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241 anticipated that accomplishment of this objective will in- volve the following tasks: Phase I Task 1. Review the current practice and literature on methods of reducing downdrag forces in piles using bi- tuminous (and other viscous) coatings. This review should analyze concepts, assumptions and limitations of each design and construction method. Prepare a background summary and a complete bibliography. Task 2. Prepare a preliminary Design and Construction Manual based on the present state of the art. This manual should contain but not be limited to: a. Recognition of downdrag problems on uncoated piles and the justification for using bituminous coat- ~ngs. ~ . Methods of calculating downdrag forces. c. Mechanics of reducing downdrag with bituminous materials. d. Information on consistency and other relevant char- acteristics of bituminous materials. e. Evaluation of the soil-coating interaction on the magnitude of the downdrag force. f. Methods of design and selection of appropriate bi- tumen from types commonly available. g. Methods of applying, measuring, and protecting bi- tuminous coatings. h. Recommended material and construction specifi- cations for bitumen-coated concrete, steel, and tim- ber piles. Task 3. Identify the shortcomings, if any, in current knowledge that inhibit the use of bitumen-coated piles. Task 4 Prepare a proposal for laboratory and field testing programs to verify the methods recommended un- der Task 2 and to resolve any shortcomings cited in Task 3. Phase II Task 5. Perform suitable laboratory and field tests to verify bitumen-coating design methods identified in Phase I. Task 6. Finalize the Design and Construction manual. Task 7. Prepare a report summarizing test results and conclusions. Research has been initiated and review of literature and current practice is underway. AREA 25: IMPACT ANALYSIS This area became effective January 1, 1979, and in- cludes only those projects beginning with the FY 1981 program. Refer to Areas 7, 8, and 20 for previous projects in the realm of Impact Analysis. Project 25-1 FY '81 Effects of Highway Runoff on WetIands Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Rexnord, Inc. Dr. Nicholas P. Kobriger February 16, 1981 March 16, 1984 $162,189 The objectives of this research were to identify the interactions between wetland systems and highway runoff, to identify the effects of highway runoff on wetlands, and to develop guidelines for the practical management of highway runoff on wetlands. Although no one situation is exactly like another, the results of this research provide excellent background for understanding the characteris- tics of wetlands, their functions, and the effects of highway runoff. Practical guidance for the management of runoff from highways in close proximity to wetlands was de- veloped and should be of considerable interest and use. This guidance includes the management of runoff from the highway to and in the wetlands. A possibility also addressed is the use or creation of wetlands to mitigate the effects of highway runoff. Research has been completed. The project report is comprised of two documents: the main research report and the guidelines. The research report titled, "Effects of Highway Runoff on Wetlands," was not published in the regular NCHRP series. However, a copy of the report was distributed to all Program Sponsors, and the report is available to others on a loan basis or for purchase of Xerox copies (see final page of this section for ordering information). This research report provides an excellent, comprehensive resource document on the subject and re- lated areas. The guidelines emanating from Project 25-1 were pub- lished as: NCHRP Report 264, "Guidelines for the Man- agement of Highway Runoff on Wetlands." This report, in addition to providing guidelines for the practical man- agement of highway runoff in wetlands, highlights the significant findings of the research and includes an ex- tensive bibliography categorized by the following subject areas: processes and pathways, runoff constituents and aquatic ecosystems, runoff characteristics; state and fed- eral regulations, wetland creation, wetland monitoring, assessing the interactions of highway runoff and wetlands, wetland vegetation and classification, and case studies. Project 25-2 FY ,88 Predicting Stop-and-Go Traffic Noise Levels Research Agency: Vanderbilt University Principal Invest.: Dr. William Bowlby Effective Date: January 18, 1988 Completion Date: January 17, 1989 Funds: $64,999

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242 STAMINA 2.0 has become the standard computer- based noise prediction model to aid in the assessment of existing and future noise levels on highway projects. It has the versatility to use several ranges of factors (or data) to predict noise levels for many types of conditions. How- ever, STAMINA deals with free flowing traffic traveling at least 30 miles per hour. It does not have the capability of dealing with stop-and-go conditions that are frequently encountered in urban areas and can be very different from normal free flow traffic conditions. Noise analysts using STAMINA have been attempting to predict noise levels for stop-and-go conditions by using various approximations and engineering judgments, such as varying average vehicle speeds and