. 37 Effect of Mistakes in Bids, Plans and Specifications** Study No. 38-Legal Problems Arising from Changes, Change Clauses and Changed Condi- tions** Study No. 39 Contract Completion Time: Damages for Delay; Liquidated Damages; Work Stoppage Under Court Order** Study No. 40 Administrative Settlement and Disposi- tion of Claims** Study No. 41 Trial Strategy and Techniques in Con- tract Litigation** (Research Results Di- gest No. 108) Study No. 42 Environmental Litigation: Rights and Remedies** Study No. 43 Trial Strategy and Techniques in Envi- ronmental Litigation** Study No. 44 Legal Interrelationship of the Federal and State Governments** Study No. 45 Review of the One-O~er System of Right-of-Way Acquisition (Completed)

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211 Study No. 46 Liability of Governmental Agencies for Improper Traffic Control Devices, Signs, and Pavement Markings** (Research Results Digest No. 110) Study No. 47 Supplementation of Studies 15, 31, 32 and 33, and Project 11-1~2~*** Study No. 48 Supplementation of Studies, 3, 4, and 5.*** Study No. 49 Inverse Condemnation*** Study No. 50 Payment of Attorney Fees and Other Costs in Condemnation and Environ mental Litigation*** (Research Results Digest No. 103) Study No. 51 Appraisal of Property Damages Due to Highway Noise*** (Research Results Digest No. 99) Study No. 54- Outdoor Advertising Control and Ac quisition (Completed) Study No. 57 Legal Aspects of Access Control on Un limited-Access Highways*** (Research Results Digest No. 112) Study No. 60-Relocation of Public Utilitiest (Research Results Digest No. 116) Study No. 61- Right to Compensation in Eminent Do- main for Abrogation of Restrictive Cov- enants*** (Research Results Digest No. 113) Topic No. 2-03 Condemnation Blight: (Research Re- sults Digest 119) Topic No. 2-04 Legal Aspects of Historic Preservation in Highway Programslt (Research Re- sults Digest 138) Topic No. 2-05 Local Land-Use Regulations in Rela- tion to Highway Programs (Com- pleted)~: Topic No. 2-08 "State Highway Programs Versus the Spending Powers of Congress" (Re- search Results Digest 136) Topic No. 2-09 Procedural Aspects of Inverse Con- demnation Actions Completed Topic No. 2-10 The Effect of Federal and State Public Information Acts on Highway and Transportation Department Activitieslt (Research Results Digest 137) Topic No. 2-13 Update of Five Tort Liability Papers in Chapter VIII, SSHLt Topic No. 2-14-Update of "Legal Effect of Represen- tations as to Subsurface Conditions"l Topic No. 2-15 Update of "Valuation and Condem- nation of Special Purpose Properties" (Completed) t: Topic No. 2-16 Update of"Environmental Litigation: Rights and Remedies" Completed Topic No. 2-17 Update of "Damnum Absque Injuria and the Concept of Just Compensation in Eminent Domain"l Topic No. 2-18-Update of"Supplemental Condemna- tion: A Discussion of the Principles of Excess and Substitute Condemnation"t Topic No. 2-19 Update of "Liability for Delay in Com- pletion of Highway Construction Con- tracts" ~ Topic No. 2-21 Legal Implications of Highway De- partment's Failure to Comply with Design, Safety, or Maintenance Guide- linesti (Research Results Digest 129) Topic No. 2-22 Update of "Legal Problems Arising from Changes, Changed Conditions, and Disputes Clauses in Highway Construc- tion Contracts"t Topic No. 2-23 Update of"Where Does Police Power End and Eminent Domain Begin": Topic No. 2-24 Update of "The Meaning of Highway Purpose" ~ Topic No. 2-25 Update of "Liability of the State for Highway Traffic Noise"l Topic No. 2-26 Update of "Right of Compensation in Eminent Domain for Abrogation of Re- strictive Covenants" ~ Topic No. 2-27 Update of "Liability for Highway Drainage Damage"l Topic No. 2-28 Update of "Valuation nd Condemna- tion Problems Involving Trade Fixtures (Completed) l: Topic No. 2-29 Update of "Valuation and Condem- nation of Advertising Signs and Related Property Interests Under the Highway Beautification Act" Completed Topic No. 2-30 Update of "Payment of Attorney Fees in Eminent Domain and Environmental Litigation" Completed Update of "Rules of Discovery and Disclosure in Highway Condemnation Proceedings" Completed Topic No. 2-32 - Update of "Legal Implications of Con- trol of Access to Uncontrolled-Access Highways" Completed Topic No. 2-33 Liability of the State for Injury Pro- ducing Defects in Highway Surfaced (Research Results Digest 135) Topic No. 2-36 Liability of State Highway Depart- ments for Defects in Design, Construc- tion, and Maintenance of Bridges (Research Results Digest 141) Topic No. 2-37- Liability of Highway Agencies for Failure to Remove Obstructions In or Topic No. 2-3~ *Published in Selected Studies in Highway Law, Vols. ~ and 2. **Published in Selected Studies in Highway Law, Vol. 3. ***Published in first addendum to SSHL. t published in second addendum to SSHL. tt published in third addendum to SSHL. ttt published in fourth addendum to SSHL.

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212 Near the Highway (Completed) (Re- search Results Digest 151) Topic No. 2-37A Liability of the State for Injuries Caused by Obstruction on Defects in Highway Shoulder or Berm (Com- pleted) t:t (Research Results Digest 153) Topic No. 3-01 Disposition of Minerals on Highway Rights-of-Way (Research Results Digest 147 Topic No. 3-02 Legal and Procedural Issues Related to Relocation Assistance (Research Re sults Digest 158 Topic No. 4 Topic No. 3-04 First Amendment Aspects of Control of Outdoor Advertising (Research Re sults Digest 145 Topic No. 3-05 Liability of a Public Agency for Plan ning Blight: The "De Facto" Taking (Completed (Research Results Di gest 150) Topic No. 3-06-Exaction of Right-of-Way by the Ex ercise of Police Power (Completed (Research Results Digest 149) Topic No. 3-07 Trial Strategy and Techniques in Han dling Tort Claims Arising Out of High way Operations (Completed) Topic No. 3-09 Trial Strategies and Techniques in Es tablishing Violations of Size and Weight Laws (Completed (Research Results Digest 154) Topic No. 3-10 Enforceability of the Requirement of Notice in Highway Construction Con tracts (Completed) tlt (Research Results Digest 152) Topic No. 3-19-Minority Business or Enterprise Re quirements in Public Contracts (Re search Results Digest 146~: Topic No. 4-02 Liability of Highway Agencies for Failure to Provide or Maintain Highway Barriers, Guardrails and Similar Devices (Incorporated into Topic 4-07) Topic No. 4-03 Liability of Public Agencies Arising Out of Rejection of Low Bids and Mis award of Contracts (In progress; was 3 13) Topic No. 4-04 Use of Guarantee or Warranty Clauses in Highway Construction Contracts (Completed; was 3-14) Topic No. 4-06 Update of "Payment to Public Utilities for Relocation of Facilities in Highway Right-of-Way" (Completed; was 3 21~t Topic No. 4-07 Update of "Liability of State and Local Governments for Negligence Arising Out of the Installation and Maintenance of Warning Signs, Traffic Lights, and Pave ment Markings" (Completed; was 3- 22~l Topic No. 4-08 Legal Techniques for Reserving Right- of-Way for Future Projects including Corridor Protection (Research Results Digest 165 Topic No. 4-09 Flooding and Water Problems Involv- ing Highways (Completed Topic No. 4- 10-Land Use Laws and Effect on Highway Construction, Including Police Power Taking by Zoning, Freezing, Dedication, etc. (Completed 11 Beautification (Update of Study No. 54 "Outdoor Advertising Control Under the Highway Beautification Act of 1965") (Completed Topic No. 4-12 Legal Implications of Penalty and Bo- nus Provisions For Quality Control and the Use of Incentive-Disincentive Clauses in Construction Contracts (Com- pleted)~l Topic No. 4-13-The Use of Alternative Design Speci- fications and Value Engineering Clauses in Highway Contracts (Pending) Topic No. 4-14 Liability to Abutting Property Owner for Loss or Impairment of Access Due to Conversion of Conventional Road Into Limited Access Highway (Research Re- sults Digest 164~: Topic No. 4-15-Update of Five Papers in Contract Law (In Progress; was 3-20) (1) Licensing and Qualifications of Bidders (Research Results Digest 157~; (2) Competitive Bidding and Award of Highway Con- struction Contracts (Research Results Digest 163~; (3) Indemnification and Suretyship In Highway Construction Contracts (Completed; (4) Labor Standards in Federal-Aid Construction Contracts (In progress); (5) Control of Conflicts of Interest in Highway Admin- istration (Pending) Topic No. 4-17 Acquisition of Uneconomic Remnants Under 23 U.S.C. 109f (Research Results Digest 160~: Topic No. 4-18-Liability for Delay in Completion of Highway Construction Contracts (Com- pleted)~l Topic No. 4-19-Wetlands and Floodplain Protection and the Federal-Aid Highway Program (In progress) Topic No. 4-20 What Constitutes the Administrative Record in Highway Cases (In progress) I Effect of Clean Air Act Requirements on Regional Transportation Planning (Pending) Topic No. 4-2

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213 Topic No.4-22 Suspension and Debarment of High way Construction Contractors (Pending) Topic No.4-23 Public/Private Partnerships for Fi nancing Highway Improvements (Com pleted) (Research Results Digest 161 Topic No.4-24 Update of Chapter in SSHL on "Legal Aspects of Historic Preservation in High way Transportation Programs (Pending) Topic No.4-25 Impact of Civil Rights Act on De- Topic No. 5-17 partments, Programs and Officials (In progress) Topic No.4-26 Legal Aspects of Hazardous Waste Containments in Highway Programs (Pending) Topic No.5-01 Impact of Discretionary Exemption of Tort Liability (In Progress) Topic No.5-02- Condemnation Blight and Project En hancement (Pending) Topic No. 5-03 Application of National Environ mental Policy Act to Highway Planning and Highway Programs (Pending) Topic No. 5-04 Public Duty Defense to Tort Liability (Pending) Topic No. 5-05- Legal Obligation of States to Permit Highway Occupancy of New Technolo gies (e.g. Fibre Optics and CATV) (Pend ing) Topic No. 5-06 State Highway Liability for and Abil ity to Recover Attorney Fees and Costs (Pending) Topic No. 5-07 Obligation of State Highway Depart ments in Coastal Zones (Pending) Topic No. 5-08 Update Paper in SSHL on "Liability of the State for Highway Traffic Noise" (Pending) Topic No. 5-09 Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Or ganizations Act- RICO Cases (Civil) in the Highway Program (Pending) Topic No. 5-10 The Use, Implementation, and En forcement of Liquidated Damage Provi sions in Highway Construction Contracts (Pending) Topic No. 5-11 Supplement to "Legal Implications of Highway Departments Failure to Com ply with Design, Safety, or Maintenance Guidelines" (Pending) Topic No. 5-12 Supplement to "Liability of the State for Injury Producing Defects in Highway Surface" (Pending) Topic No. 5-13 Supplement to "Liability of State Highway Departments for Defects in De sign, Construction, and Maintenance of Bridges" (Pending) Topic No. 5-14 Supplement to "Liability of State and Local Governments for Snow and Ice Control" (Pending) Topic No. 5-15 Supplement to "Liability for Wet- Weather Skidding Accidents and Legal Implications of Regulations Directed to Reducing Such Accidents on Highways" (Pending) Topic No. 5-16 Supplement to "Valuation Changes Resulting from Influence of Public Im- provements" (Pending) '-Supplement to "Planning and Precon- demnation Activities as Constituting a Taking Under Inverse Law" (Pending) Topic No. 5-18 Supplement to "Minority and Disad- vantaged Business Enterprise Require- ments in Public Contracting" (Pending) Studies completed under this project have been pub- lished as NCHRP Research Results Digests (see Table 7~. The most recent of which have also been included in the text, Selected Studies in Highway Law. Volumes 1 and 2, dealing primarily with the law of eminent domain, were published in 1976, and Volume 3, dealing with con- tracts, torts, environmental and other areas of highway law, was published in early 1978. All three volumes have been distributed on a limited basis to selected state and federal offices. Information on obtaining copies of this text may be found in the newly created NCHRP Legal Research Digest 1 (see Table 8) or by contacting the Transportation Research Board Publications Office. The first addendum to Selected Studies in Highway Law, consisting of five new papers and supplements to eight existing papers, was issued during 1979. A second addendum with two new papers and 15 supplements was distributed early in 1981. A third addendum consisting of eight new papers, seven supplements, and an expand- able binder for Volume 4 was distributed during the first half of 1983. A fourth addendum, consisting of 14 new papers, 8 supplements, and an index was published in June 1988. The four volumes now total about 3,000 pages comprising 67 papers, 38 of which have been supplemented over the years. All four volumes have been distributed on a limited basis to selected state and federal offices. Through December 31, 1988, research continues on topics listed as being "In Progress," and preparations are underway to proceed with studies on additional topics. Future work in this continuing project will include re- search on new topics of current interest in the legal field. Updating and supplementing the text book will continue *Published in Selected Studies in Highway Law, Vols. 1 and 2. **Published in Selected Studies in Highway Law, Vol. 3. ***Published in first addendum to SSHL. t published in second addendum to SSHL. Republished in third addendum to SSHL. tlt published in fourth addendum to SSHL.

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214 to include the preparation of a new Volume 5 in Selected Studies in Highway Law. The primary purpose of Volume 5 will be to address new areas, not previously covered. Project 20-7 FY ,69 and continuing Research for AASHTO Standing Committee on Highways Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Effective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Open December 2, 1968 Continuing $100,000 annually, $56,000 $150,000 annually, $125,000 FY '69-'85 FY '86 FY '87-'88 FY '89 The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Standing Committee on Highways is called on continually to rule on engi- neering and operations policies as a guide for State high- way and transportation departments to follow. The Committee desires to obtain guidance on a reasonably prompt schedule through a continuing research program geared to the needs and wishes of the Committee in the development of guides, standards, policies, and other AASHTO activities. In earlier years, objectives of the Committee were attained through the establishment of a continuing research capability at the Texas Transporta- tion Institute (TTI) of Texas A&M University. In June 1973, the Committee stipulated that accomplishment of task research could be through any agency deemed by the NCHRP to possess the necessary expertise, provided the research could be initiated quickly. The project includes a series of tasks specified by the Committee to obtain data required by the Committee to fulfill its responsibilities. The status of each of the tasks undertaken in this project is as follows: Task 1, "Development of a Cost-Effectiveness Ap- proach to the Programming of Roadside Safety Improve- ments" (TTI). Research has been completed, and the task report published as NCHRP Report 148, "Roadside Safety Improvement Programs on Freeways A Cost- Effectiveness Priority Approach." The report describes a hazard model that can be used to evaluate the electiveness of a roadside safety improvement program. Task 2, "The Relation of Side Slope Design to Highway Safety" (TTI). Research has been completed, and the task report published as NCHRP Report 158, "Selection of Safe Roadside Cross Sections." Tentative criteria for the selection of safe side slopes and safe slope and ditch com- binations are proposed. Task 3, "Development of an Elective Earth-Berm Ve- hicle Deflector" (TTI). The final report has been com- pleted, and the results summarized in NCHRP Research Results Digest 77. The study was exploratory in nature, and further research is recommended. Task 4, "Lateral Accelerations and Lateral Tire-Pave- ment Forces in a Vehicle Traversing Curves Relative to Available Pavement Skid-Resistance Measures (TTI). The final report has been completed and accepted by the AASHTO Standing Committee. NCHRP Research Re- sults Digest 55 summarizes the results of the study. The study found that, although more needs to be known about the limitations of the existing AASHTO curve design policy, the present policy will in most instances provide safe, conservative designs for highway curves. Task 5, "Effect of Curb Geometry and Location" (TTI). Research has been completed, and the task report pub- lished as NCHRP Report 150, "Effect of Curb Geometry and Location on Vehicle Behavior." The study provides recommendations regarding curb configuration and place- ment. Task 6, "Development of Impact Attenuators Utilizing Waste Materials" (TTI). Various used-tire configurations and a fiberized aluminum product were examined in the laboratory and analytically, and by full-scale field testing in some instances, to determine feasibility and to develop design information regarding the use of these materials for vehicle impact attenuation. Research has been com- pleted, and the task report published as NCHRP Report 157, "Crash Cushions of Waste Materials." Designs are proposed for attenuators using two different configura- tions of scrap tires. Task 7. "Safety at Narrow Bridge Sites" (TTI). Re- search has been completed. A bridge hazard index is proposed for assessing the degree of hazard of narrow bridges. Guidelines are offered for remedial treatments at narrow bridges. The essential findings have been published in NCHRP Research Results Digest 98. The revised agency report has been published as NCHRP Report 203, "Safety at Narrow Bridge Sites." Task 8, "Energy and Transportation Systems" (Cali- fornia Department of Transportation). This study was designed to establish "energy factors" for the various elements of energy use in constructing, maintaining, and operating transportation systems; to develop procedures for evaluating the energy use by such systems by applying the established energy factors; and to develop a rational method for reporting the results. Research has been com- pleted, and copies of the agency report have been dis- tributed to the Program sponsors. Microfiche of the report may be purchased (see final page of this section for or- dering information). Task 9, "Review of Highway Management Studies Co- Sponsored by AASHTO and HUFSAM" (Management and Transportation Associates, Inc.) This was an evalu- ation of the Highway and Transportation Management Institute and the National Highway and Transportation Management Conference that have been offered annually over the past several years to improve the management

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215 skills of highway department personnel. The study find- ings indicate that there is a continuing need within high- way and transportation agencies for management training, but it is becoming increasingly difficult to justify the travel, time, and expenses required by the courses cur- rently being scheduled. As an alternative, the report rec- ommends development of a two-week course to be presented once each year in each of the four AASHTO regions. Research has been completed, and copies of the agency report distributed to the Program sponsors. Task 10, "Review of Vehicle Weight/Horsepower Ra- tio as Related to Passing-Lane Design Criteria" (The Pennsylvania State University). The current AASHTO publications on highway geometries use a loaded truck with weight/horsepower ratio of 400:1 as the design ve- hicle in determining the need for passing lanes on hills. The objective of this task was to evaluate the currently used design vehicle. Research has been completed. A recommendation is made that a truck with a weight/ horsepower ratio of 300:1 be used where truck traffic is the controlling factor. An automobile pulling a travel trailer with a combined weight/horsepower ratio of 60:1 is recommended as the design vehicle on sections of high- way not subjected to truck traffic but heavily used by recreation vehicles. Research has been completed, and copies of the agency report have been distributed to the Program sponsors. Task 11, "Longitudinal Occupancy of Freeways by Utilities" (Byrd, Tallamy, MacDonald and Lewis). The objective of this task was to determine the over-all fea- sibility and practicality of joint occupancy of freeway ROW by trunk-line and transmission-type utility facili- ties. Research has been completed. Interviews have been conducted with highway and utility personnel. Existing joint occupancy sites have been studied for identification of potential problems. Possible benefits to the general public have been assessed. Copies of the agency report have been distributed to the Program sponsors. Task 12, "Guidelines for Citizen Participation in Trans- portation Planning" (Kathleen Stein Hudson). The AASHTO Standing Committee on Planning has compiled material for preparation of guidelines for citizen partic- ipation in transportation planning. The objective of this task was to prepare draft guidelines from the materials that have been compiled. The project report has been published by AASHTO as: "Guidelines on Citizen Par- ticipation in Transportation Planning." Task 13, "Guidelines for Safety Criteria for Low-Vol- ume Roads" (John C. Glennon). The objective of this task was to evaluate and suggest modifications for existing safety criteria with regard to their applicability and relevancy for roads carrying less than 400 vehicles per day at normal and reduced speeds. Research has been completed, and the report has been published as NCHRP Report 214, "Design and Traffic Control Guidelines for Low-Volume Rural Roads." Task 14, "A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets" (John F. Holman & Co., Inc.~. The objective of this task was the preparation of an edited version of a new AASHTO publication being compiled by the Task Force on Geometric Design of the AASHTO Subcom- mittee on Design. The new publication will replace the current AASHTO publications, A Policy on Geometric Design of Rural Highways-1965 (Blue Book) and A Policy on Design of Urban Highways and Arterial Streets 1973 (Red Book). Research has been completed, and the new book, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, has been published by AASHTO. Task 15, "Development of a Simplified Pavement Man- agement System" (ARE, Inc.~. The objectives of this task are to (1) prepare a synthesis report on pavement man- agement system (PMS) research and development and (2) develop a simplified PMS suitable for assisting highway agencies in rehabilitation programming of existing pave- ments. The synthesis report has been completed and the report published as NCHRP Report 215, "Pavement Management System Development." A simplified PMS has been developed as accomplish- ment of item 2. Research has been completed and copies of the agency report have been distributed to the program sponsors. Task 16, "Regulation of Movement of Hazardous Car- goes" (D. M. Baldwin). Mr. Baldwin was retained as a consultant to prepare a report on the current state of the art on the task subject and to suggest specific objectives for further study. Research has been completed, and cop- ies of the consultant's report have been distributed to the Program Sponsors. Task 17, "Evaluating AASHO Road Test Satellite and Environmental Studies" (Texas A&M University). The objectives of this task were to (1) compile available data and information from satellite road tests and from sections of the AASHO Road Test subsequent to the completion of the road test and (2) determine the feasibility of using the information to propose revisions to the "AASHO Interim Guide for Design of Pavement Structures, 1972." Research has been completed on the initial phase and a report submitted indicating little feasibility of using sat- ellite road test data to revise the pavement design guides developed from the AASHO Road Test data. However, it was found that overlay design procedures could be developed from satellite road test data on a climatic region basis. Additional funding was provided for a second phase of the study to develop such overlay design procedures for at least two climatic regions. Research has been com- pleted, and copies of the agency report have been dis- tributed to Program Sponsors. Task 18, "Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges" (Howard Needles Tammen & Bergendoff~. The objective of this task is the preparation of a completely reorganized and edited version of Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges and Structures for publication by

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216 AASHTO. Research has been completed, and the reor- ganized and edited version, Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, has been published by AASHTO. Task 19, "The Engineering Aspects of Highway Traffic Safety in an Age of Limited Resources" (TRB). A con- ference on the above subject was jointly sponsored by AASHTO, FHWA, and others and was held in St. Louis, Mo., November 2-5, 1981. The AASHTO funding support in the amount of $25,000 was allocated from Project 20- 7. The TRB was responsible for the planning and conduct of the conference. Proceedings of the conference have been distributed to the conference sponsors. Task 20, "Vehicle Acceleration and Deceleration Char- acteristics" (University of Michigan). The objective of this task is to evaluate the influence of changes in vehicle size, weight, power, and brake systems on acceleration and deceleration capability. The results will be used during future revisions of highway geometric design. The task was being combined with Project 15-8, "Parameters Af- fecting Stopping Sight Distance and Vehicle Accelera- tion/Deceleration Characteristics." Research has been completed, and the findings included in NCHRP Report 270, "Parameters Affecting Stopping Sight Distance." Task 21, "Need for Pavement Markings on Low-Vol- ume Roads" (John C. Glennon). The objective of this task was to verify or modify the suggested warrants for centerline and no-passing markings of low-volume roads as described in NCHRP Report 214. Research has been completed, and copies of the agency report have been distributed to Program Sponsors. Task 22, "Encasement of Pipelines Through Highway and Railroad Roadbeds" (Byrd, Tallamy, MacDonald and Lewis). The objective of this task is to develop pro- cedures for determining the need for pipeline encasement based on (1) a review of literature on underground pipe- line design and performance, (2) a limited stress analysis of underground pipelines, and (3) an evaluation of field experience by highway, railroad, and utility agencies of encased and unencased pipelines under roadbeds. Re- search has been completed, and copies of the agency report have been distributed to Program sponsors. Task 23, "Contracting Policies and Payment Proce- dures" (Bergstralh-Shaw-Newman, Inc.~. The objectives of this task were to evaluate current contracting practices and methods of determining pay-quantities for highway construction work in the United States and to suggest any appropriate improvements. Research has been com- pleted, and copies of the agency report have been dis- tributed to program sponsors. Task 24, "AASHTO Pavement Design Guide" (Dr. Frank McCullough Mr. Fred Finn). NCHRP Project 1-24 is funded from the FY '84 program in the amount of $500,000 with the objective being the preparation of a revised and expanded pavement design guide for consid- eration by AASHTO to replace the current publication, AASHTO Interim Guide for Design of Pavement Struc tures 1972 (Chapter III Revised 19819. In the interest of expediting this work, the entire project was conducted as Task 24 of Project 20-7. Research has been completed, copies of the proposed new AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures have been distributed to program sponsors, and the document has been published by AASHTO. Task 25, "STRS Support Task" (Various consultants). The purpose of this task was to respond to the desires of the Executive Committee of AASHTO to obtain prelim- inary study designs for the six research areas identified in the Strategic Transportation Research Study (STRS) report. Nine consultants were retained by NCHRP to assist in preparation of the study designs. Work has been completed and the report distributed to the STRS Task Force anc program sponsors. Task 26, "Research and Development Needs in Con- struction Engineering Management" (Bergstralh-Shaw- Newman, Inc.~. The objective of this task was to update the research and development program for highway con- struction engineering recommended in the FHWA Report No. FH WA-HO-79-1, assess the accomplishments since publication of the report, and evaluate the need for ad- ditional recommendations. Research has been completed, and copies of the agency report have been distributed to program sponsors. Task 27, "Relationships Between Vehicle Configura- lions and Highway Design" (Transportation Research Board). The overall objective of research on this problem is to develop recommendations for coordination of heavy vehicle configurations and pavement, bridge, and highway geometric design to produce the most practical and e~- cient transportation of goods and services over the high- way system. The objective of the initial phase of the research (NCHRP Project 20-7/27) was intended to (1) collect, review, and evaluate available information per- taining to the problem, (2) conduct a pilot analytical study involving the more significant factors and sample data, and (3) assess the feasibility and practicality of further development of an optimum solution. Research has been completed with the finding that it appears feasible and practical to produce both short-term improvements in interactions of heavy vehicles with the existing highway system and long-term optimization of heavy vehicle-high- way design interaction. Recommended research will be conducted under NCHRP Project 2-16. The agency re- port has been distributed to program sponsors. Task 28, "AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures-Training Program" (Dr. Frank McCullough and Mr. Fred Finn). The objective of this task was to develop and conduct a training program for users of the AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures to encourage early implementation of the new publication. Research has been completed including the development of a computer program for the "AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures." The computer program

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220 applied to the Oyster Bay Bridge (New York) and U.S. Route 29 (Kansas). The research was completed. The final report was not published, but the agency's unedited final draft may be obtained on a loan basis upon written request to the NCHRP. Microfiche of the report may be purchased (see final page of this section for ordering information). Project 20-11A FY '74 Toward Environmental Benefit/Cost Analy- sis-Measurement Methodology Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Cornell University Dr. Arnim H. Meyburg Mitchell J. Lavine September 1, 1975 November 30, 1976 $27,212 The general objective of this research was to identify and describe programs of research being undertaken or completed that use the energy-flow concept to measure impacts of man-made changes in ecosystems. Specifically, the following tasks were completed: 1. The identification and description of relevant re- search programs, including a literature search, a descrip- tion of each of the research programs, and a description of supportive research information. 2. Evaluation of potential applications to transporta- tion facilities planning. 3. The formulation of recommendations identifying particularly promising programs or findings and recom- mendations necessary for further development and im- plementation of an energy-flow analysis methodology for transportation-facilities planning. Research on this project has been completed, resulting in initiation of Projects 20-llB and 20-llC. Microfiche of the agency's draft final report, "Toward Environmental Benefit/Cost Analysis: Measurement Methodology," is available (see final page of this section for ordering in- formation). Project 20-11 B FY ,74 Toward Environmental Benefit/Cost Analy- sis-Energy-Flow Analysis (Manual) Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Cornell University Dr. Arnim H. Meyburg Mitchell J. Lavine January 24, 1977 May 4, 1979 $140,450 The general objective of this research was to develop a user-oriented manual to assist any state or local trans- portation agency in conducting environmental analyses using the energy-flow concept. This work builds on the findings of NCHRP Project 20-llA and other related research efforts. The manual is designed for direct use in project development and system analysis for the move- ment of people and goods and emphasizes simplified tech- niques not requiring computer application. It includes: 1. A step-by-step description of the procedure for en- ergy-flow analyses. 2. A checklist and brief discussion of specific param- eters (e.g., productivity rates) for which data are required. 3. Methods for obtaining needed data, including a list of sources for data that do not require direct field col- lection. 4. Case studies that demonstrate the step-by-step meth- odology as it applies to transportation problems. 5. An explanation of the relationship between the step- by-step procedure contained in the manual and accepted theories of energy flow. 6. A discussion of the application and the limitations of the methodology to the planning, construction, oper- ation, maintenance, and regulation of transportation fa- cilities and services. Research has been completed. The agency's draft final report will not be published but is available on a loan basis upon written request from the NCHRP. Microfiche of the report may be purchased (see final page of this section for ordering information). A summary of the re- search findings is provided in NCHRP Research Results Digest 114. Project 20-11C FY '74 Toward Environmental Benefit/Cost Meth- odology' Energy-Flow Analysis (Stucly Design) Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Effective Date: Completion Date: Funds: The Cannon Group W. E. Kirksey J. C. Kraft April 1, 1977 March 31, 1978 $ 14,786 A start has been made in developing a usable meth- odology for assessing environmental impacts of trans- portation facilities using the energy-flow concept, including an evaluation of theoretical energy-flow con- cepts. It is now necessary to explore in some considerable detail the application of such concepts to transportation planning. The required exploration involves practical ap- plication in (a) measuring and interpreting transportation- related impacts and (b) assessing sensitivity to the variety of situations encountered in the planning of transportation facilities and services. In view of the complex nature of these research re- quirements and the apparent broad application of energy- flow analysis to transportation systems and project plan- ning, further specific research on the application of the

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221 methodology required careful preparation of study de- signs. The objective of this project was to develop study de- signs for a program of research that will provide evalu- ations of the application of the energy-flow methodology to the planning of transportation facilities and services. Particular attention to the social-cultural and esthetic considerations that have not been adequately accounted for in preceding studies is provided in the study designs. The final report will not be published; copies of the study designs are available on a loan basis (see final page of this section for ordering information). Project 20-12 FY ,74 Effects of Air Pollution Regulations on High- way Construction and Maintenance Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Howard, Needles, Tammen and Bergendoff Orrin Riley April 1, 1974 July 31, 1975 $80,446 This research evaluated the effect of air pollution reg- ulations for fugitive particulates and hydrocarbons on the highway construction and maintenance industry. Re- search was limited to the on-site construction process rather than off-site materials processing. Research has been completed, and the report has been published as: NCHRP Report 191, "Effect of Air Pol- lution Regulations on Highway Construction and Main- tenance." Project 20-13 FY ,75 Beneficial Environmental Effects Associated with Freeway Construction Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: The Pennsylvania State University Hays B. Gamble Dr. Thomas B. Davinroy September 3, 1974 August 2, 1975 $49,965 It is necessary to discuss both positive and negative environmental aspects of a project during preparation of the environmental impact statement. The positive aspects have not previously been documented to any degree. This study provides an evaluation of environmental improve- ments attributable to freeways in order to place present and future freeways in proper perspective. The objective of this project was to determine the long- and short-range positive aspects of freeway construction. These were differentiated, where necessary, for urban and rural freeways. The literature was searched, analyzed, and evaluated. The investigators were concerned with studies such as: 1. Improved emergency ambulance, fire, and police ser- v~ces. 2. Movement of goods and services. 3. Influence on land-use planning. 4. Influence on economic growth. 5. Accessibility to recreational and other activities. 6. Pollution control. 7. Energy utilization. 8. Effects on plants and wildlife. A matrix approach was used to catalogue and classify beneficial environmental effects. Literature reviews and surveys conducted by a multi-disciplinary team were car- ried out to develop the required information for the ma trix. The project report has been published as: NCHRP Report 193, "Beneficial Effects Associated with Freeway Construction Environmental, Social, and Economic." Project 20 14 FY '77 Monitoring Carbon Monoxide Concentrations in Urban Areas Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Technology Service Corporation William S. Meisel Yuji Horie October 1, 1976 March 31, 1978 $99,973 The general objective was to develop a methodology (1) to estimate urban background CO concentrations from incomplete monitoring data sets for three types of areas (a) where urban background monitoring stations already exist, (b) where source-affected monitoring stations exist, and (c) where there are no existing stations; and (2) to determine the precision of the estimates. The first step in the development of such a methodology was preparation of a high-quality data base for cities representing a wide geographical distribution throughout the U.S. Once the data base was established, the inter- relationships among the CO concentrations at the target site, the CO concentrations at the auxiliary stations, and meteorological data were explored. The preliminary re- lationships determined were then refined to determine methods for extrapolating the CO concentrations at the target site to estimate the two critical annual statistics: the annual second 8-hour maximum and the annual sec- ond 1-hour maximum. From the analysis of CO concen- "rations, it was found that the 8-hour running average violated the air quality standard when the second-highest- reading-of-the-year standard was violated. This finding allowed research to concentrate on the extrapolating of 8-hour running averages. The main result of this study was the following: As long as it is possible to monitor during a part of the CO season (October to January, possibly February), the two

