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231 Task 2. Survey bond and insurance companies and associations to obtain the results of their experience with highway contractors. This survey should address, as a minimum, the cost and availability of bonds and insur- ance, the impact of business failures within the bond and insurance industry, and any industry plans, suggestions, or potential changes that would influence the industry and serve to increase the availability or reduce the cost of bonds and insurance. Task 3. Based on the results of Tasks 1 and 2, provide an analysis and a prioritization of the primary factors that affect cost and availability of bonds and insurance. Task 4 Submit an interim report within 9 months after the start of research. The interim report shall summarize the results of Tasks 1 through 3 and include an outline for accomplishment of Task 5. NCHRP approval will be required before commencing Task 5. Task 5. Develop recommendations for actions to solve the problems associated with the factors prioritized in Task 3. Develop research plans for those factors that require additional research. Provide an estimate of cost and duration for accomplishing each research plan. Task 6. Submit a final report documenting all research findings. AREA 21: TESTING AND INSTRUMENTATION Project 21-1 FY '70 Instrumentation for Measurement of Moisture Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Research Triangle Institute Dr. L. F. Ballard August 25, 1969 February 24, 1971 $35,027 The objective of this project was to evaluate, on the basis of a comprehensive literature review, the suitability of existing instrumentation and techniques to measure the amount and state of water in highway components such as embankments, subgrades, base courses, and structures. The research has been completed, and the project report has been published as: NCHRP Report 138, "Instru- mentation for Measurement of Moisture Literature Re- view and Recommended Research." Project 21-2 FY ,71 Instrumentation for Moisture Measurement'- Bases, Subgrades, and Earth Materials (Sensor Development) Research Agency: Southwest Research Institute Principal Invest.: Dr. C. G. Gardner Elective Date: February 1, 1972 Completion Date: January 31, 1974 Funds: $64,976 The objectives of this project were to design, build prototype models, and conduct laboratory verification programs for one or more sensors capable of measuring moisture in granular and soil materials that would be suitable for highway needs. During the initial phase of the study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mi- crowave absorption approaches were investigated inde- pendently. In general, satisfactory performance was achieved using the NMR approach, but considerable dif- ficulty was encountered with the microwave technique. As a result, the experimental verification phase was lim- ited to the NMR sensor. Research has been completed, and an NMR sensor has been developed for measurement of moisture in fine- grained soils. The prototype model has undergone labo- ratory testing and is considered suitable for further de- velopment and field evaluation. The technology on which the prototype sensor is based is described in a paper by Gardner & Matzkanin, pub- lished in TRB Record 532. Information contained in the project report is included in the Project 21-2~3) report. Project 21-2~2) FY '72 Instrumentation for Moisture Measurement- Bases, Subgrades, and Earth Materials (Sensor Development) Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: State U. of New York at Buffalo Dr. E. T. Selig April 1, 1972 September 30, 1973 $29,953 The objectives of this project were to design, build a prototype model, and conduct a laboratory verification program for a sensor capable of measuring moisture in granular and soil materials that would be suitable for highway needs. Research has been completed, and a sensor has been developed based on the use of electrical capacitance as a measure of soil moisture. The prototype model has under- gone laboratory testing and is considered suitable for fur- ther development and field evaluation. The technology on which the prototype sensor is based is described in a paper by Selig, Wobschall, Mansukhani, and Motiwala published in TRB Record 532. Information contained in the project report is included in the Project 21-2(3) report. Project 21-2(3) FY ,75 Instrumentation for Moisture Measurement- Bases, Subgrades, and Earth Materials (Sensor Evaluation) Research Agency: Southwest Research Institute Principal Invest.: George A. Matzkanin E. T. Selig (SUNY) September 3, 1974 Effective Date: