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~- - - - APPEND~ A NOlAlED ~BLIOC~Y

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APPENDIX A ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Highway Maintenance and Maintenance Management AASHTO Maintenance Manual, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C..' 1987. This document contains 11 chapters of guidelines on different aspects of pavement maintenance. Chapter 1 (Management and Administration) presents practices which should be considered In developing management systems for statewide highway maintenance. Chapter 2 (Roadway Surfaces) contains basic information on the maintenance requirements for the maintenance of He various types of roadway surfaces including rep air materials and methods. Chapter 3 (Shoulders and Approaches) describes the requirements for maintenance of shoulders and approaches as influenced by their design, usage, condition, and the materials used in construction. Chapter 4 (Drainage) covers He maintenance of highway drainage systems as constructed and the use of special corrective measures to correct drainage or erosion problems. Chapter 5 (Roadsides) discusses the maintenance of roadside features, and the objectives of roadside management as influenced by public attitudes, economics, and the effectiveness of various maintenance programs. Chapter 6 (Bridges and Tunnels) defines He maintenance responsibilities for bridges and tunnels and contains information on bridge and tunnel maintenance and operation based on designs, location, and the usage of the facility. Chapter 7 (Highway Appurtenances) discusses He maintenance of structures either within He right-of-way or essential to He operation, with the exception of light standards, traffic controllers, signs, bridges, tunnels, and rest area structures. Facilities off He r~ght-of-way include offices, workshops, storage areas and trails. Chapter ~ (Snow and Ice Control) outlines the elements Hat affect He planning, preparation, and use of good procedures for snow and ice control. Chapter 9 (Maintenance of Traffic Control Devices and Electrical/Electron~c Support Equipment) covers He recommendations for maintaining traffic control devices, including traffic signs, pavement markings, delineators, traffic islands, traffic signals and certain over items, such as highway luminaires, regularly serviced by the same maintenance crews. Chapter 10 (Accident Prevention and Safety) covers accident prevention and safety programs for maintenance personnel as necessary to prevent injury to employees and to He traveling public. Chapter 11 (Maintenance Equipment) contains general information on maintenance equipment, equipment applications, and mechanized work methods. A-1

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Adams, M.C., "Roadside Management in North Carolina," Transportation Research Record No. 647, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1977, pp. 20-23. This article discusses the vegetation growth problem faced In Norm Carolina, and Me resulting maintenance management system developed to handle the Problem. The system has now reached the stage where planned work quantities and costs of an annual maintenance program by line item activity on both a county and a statewide basis can be reasonably projected. Work is proceeding toward developing Me means and methods Cat will permit objective evaluation of the effectiveness of their efforb; and will properly rank line item maintenance activities. , _ , , Al-Mansour I. I.M. Mouake! and K.C. Sinha, Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness of Pavement Surface Maintenance Activities, Final Repod, FHWA/IN/)HRP-90/12, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1991, 228 pp. This study covers pavement surface maintenance on three surface types: rigid, flexible and composite (asphalt overlay on nerd pavement). It addresses 3 main issues as follows: I) Do routine maintenance activities make a difference in terms of pavement serviceability? If yes, how much? 2) Are chip and sand seal coating cost effective? What is their optimal timing? 3) What management criteria should be used as a guide to make seal coating decisions on specific roadways? In resolving Issue #1 a stratified -- - car - - , 2-stage sample of observational data was used due to its flexibility in treating continuous and class variables. Most activities showed significant effect (either alone or in combination win others) on Pavement Serviceability Ratings or Roughness Numbers. In resolving Issue #2, Life Cycle Cost analysis was applied using agency and user costs. Results showed Mat optimal timing for seal coating is in the PST range of 3.0 to 2.7, dependent on AADT. In resolving Issue #3, a literature search, telephone interviews and expert op~ruon survey were used to augment Me findings on Issue #2 in generating a decision tree. The developed tree uses Me available data at INDOT, although surface distress related criteria would be superior. The tree helps analyze the likely cause of distress, the preferred solution and a priority ranking in the case of funding shortages. Specific guidelines on He use of chip and sand seals are also provided. Al-Suleiman, TV., K.C. Sinha, and Vie. Anderson, "Effect of Routine Maintenance on Pavement Roughness," Transpo'tation Research Record No. 1205, Transportation Research Board Washington, DC, 198S, pp. 20-28. "This paper presents a study of the relationship between routine maintenance expenditure level and pavement roughness. A database by contract section was developed for the state highway system of Indiana. Covariance analysis was performed to test the effect of climatic region. Regression models were developed to examine Me effect of routine maintenance expencliture level on rate of change In A-2