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222 statistics mentioned can be accurately estimated from one Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the case of month of sampling. Restriction of monitoring to the CO a single monitor have been broadened for application to season represented a change from practice in 1978. The regionwide conditions. The approach was to use available most accurate of the methods tested was the simplest data to estimate numbers of exceedances and design values use the highest 8-hour average observed during the period for points throughout the region of interest. Initially, of monitoring at the highway site as the estimate of the points are very widely spaced in order to provide an annual second maximum. It must be verified that the overall picture of the distribution of these two parameters monitoring period contained enough meterologically ad- in the area. The points for which estimates are obtained verse days to make the estimate valid. Such adverse days are then more densely spaced in those areas where the must be determined using an existing monitoring station highest design values and the greatest numbers of ex nearby which has been operating for at least a year, by ceedances have been estimated. In this way it has been a meteorological index, or, less persuasively, by typical possible to estimate the maximum numbers of exceed rates of occurrence of adverse days for the months en- ances and the highest design values occurring in the area compassed by the monitoring period. and the region in which they are found. These values satisfy the definitions of expected number of exceedances and design value that were derived for a network. Com puter programs have been written for processing data to obtain the estimates discussed above. These computer programs and the directions for their use are among the An approach based on using an estimated statistical distribution to estimate the annual statistics from limited measurements was less accurate than the observed-max- imum approach. The degree to which the error in the estimation process creates uncertainty in the estimate was quantified. Means for assessing confidence intervals were recommended. The project report has been published as: NCHRP Report 200, "Monitoring Carbon Monoxide Concentra- tions in Urban Areas." Research was continued as Project 20-14A. Project 20-14A FY '79 Statistical Analysis of Ozone Data for Trans- portation/Air Quality Planning Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: SRI International Inc. Frank Ludvig September 15, 1979 December 18, 1981 $193,907 Federal and state regulations mandate air quality stud- ies to develop strategies for achieving compliance with ozone standards. These air quality studies must frequently include monitoring programs to determine ozone con- centrations and the degree of compliance with the air quality standards. However, use of historical data, wher- ever possible, is a more efficient and practical means to quantify ozone problems and minimize requirements for special monitoring. The major objective of this study was to develop the methods needed to analyze existing data and obtain as much information as possible from those data. Corollary objectives were to provide information about additional data needs and ways in which those needs can be met with the least additional monitoring, and to develop methods that provide information necessary for developing effective control strategies. No procedures were developed for designing control strategies, which is a major topic where further research will be fruitful. All the objectives of the study were met. The rather specialized definitions of"design value" and "expected number of exceedances" that were developed by the U.S. major products of this study. The dete~inistic approach to the estimation of re- gional design values and expected numbers of exceedances described above served as the basis for a probabilistic approach, which used the day-to-day estimates for each grid point of values generated by the deterministic method as a basis for developing conditional probability distri- butions of ozone concentration. Monte Carlo simulations were used to generate daily estimates of peak-hour ozone concentrations at key locations (those areas where higher design values and greater numbers of exceedances were expected and which had no nearby monitors), based on observed data. This probabilistic method provides a mea- sure of the uncertainty and variability in the deterministic approach. The computer program, and directions for its use to obtain the probabilistic estimates of design value and expected numbers of exceedances are included in the final report. The methods that have been developed here not only provide estimates of design value and expected numbers of exceedances for the region, but also identify those days when the highest concentrations occurred, which, in turn, allows the analyst to determine the meteorological con- ditions associated with high ozone concentrations in the region. The air quality data and meteorological infor- mation for the high-ozone days can be examined and used to estimate the transported background-ozone concentra- tions entering the region. The estimation methods are fully described in the report. The determination of the- origins of the precursors to the transported ozone through air trajectory analysis is also discussed. The methods described above were applied to data from four urban regions: Houston, St. Louis, Philadelphia, and Los Angeles. Each of these areas had relatively dense ozone-monitoring networks that had been operated for at least a few months. With the availability of data from these unusually dense monitoring networks, the method

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223 could be applied to determine the sensitivity of the results to the number of stations in the monitoring network. A network of about 10 sites was found to be adequate, if the sites are properly located. There is a tendency to underestimate the expected number of exceedances when the number of monitoring sites is reduced. However, the design-value estimates are generally within the range of estimates for a single site, as derived from different EPA- recommended methods. Studies have shown that a complete monitoring net- work need not be operated throughout the year. There is a close relationship between peak-ozone value and max- imum temperature; if data are collected for all days when the maximum temperature in the region exceeds about 20 C, then the estimates of design value and expected numbers of exceedances will be accurate. It appears that the most efficient way to collect adequate ozone-moni- toring data in an urban region is to operate about five fixed stations: one in the central part of the city and four in different directions a few tens of kilometers outside the highly urbanized region. This fixed network should be supplemented by mobile monitors operated during warm weather to fill-in the area between the central monitor and the peripheral monitors in the downwind direction. The project report was published as: NCHRP Report 238, "Estimating Exceedances and Design Values From Urban Ozone Monitoring Network Data." The computer tape containing all programs developed during the course of the project may be obtained by request to the NCHRP; a 9-inch diameter (or greater) ASCII 9-track tape (or equivalent) with a density of 800 BPI must be supplied. Project 20-15 FY '77 Ecological Effects of Highway Fills on Wetlands Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: University of Massachusetts Dr. Paul W. Shuldiner Prof. Carl A. Carlozzi December 1, 1976 December 31, 1979 $152,085 The over-all objective of this project was to determine the ecological erects of placing highway fills on wetlands and associated flood plains and to develop initial guide- lines as a management tool for the decision-making proc- ess regarding routes, fills, bridges, and other design alternatives. Research has been completed. Based on a thorough literature review and the experience of the researchers, a state-of-the-art report on the ecological effects of highway fills on wetlands has been prepared and distributed to state highway and transportation agencies. The final re- port, including manual on the assessment of ecological effects, is scheduled to be published as: NCHRP Report 218A, "Ecological Effects of Highway Fills on Wet lands Research Report." NCHRP Report 218B, "Eco- logical Effects of Highway Fills on Wetlands-User's Manual." Project 20-16 FY '77 State Laws and Regulations on Truck Size, Weight, and Speed Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: R. J. Hansen Associates, Inc. Ralph D. Johnson John C. Laughland October 11, 1976 September 1, 1978 $281,975 The objectives of the research were to: 1. Identify and describe the effects of current state size, weight, and speed laws, regulations, and interstate agree- ments on trucks and the highway systems they use. 2. Investigate the potential benefits and disadvantages of increased uniformity in truck size, weight, and speed limits among states. 3. List and evaluate the available alternatives for elim- inating or minimizing the differences in truck size, weight, and speed limits among states. The research was originally envisioned in two phases. This first phase was intended to synthesize the present system of state regulation of truck size, weight, and speed and to describe its effects. Dependent on the findings of Phase I, a second phase was planned to identify and evaluate alternatives to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects of states' nonuniformities of truck size, weight, and speed limits. After completion of part of Phase I, the research agency proposed and the project panel approved a plan to merge both phases of the research. Research has been completed, and the final report has been published as: NCHRP Report 198, "State Laws and Regulations on Truck Size and Weight." Project 20-17 FY '79 Statewide Freight Demand Forecasting Pro- cedures Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Effective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Cambridge Systematics, Inc. Dr. Paul O. Roberts Dr. Brian C. Kullman April 1, 1979 July31,1980 $73,151 NCHRP Project 8-17, "Freight Data Requirements for Statewide Transportation Systems Planning," identified many current state planning issues related to freight trans- portation, described existing analysis techniques that ad- dress those issues, and catalogued a wide variety of available data sources and collection procedures to sup