emission levels. The analyst who assesses existing and future noise levels for environmental impact statements (EIS's) or environmen- tal assessments (EA's) using STAMINA has no formally recognized basis for adjusting the program to adequately reflect stop-and-go conditions. Consequently, the error resulting from the use of these approximations can be significant. Research is needed to develop a standard pro- cedure for accurately assessing stop-and-go noise levels by adding additional emission level characteristics and other relevant factors to the STAMINA model. There- fore, the objective of this project is to develop a procedure for predicting stop-and-go traffic noise levels that can be input into the STAMINA 2.0 noise model. The agency preliminary draft final report has been submitted and is now under review. Project 25-3 FY '89 Guidelines for the Development of Wetland Replacement Areas Research Agency: Principal Invest.: Elective Date: Completion Date: Funds: Contract Pending (27 months) $299,71 1 Planning for highway projects frequently involves con- sideration of several mitigative alternatives to address adverse impacts to wetland resources. One alternative often used requires the development of wetland replace- ment areas as compensation for wetlands lost due to high- way development projects. Although considerable information is available on the subject of wetland replace- ment, both in documented form and undocumented ex- perience or practice, much of this information is fragmented and dispersed throughout the country, or has not been fully evaluated. Therefore, current information cannot be easily used for locating, designing, constructing, or monitoring wetland replacement areas. However, to ensure elective implementation of this important miti- gative alternative, transportation planners, designers, en- vironmental staff, and other users must have this information readily available. Therefore, there is a need to synthesize the present state of the art and from this synthesis develop a recommended process for replacing wetlands. The objective of this research is to develop a manual containing a well-defined wetland replacement process, including guidelines and techniques for locating, design- ing, constructing, monitoring, and maintaining wetland replacement sites. The guidelines and techniques shall be organized on a geographic or ecological basis as appro- priate. This objective will be accomplished by completing the following tasks: Task 1. Examine existing wetland replacement data. Locate, assemble, and evaluate all available technical in- formation and current research projects pertaining to the subject of wetland replacement. Task 2. Interview personnel having wetland replacement experience. Meet with personnel from transportation and natural resource agencies, environmental and engineering consultants, and other organizations, who have been or currently are involved in wetland replacement efforts. These interviews shall determine the various wetland re- placement processes; design and construction techniques; construction plans, specifications, and special provisions; and cost information now being used to develop wetland replacement areas. Problems, constraints, and special monitoring and maintenance requirements associated with these wetland replacement efforts are also to be identified. Task 3. Collect field data. A detailed plan shall be developed to collect data to validate or supplement the information from Tasks 1 and 2. The plan must include a list of proposed types of data to be collected on existing wetland replacement projects considered successful and unsuccessful in terms of functions and values. A rationale for the data to be collected must also be provided. It is beyond the scope of this study to perform comprehensive field sampling. The detailed plan shall be submitted to NCHRP for review and approval. Upon approval, the plan shall be implemented. Task 4 Develop wetland replacement process manual. Using the information collected under Tasks 1 through 3, develop a wetland replacement manual. The manual will provide a detailed process for determining the steps and factors that need to be considered in the location and general design of wetland replacement areas to fulfill reg- ulatory and policy needs. On an ecological or a geograph- ical basis, as appropriate, the manual shall also provide guidelines and techniques for site selection, analysis, and design; construction plans, specifications, special provi- sions, and cost estimates; monitoring; and maintenance.

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243 Task 5. Preparation of final report. Prepare a final re- port that documents the research effort. As a minimum, the report shall include the following: (a) a description of the current state of the art on wetland replacement techniques, their electiveness and practicality, using a combination of concise narrative, tables, and illustrations; (b) a discussion of the problems and constraints frequently encountered in the location, design, construction, moni- toring, and maintenance of wetland replacement areas; (c) recommendations for policy changes and additional research; and (d) an assessment of the feasibility for de- veloping a "knowledge-based expert system" based on the Task 4 manual. The Task 4 manual shall be part of the total final report package.