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pavement roughness. Two highway classes and Tree pavement types were considered In We analysis. The database included a total of 550 pavement contract sections. The results can be used to develop an effective maintenance program." (abstract, p. 20) Axelson, L., "Proposal for New Winter Road Maintenance Strategy: MINSALT," Transpodat~on Research Record No. 1357, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1993, pp. 12-14. The ~NSALT project has resulted in a proposal for a new winter maintenance strategy Mat shows how winter road maintenance can be organized so Mat its objectives can be attained. By adopting Me proposed strategy, it is possible to reduce salt consumption. The nveraH coal of road maintenance Is to help maintain Me country's total resources at . ~ , ~ . ~ by- ~ ~ ~ _ _ 1_ _ 1_ _ 1 _ _ 1 ~ t ~ 1 ___ ~ a high level of efficiency. The objectives can De proven Gown into several roan maintenance aims, including a high standard of traffic safety, good trafficability and high degree of availability, low vehicle costs, and a good environment. Ways that these aims can be achieved on rural areas and In municipalities In the winter are explained. Proposed measures,-methods, and resources are also presented. Bertone, S.l`., "Equipment Refurbishment: The Dollar Differential," AASH7O Quarterly Magazine Vol. 70, No. 4, October 1991 on. 6-7. , ~ ~ Boselly, S.E, III, "Road Weather Information Systems: What Are They and What Can They Do for You?," Transportation Research Record No. 1387, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., ~993, pp. ~9~_195. Road weaver information systems (RWISs) have been implemented operationally or tested in many states, counties, and cities, bow in the United States and internationally. Research conducted for Me Strategic Highway Research Program determined Cat RWISs can help highway agencies to optiIriize the resources allocated for snow and ice control. Questionnaires were sent to all of Me states and Me provinces of Canada; interviews of snow and ice control managers were conducted in I! states and one Canadian province; and field tests were conducted In Colorado, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, and Washington. The various RWIS technologies are described: meteorological and pavement sensor systems installed In Me road environment; road thermography, which involves constructing thermal profiles of road segments using vehicle-mounted infrared thermometers; and detailed, site-specific weather forecasts provided through interaction with meteorological service providers and information tailored to Me highway agencies' needs. In addition, Me communications aspects of providing information effectively to highway agencies are discussed. Experiences, primarily in Colorado, Minnesota, and Washington, are highlighted, including anecdotal Information gathered from other state agencies through interviews and field tests. Successful interagency cooperative efforts are also A-3

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described because of Weir ability to reduce the costs of acquiring RWIS hardware for each agency Trough cost sharing. FmaBy, cost analysis results of Me research are highlighted to point out the potential cost reductions for highway agencies that implement RWIS technologies. The article discusses We Pennsylvania Department of Transnortation's use of equipment refurbishment to reduce maintenance costs, enabling them to redirect Dose resources to Me improvement of Weir transportation facilities, and over high priority services. Most of the equipment refurbishment is done by contract, which allows PennDOT to direct its equipment maintenance workforce to over vital tasks. The only in-house equipment refurbishment is accomplished in Me engine rebuilding shop Rehung 120-150 engines per year). On average 4 to 5 pieces of equipment are refurbished each monk. The refurbishment has saved PennDOT an estimated $~.8 minion dollars since 1986. The purchasing of late-mode] used equipment is another area which PennDOT is beginrung to explore. Brewer, K.A., E.J. Kanne! and W.F. Woodman, "I.ocal Agency Managers' Perceived Value of Motivation Among Maintenance Workers," Transportation Research Record No. 1276, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1990, pp. 112-120. The results of a limited initial study of manager perceptions of employee motivation in local agency street and highway maintenance organizations are presented. All data are taken from cities and counties In Iowa. The agencies represent organizations generally having professional engineering management at some level In Me orgaruzation. Managers were found to believe strongly Cat salary and benefits were prime determinants of employee satisfaction and morale, which is indicative of an organization Cat subscribes to Me "rational-economic man" principle (i.e., tends to see working-level employees as a labor commodity to be bought and used). Conversely, managers were found to believe strongly Cat Weir employees were motivated by individual needs, suggestive of an orgaruzation wad a management philosophy at Me Oppos*e extreme - Me "complex man" model. The Intermediate philosophies of management In Me "social man" and "self-actualiz~ng man" models were not found to be significantly subscribed to by local agency maintenance managers In this research. The results suggest that local agencies cannot be expected to be interested In training or programs to enhance employee motivation unless such programs recognize the wide variance of manager perceptions. Riggs, }.C., "Management of City Roads," Australian Road Research Board Conference Proceedings Vol. 9, No. 4, 197S, pp. 87-100. In 1977-78 the Kiev of Brisbane will spend $4.5 minion on enIarmn~ and constructing ~ v ~ major traffic roads and $14.5 minion on maintaining, strengthening and Improving over existing roads. To produce Me best results from the expenditure of about $15 A-4