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224 port those techniques. Projects 20-17 and 20-17A extend this preliminary effort to provide operational freight fore- casting techniques for use in policy, system, and project planning at the state level. The objective of Phase I (20-17) was to propose ap- propriate, cost-effective, policy sensitive, multiregional and state freight demand forecasting techniques that uti- lize available information and data, while recognizing the issues states face in freight planning. In Phase I, the uses of freight demand forecasts in statewide planning, the freight forecasting procedures available, the population and economic activity infor- mation necessary as input to freight forecasting proce- dures, the extent to which the existing procedures meet statewide planning needs, and the types of new procedures required to meet these needs were addressed. The most appropriate techniques to provide the needed levels of forecast detail were determined, and preliminary speci- fications for statewide freight demand forecasting pro- cedures were prepared. Loan copies of the agency's final report on Phase I are available (see final page of this section for ordering in- formation). Project 20-17A FY '81 Application of Statewide Freight Demand Forecasting Techniques vices a step-by-step set of procedures for state agencies to follow in obtaining data and techniques, modifying them if necessary, and applying them to yield appropriate freight forecasts. The user's manual describes (1) the level of analysis to be conducted (i.e., system, network, cor- ridor, etc.~; (2) the time frame involved (i.e., the base year and forecast years); (3) the modes included; (4) the com- modities to be considered; (5) the specificity of origins and destinations to be developed (e.g., county-to-county); (6) the output of the techniques to be applied; (7) the usefulness of the techniques for various analysis problems; and (8) the role of available demographic and economic forecasts. Case studies have been completed describing the anal- ysis of commodity flow changes on the New York State Barge Canal System, of grain movements in Montana, and of the technique's applicability in forecasting changes in truck travel. The final report (user's manual) has been completed and published as: NCHRP Report 260, "Ap- plication of Statewide Freight Demand Forecasting Tech- niques." Project 20-18 FY '79 Evaluation of Highway Air Pollution Disper- sion Models Research Agency: Roger Creighton Associates, Inc. Research Agency: SRI International Principal Invest.: Frederick W. Memmott Principal Invest.: W. F. Dabberdt Elective Date: June 1, 1981 Effective Date: March 15, 1979 Completion Date: January 31, 1984 Completion Date: February 28, 1982 Funds: $193,500 Funds: $207,509 The first phase of this research (Project 20-17) identified freight transportation issues that need to be addressed by demand forecasting techniques and proposed a compre- hensive research approach to develop a spectrum of such techniques. However, because of limited funding, exten- sive development work is not possible in this continuation phase. The objective of Project 20-17A was to demonstrate the applicability of a freight demand forecasting technique for direct use by state agencies. The technique has been designed to develop freight flows by highway, rail, and water for the current year; forecast the likely annual freight volumes and shifts among the modes over the short term (5 years or less); and provide origins and destinations by commodity within a corridor or region at the sub- state, state, or multi-state level. The technique uses gen- erally available data and methods to facilitate application to specific problems (e.g., deregulation and rate changes). A user's manual has been developed setting forth how to apply the technique to problems such as the effects of deregulation, energy availability, industry shifts, infra- structure development and maintenance, or financing availability on modal competition. The user's manual pro The general objective of the research was to develop methods for evaluating the performance of highway air pollution dispersion models, assemble and document a data base to be used to assess model performance, and perform a preliminary evaluation of selected models to demonstrate the application of the methodology. All of the study objectives were met. The evaluation methodology comprises both statistical analysis and sen- sitivity analysis. A comprehensive data base was assem- bled, which includes data from (1) at-grade, elevated, and depressed roadways; and (2) five data sets provided by SRI International, Texas A&M University, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Cali- fornia Department of Transportation, and General Mo- tors Corporation. The application of the evaluation methodology was demonstrated by performing a prelim- inary assessment of the performance of six selected models, four Gaussian and two numerical. The final report has been published as: NCHRP Report 245, "Methodology for Evaluating Highway Air Pollution Dispersion Models." The computer tape containing the model evaluation method and the comprehensive data base may be obtained by request to the NCHRP; a 12

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225 inch diameter and an 8 inch diameter ASCII 9-track tape (or equivalent) with a density of 1600 BPI must be sup- plied. Project 20-19 FY '85 Pedestrian Convenience and Safety on Suburban and Rural Highways Research Agency: JHK & Associates Principal Invest.: Steven A. Smith Elective Date: May 1, 1985 Completion Date: December 31, 1986 Funds: $ 160,000 The general objective of this research was to develop a planning and implementation methodology to assist planners, designers, decision-makers, and the public in providing convenient and safe pedestrian movement for suburban areas having a heavy traffic corridor with ad- jacent pedestrian magnets, and in rural areas that are in, or likely to be in, transition to suburban areas. The plan- ning methodology should have application to the creation of coherent (usable, understandable, continuous) pedes- trian circulation for high activity subareas with the po- tential for connection to communitywide systems, but not dependent on their presence. The following tasks were performed: Task 1 Structure the pedestrian problem for sub- urban and rural areas and conduct a literature review of solutions that provide convenient and safe movement of pedestrians. Task 2 Define success and failure of existing pe- destrian circulation systems. Identify and document ex- amples of success and failure in providing coherent pedestrian circulation. Documentation should cover site- specific conditions, including institutional arrangements (public and private sector roles and responsibilities, and citizen participation) associated with success and failure. Task 3 Based on an analysis of pedestrian needs, identify possible solutions which have not been discovered in the literature or in field studies but which may be feasible in the current context. Evaluate their effective ness. Task 4 Synthesize and evaluate the state of the art and state of practice from the knowledge gained in Tasks 1, 2, and 3. Prepare a synthesis report containing the following major components: . Literature Review: critical evaluation of research re- lated to pedestrian circulation systems in suburban and rural areas. . State-of-the-Art: description of guidelines and pro- cedures currently used in planning for pedestrian systems. . State-of-the-Practice: results of the case study and data collection effort. A review of successful and unsuc- cessful systems, specifically the applicability of various potential solutions to the various development settings. . Alternative Solutions: a description of new and in- novative approaches to problems in pedestrian circulation systems. Task 5 Develop guiding principles and design considerations that will assist planning and design pro- fessionals to provide coherent pedestrian circulation. For- mulate these principles and considerations into a planning and implementation methodology. The final two-part report has been published as NCHRP Report 294A (Research Report) and NCHRP Report 294B (State-of-the-Art Report). Project 20-19~2) FY '86 Pedestrian Safety and Convenience on Sub- urban and Rural Highways tmpIemen tation Phase Research Agency: JHK and Associates Principal Invest.: Steven A. Smith Elective Date: September 1, 1987 Completion Date: March 31, 1989 Funds: $125,000 The objective of NCHRP Project 20-19 was the de- velopment of planning and implementation methodolo- gies and principles. The objective of this continuation phase, Project 20-19~2), is on the implementation of the findings of the first phase. As stated in the 20-19 findings, many of the deficiencies noted are due to flaws in the implementation process. The continuation phase is en- visioned primarily as an effort to support the implemen- tation process. Accomplishing the objective will require the following tasks: Task 1 Develop Teaching Modules. Task 1 will de- velop teaching modules that can be integrated into high- way and planning courses at universities and colleges, at other training courses for planners and engineers, and even at professional meetings where this topic is appro- priate. The modules will consist of alternative course seg- ments of one, two or four hours in length. Task 2 Develop an "Other Markets" Publication. The "other markets" publication will be developed as a con- densed and more focussed version of the final report from the initial phase, to be oriented primarily toward the planning and development community. The emphasis will be on the planning and implementation process, with case study material interwoven to illustrates points. Task 3 Prepare Advocacy Articles. Eight articles for publication in trade journals or periodicals on topics re- lating to pedestrian planning, design and implementation will be prepared. The articles will serve to bring pedestrian needs and planning solutions to the attention of readers of the publications and to electively advocate the inte- gration of pedestrian planning into other phases of plan- ning and engineering practice. Tentative article titles are:

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226 1. Pedestrian Planning An Integral Part of the Local Planning Process. 2. Improving Suburban Pedestrian Mobility Through Medians and Refuge Islands. 3. Pedestrian-Sensitive Zoning and Subdivision Reg ulations. 4. Site Planning, Traffic Circulation and the Pedes trian. 5. On Planning, Building and Maintaining Sidewalks. 6. Accommodating the Pedestrian in Highway Design. 7. The Hazards of Walking in Suburbia: What CanProject: You Do About It?Title: 8. Practical Ideas for Improving Pedestrian Mobility and Safety. Task 4 Develop "Think Pedestrian" Video. A video tape will be prepared, between 15 and 20 minutes in length. The video will be suitable for a variety of audi ences, ranging from citizens who want to know more about good pedestrian planning and design practices to planning and engineering professionals who may not deal with pedestrians every day but yet require a basic knowl edge of planning and design practices. Task 5 Prepare Practitioners Manual. This will be a resource document to the training material prepared in Task 1, but will also be a stand-alone document which can be used by planning and engineering practitioners. It will consist of a collection of planning and design ideas that have been used by various agencies or in various development projects. Research is nearing completion on all tasks. A time extension of approximately 5 months will be processed while the project panel reviews the substantial number of written and audio-visual products which have been de veloped. Project 20-20 FY '83 Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Research Agency: Principal Invest.: STRS Pre-Implementation Research Research Agency: Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: AASHTO L. Gary Byrd October 1, 1984 September 30, 1986 $500,000 The Strategic Transportation Research Study (STRS) conducted by the Transportation Research Board and published in TRB Special Report 202, "America's High- ways Accelerating the Search for Innovation," detailed a concerted research effort needed to produce major in- novations for increasing the productivity and safety of the nation's highway system. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), under NCHRP Project 20-20, has overall responsibility for conducting a pre-implementation effort that will produce a plan for carrying out the research identified as, "The Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP)." Three major tasks were undertaken. First, a plan was developed to provide the institutional requirements needed to organize, administer, and coordinate the re- search program. Second, detailed research plans were pre- pared and coordinated for each of the six research areas identified in the STRS report. Third, the institutional arrangements and research plans were implemented. In addition to the primary contract with AASHTO, the following NCHRP projects were conducted between March 15, 1985 and May 31, 1986: 20-20~2) Overview and Integration Planning, SHRP University of Maryland Lowell K. Bridwell- Funds: $90,000 Project: 20-20~3) Title: Detailed Planning for Research on Asphalt Properties ARE Inc. Fred N. Finn Funds: $115,000 Project: 20-20~5) Title: Detailed Planning for Research on Maintenance Effectiveness Texas Research & Development Foundation Bertell C. Butler, Jr.-Funds: $90,000 Project: 20-20~6) Title: Detailed Planning for Research on Bridge Component Protection David G. Manning Dr. David G. Manning Funds: $80,000 Principal Invest.: Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Project: 20-20~7) Title: Detailed Planning for Research on Cement and Concrete Construction Technology Labora- tories Paul Klieger Funds: $75,000 Project: 20-20~8) Title: Detailed Planning for Research on Snow and Ice U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory David Minsk-Funds: $73,781 In addition to the above six NCHRP contracts, the FHWA funded and conducted Project 20-20~4), "De- tailed Planning for Research on Pavement Performance." The objective of each project was to develop a detailed research plan to provide the basis for a major research effort to be conducted following the pre-implementation project. The detailed research plans were guided by the budget and schedule shown for the subject research area in Special Report 202. The plans include a detailed de- scription of each individual research project including the

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227 tasks, level of effort, required resources, schedule, and budget. The research plans show the interrelationships of the projects, the timing and sequencing of each, and the assumptions or dependent conditions for each project. Each study was guided by the NCHRP Project Panel SP20-20 and the SHRP Interim Director, as well as by input from advisory committees and other resources. Each agency was responsible also for obtaining input from a wide spectrum of the highway community including public, private, domestic, and foreign organizations. This project has been completed and the final report, "Strategic Highway Research Program Research Plans," is available from the TRB Publications Office. This report served as the basis for the SHRP program initiated in FY '87. Project 20-21 FY '86 Development of an Automated Field Survey Data Collection System Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: ARE Inc./Cooper Technology Hubert Henry Frank F. Cooper February 3, 1986 May5, 1987 $200,000 In the past, few transportation agencies performed com- prehensive analyses of survey operations within their or- ganizations. However, with a diversity of high-tech "total stations" and "data collectors," and various software sys- tems now available, many agencies are faced with prob- lems of integrating these components into their surveying operations. Unfortunately, there is uncertainty as to how to best accomplish this integration. In addition, field sur- vey data must be suitable for fast, efficient transfer to and from other engineering systems, such as computer-aided design and drafting programs. These issues, coupled with an increase in transportation construction projects na- tionwide, and an increased need for more accessible sur- vey data, create pressure on agencies to provide "quick fix" purchases and approaches. This, in turn, results in possible wasted time and duplicated effort, as similar, but incompatible, systems are developed and tested. Because of the demand for field survey information in varying formats and accuracies for projects and records, there is a need to integrate the different phases in handling survey information and to automate as many tasks as possible. An initial step in dealing with this problem is to develop an automated field survey data collection sys- tem that includes preprocessing and storage of the data in a standard file for subsequent electronic transfer to engineering design systems. The objective of this research project was to define, develop, and demonstrate an automated system for col- lecting, preprocessing, and storing field survey data in a standard file format. Research is complete; the final report has been pub- lished as NCHRP Report 295, "Automated Field Survey Data Collection System." Project 20-22 FY '87 Factors to be Considered by Highway Agen- cies in the Identification and Remediation of Hazardous Waste Sites Research Agency: HMM Associates Principal Invest.: David J. Friend; Jan L. Connery Elective Date: November 1, 1986 Date: July 1, 1988 Funds: $148,01 5 Many state highway agencies are beginning to encoun- ter problems caused by the discovery of hazardous waste on existing or soon to be acquired rights-of-way. These problems affect highway agencies in many ways. En- vironmental specialists, right-of-way officials, project development engineers, construction contract administra- tors and engineers, and legal counsels can all be involved, depending on the agency's organizational structure and the particular point at which the problems associated with hazardous waste are encountered. Improper disposal and management of hazardous wastes, hazardous substances, and toxic chemicals have created substantial problems for state highway and trans- portation agencies in the planning, design, construction, and operation of highway facilities. For example, parcels purchased or considered for purchase by state highway agencies are sometimes contaminated by hazardous waste. Such sites, in addition to having been used as dumps, frequently reflect improper management of hazardous ma- terials by former businesses. Federal and state regulations require that state highway agencies develop and imple- ment plans for resolving these problems. Hazardous waste problems and their solutions have far reaching impacts on highway programs by increasing costs, creating time delays, and providing greater opportunities for litigation. Problems associated with hazardous wastes are critical, yet fairly new for many highway agencies. The presence or suspected presence of hazardous waste sites creates a multitude of problems. Solutions to these concerns involve an intricate array of regulations, and require interactions with other agencies and individuals as well as with the general public. Therefore, the objective of the research was to compile the principal, relevant information de- scribing the administrative, technical, and legal consid- erations that highway agency officials must be sensitive to when developing and implementing highway programs. The information provided is a useful resource in the chal- lenging, complex process of dealing with hazardous waste sites. Research is complete; the final report has been pub- lished as NCHRP Report 310, "Dealing with Hazardous Waste Sites, A Compendium for Highway Agencies."

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228 Project 20-23 FY '88 Kinematic Differential GPS Satellite Surveying GPS Services Inc./National Geo- detic Survey Dr. Gerald L. Mader September 15, 1988 September 14, 1990 $298,793 Although the Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging system (NAVSTAR), also known as the Global Posi- tioning System (GPS), is a satellite system being developed by the Department of Defense under Air Force manage- ment, some civilian applications are allowed. Presently, six satellites providing positioning information are in or- bit. This six-satellite constellation can be used for mea- surements only during a limited time each day. An eighteen-satellite constellation providing 24-hour cover- age is expected to be fully operational between 1990 and 1992; this will then provide very precise three-dimensional information on a continuous basis. Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Effective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Equipment presently on the market can provide coarse- point-positions (positioning with a single receiver) in real- time with accuracies ranging from an estimated 10 to 30 meters. Improvements in coarse GPS real-time point-po- sitioning are expected to evolve within private industry because of the potential for widespread commercial ap- plications. Coarse-point-positioning data can be used by DOTs with a geographic information system (GIS) for such activities as highway inventories, accident locations, and maintenance operations. Because systems that may provide levels of accuracy acceptable for some of these activities already exist or are expected soon, no research is proposed in this area. However, opportunities do exist in the area of precise relative positioning using GPS. Use of the present satellite constellation has shown that relative positioning measurements with accuracies of a few parts per million are possible in 30 minutes or less of data acquisition. Preliminary work involving the use of GPS for rapid differential (kinematic) positioning of ground-based survey points has indicated the feasibility of greatly reducing the time required to accomplish the equivalent of geodetic traversing. This process uses the differential GPS measurement mode where the time needed for static data collecting over each point is mea- sured in seconds instead of minutes or hours. The benefits of such a process are great when considering the amount of geodetic traverses being conducted by the DOTs. Another application of kinematic differential GPS is the positioning of moving sensors, such as aerial mapping cameras. A prime potential benefit of this application is that of greatly reducing the need for establishing and targeting ground control points for photogrammetric mapping. Preliminary altimetry experiments have sub- stantiated GPS-determined vertical positions to 10-cm accuracy. Current experiments are expected to show sim ilar results for horizontal positioning. The benefits of this procedure could greatly reduce surveying costs for pho- togrammetric mapping. More work is necessary if state DOTs are to realize these benefits as soon as possible. Consequently, the objective of this research will be to determine appropriate algorithms and develop opera- tional software for kinematic differential GPS positioning at the 1-cm to 2-cm accuracy level. Research is underway. Project 20-24 FY '88 Research Program Design- Administration of Highway and Transportation Agencies Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Apogee Research Inc. Richard R. Mudge John A. Clements May 11, 1987 September 30, 1988 $125,000 At a special session held during the 1986 Annual Meet- ing of the Transportation Research Board (TRB), a num- ber of Chief Administrative Officers (CAO's) from state departments of transportation identified areas of concern in the management of transportation agencies. Economic considerations and management of financial resources were judged to be the most important areas. Others in- cluded the management of people, information systems, public affairs, and technology transfer. In each area dis- cussed, problems were identified that are in need of re- search. At the same Annual Meeting, members of the academic community reported the findings of the NSF seminar on "Transportation Research: The State of the Art and Research Opportunities." Although their rec- ommendations call for more fundamental research, some of the problems identified are very similar to those listed by the CAO's. Concurrently, TRB committees concerned with the planning and administration of transportation systems developed their views on needed research in their areas of expertise. Additional work is required to develop a research pro- gram,.specifically directed to the management, adminis- tration, and policy planning needs of highway agencies. The objectives of NCHRP Project 20-24 are to identify the most critical problems faced by top management of- ficials in state highway and transportation agencies and to design a well-defined, comprehensive research program to address those problems. The initial step of the research effort was to award a contract for Task 1 with the following scope of work: Task 1 Determine the most critical management, ad- ministration, and policy planning problems of common concern to the CAO's and other top managers in state highway and transportation agencies and identify those

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229 that can be addressed through research. Because of the anticipated broad range and diverse nature of the prob- lems to be identified, similar types will be classified into groups that individually or in combination would provide a logical base for structuring a coherent research program. Some of the identified problems will require new re- search, but others may be best treated through the better use of existing methods from within the transportation community and from other public and private organi- zations. Although the detailed analysis of existing tech- niques will be accomplished in Task 2, as part of Task 1 a preliminary assessment will be conducted of the extent to which information is currently available to address specific problems. Submit a report presenting one or more preliminary concepts for a research program to address the high prior- ity areas. The concepts) should identify (1) recommended research areas including priorities, (2) specific major prod- ucts of the proposed program, (3) relative roles of new research and synthesis-type efforts, and (4) preliminary cost estimates. It is anticipated that the following tasks will be con- ducted subsequently: Task 2 Review state-of-the-art techniques used in governmental and private agencies and assess potentially useful techniques emerging from current research to de- termine their applicability to the problems identified in Task 1. Evaluate the more promising techniques for trans- ferability and wider application. Task 3 Design a research program to develop or adapt techniques that are needed to address the more critical problems identified in Task 1. The program plan will include primary emphasis areas (e.g., financial man- agement) and, within each area, a list of specific research projects (e.g., development of a cash flow model). Task 4 Develop a detailed scope statement for each project. Identify the highest priority projects for all pro- posed projects. Research on Task 1 was completed, and the following research areas were identified for further attention: (1) Finance Resource Development, (2) Financial Manage- ment, (3) Decision Support, (4) Long-Term Policy De- velopment, (5) Implementation, (6) Understanding of Industry, and (7) Public/Political Interactions. NCHRP Panel SP20-24 selected the first three areas for primary emphasis in the remaining work. All research is now complete, and the agency prelim- inary draft final report has been submitted and is under review. The draft report presents a program of projects and recommended means for accomplishing those proj- ects. A meeting of NCHRP Panel SP20-24 is scheduled to decide on future actions for conducting research in the management and administration of highway agencies. The final report will then be modified accordingly. Project 20-24~1) FY '89 Using Market Research to Improve the Man- agement of Transportation Systems Research Agency: Apogee Research, Inc. Principal Invest.: Dr. Richard R. Mudge Elective Date: October 1, 1988 Completion Date: September 30, 1989 Funds: $200,000 Transportation programs must survive in an increas- ingly competitive world of public policy, where tough choices must be made among public works, social pro- grams, tax cuts, and a variety of other public functions. Budget pressures are merely the most obvious outward sign of these political and financial battles. Developing a political consensus for the funding of transportation programs requires both an in-depth knowl- edge of what the public knows about transportation and what their attitudes are about the transportation problems they face every day. Modern market research techniques, including public opinion surveys and focus groups, may offer a systematic way to help provide CAOs with answers to these questions. Private firms make considerable efforts to identify their customers' general likes and dislikes as well as to identify specific needs. Based on this information, firms design a product or service to meet the potential customer's per- ceived needs and then work to convince them to purchase these products or services. As with other areas of modern life, marketing has become more sophisticated and tech- nically advanced. How can these advances be adapted to help solve the problems of state DOTs? While the focus of recent efforts in market research has been on surveys of public feelings in general, some of the same techniques could be used to survey and assess the needs and understanding of firms or groups with a direct interest in transportation. Most such information is now presented to DOTs by trade groups, but use of the ideas discussed here might make it possible to obtain infor- mation from the public at large. The object of this research is to help the CAOs of state DOTs to add modern market research techniques to their program development and evaluation methods. Five inter- related tasks are called for: Task 1. Review and summarize existing transportation public opinion research surveys and results. Task 2. Review modern market research techniques used by private and public agencies. Task 3. Design and conduct a national public opinion survey. Task 4 Prepare policy guidance document on how these methods and information could be used most ef- fectively to develop and implement transportation policy. Task 5. Prepare a handbook that summarizes the de

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230 sign and implementation of past transportation opinion/ market research and current efforts under way. Project 20-25 FY '89 Training Needs for Highway Construction Per sonne' Research Agency: In developmental stage Principal Invest.: Effective Date: (12 months) Completion Date: Funds: $75,000 There is a continuing need to improve the management of the quality of highway construction and to reduce life cycle costs. Budget restrictions, loss of skilled personnel, increased responsibility placed on quality assurance per- sonnel, changing role of the contractor in the area of quality control, and demands to construct projects faster have all affected the highway construction process in the United States. An approach for meeting this need is improved training programs for field and office personnel at the highway construction site. Current training programs for these personnel are not comprehensive, are localized in their application, and lack national acceptance. A national training program for highway agency, consultant, and contractor personnel will respond to this need. The ultimate goal of this research is the development of a nationally acceptable training program that specifi- cally supports certification for agency, consultant, and contractor personnel involved in highway construction. The objective of this project is to provide a needs assess- ment and design a framework for a training program to improve the quality of highway construction. Accomplishment of this objective will require, as a minimum, the following tasks: Task 1. Review existing listings of job-related tasks (work elements) that have been prepared for highway construction personnel and develop a nationally appli- cable listing of job task descriptions for personnel involved in the highway construction process. Task 2. Survey existing training and certification pro- grams for the job-related tasks (work elements) defined in Task 1. Task 3. Establish criteria for determining the effec- tiveness of the training and certification programs sur- veyed under Task 2. Provide an assessment of existing training and certification programs, including areas of weakness and deficiencies. Task 4. Based on the results of Tasks 2 and 3, design a framework for a national training program that supports certification for highway construction personnel. Task 5. Prepare a final report on the total research effort. NOTE: Funds are earmarked for a research project to follow in this area to develop a comprehensive training program that will lead to nationally ac- cepted certification based on the results of this project. Project 20-26 FY '89 Bond and Insurance Coverages for Highway Construction Contractors Research Agency: In developmental stage Principal Invest.: Effective Date: (16 months) Completion Date: Funds: $ 100,000 Highway construction contractors typically need to ob- tain bid, performance, and payment bonds, as well as insurance coverages in order to undertake public highway construction contracts. In recent years, a number of con- tractors have complained that the cost of insurance has risen dramatically or the needed insurance coverages are not available. The cost and availability of surety bonds are also mentioned as problems for small, less experienced contractors and especially for Disadvantaged Business Enterprises (DBE) that are attempting to break into pub- lic construction. In turn, there is concern that these prob- lems may have reduced competition and increased costs for highway construction. It is not clear to what extent various factors influence the cost and availability of bonds and insurance. Some of these factors may fall into such categories' as highway agency design and construction practices; cyclical nature of the insurance industry shifts in the type of construction toward rehabilitation and reconstruction; social issues; legal climates; environmental issues; OSHA requirements; changes in range and types of insurance coverage; size and number of projects; quality control; state and federal laws, rules, and regulations; risk management; safety pro- grams; and loss prevention techniques. Research is needed to enable the industry to deal with the primary short- and long-term factors that affect bond and insurance costs and create availability problems for contractors that need such coverages. The objective of this research is to identify, analyze, and prioritize the factors that affect the cost and avail- ability of bonds and insurance on public highway con- struction contracts. At a minimum, it is anticipated that the research will include the following tasks: Task 1. Survey the highway and utility contracting industries including prime contractors, subcontractors, DBEs, State contracting agencies, and contractor and construction associations to determine the actual extent and cause of problems related to cost and availability of bonds and-trlgurance. Solicit from these firms, agencies, and associations, suggestions for ways to increase the availability or reduce the cost of bonds and insurance.