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million per annum on over 4000 km of roads, of very varied quality and use, spread non-uniformly over the 1000 square km of the City requires the formulation and implementation of a detailed road management system. A system was developed for recording the observable physical features of roads, using electronic data processing. The next step was to standardize Me description of defects in roads and develop a standard method of evaluation usable by sub-professional staff wad a high degree of reliability. Projected future system development includes We integration of computerized maintenance costing (s~ in Me development stage) win Me historic record of road deterioration. This will allow Me prediction of road unprovement needs. Budgef/Maintenance Manage~nent System Presentation, Flonda Depar~nent of Transportation, 20 July -1994. A set of presentation notes, from July 1994, describing Me current maintenance management system In Me State of Florida. Burkhardt, ].P. and Lit. Goode, "Indiana's Maintenance Management Information System," Transportation Research Record No. 1276, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., logo, pp. 7-~. In 1986 Me Indiana DOT (INDOT) realized Mat its computerized maintenance - -r . management system was not meeting the needs of Me department. Problems included a cumbersome mainframe system that necessitated sequential ruIuiing of programs, an Inordinate amount of paperwork, and most important, lack of mearungful feedback to district and subdistrict managers and foremen. INDOT's Maintenance Management Section studied several alternatives to eliminate or reduce Me problems. The alternatives included the development of a new system using INDOT's data processing resources, Me use of existing systems in operation in over states and agencies, and a contract with a vendor-consultant for a product already in use in a public agency. The Pennsylvania DOT's Maintenance Operations Resources Information System (MORIS) was reviewed as part of Me evaluation. A team consisting of specialists in maintenance management, equipment and inventory management, and data processing was sent to Pennsylvania for 2 days. Although Me team was Impressed why the highly integrated . ~ ~ rat_ TO .~ . . 1~ . 1 e _ _ _ lo_ ~ ~ - _ nature of MO1~, the team eventually re~ectect its use tor ~ncuana. The use of MORIS in Diana would have required a major upgrade to Me department's mainframe computer, a major reworking of Me software to fit Indiana's legal and financial requirements, and some departure from existing well-accepted maintenance management practices. The Maintenance Management Section selected a commercially available product that matched, in theory, Me existing maintenance management system. The product is generic, operates on a personal computer, and permits data to A-5 . .

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be uploaded to the department's data base for use by other functions. The selected product is used by Me National Park Service to manage maintenance acnv~nes. . . ~ "Centralization Enhances Vegetation Management," Roads ~ Bndges, February, 1993, pp. 38-39. This article discusses Me positive effects of centralization on the vegetation management program in Hillsborough County, Florida. They combined the budgets of 4 teams (2 or 3 people teams) into one budget. Equipment and labor is now shared across Me county. Before, each unit had separate vegetation management programs which varied In strategy, control, and success. Today, this focus and comm~`anent to continuous quality improvement won this team Me 1992 "Excellence in Roadside Vegetation Management Award" from the National Roadside Vegetation Management Association. The county has now increased vegetation management productivity by 400/O as a result of Me centralization. Chantereau, P., "New Approach for Improvement of Highway Maintenance in France," Transportation Research Record No. 1276, Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C.' 1990' pp. 103-108. Highway maintenance policy in France has been completely revised as part of modernization efforts affecting central and local administrations of He Ministry of Civil Engineering. The new policy is based on expanded training for maintenance managers and workers, unproved management strategies and organizational structure to provide new levels of service to road users, integration of new tools and techniques to Imp rove efficiency, motivation of workers through participative management, and improved co~rununications among all organizations involved in highway maintenance. Since 1986, 50,000 people have been involved in this effort to Improve He maintenance level of service. In He decade to come a new phase will be initiated requiring contractual agreements between all agencies involved in the maintenance of France's roadway system. The contractual agreements were prescribed by the French government in 1989 for all state adm~ustrations. Clark, C.E. and A.C. Mao, "Harris County's Traffic Signal Contract Maintenance Pro grams' ITE Journal Vol. 60, No. 3, March 199OJ PP. 19-22. The efficient maintenance of approximately 350 traffic signals and warriing flashing lights is He objective of Harris County, Texas' traffic signal maintenance program. Since 1967, Harris County has contracted win a private provider of maintenance of traffic signals and emergency flashing lights. The contractor is responsible for both scheduled and unscheduled maintenance. The routine inspection, timing adjustments, and flashing signal resets are performed by four county-employed inspectors, each A-6

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assigned to a geographic area of responsibility. All invoices submitted for payment by We maintenance contractor are produced via a database program Mat captures the data into flexible database files. Reports generated from We data files provide valuable analysis of maintenance performance and signal reliability. This process has kept Me cost of traffic signal maintenance from escalating and has improved signal operation reliability. Colorado Department of Transportation, Maintenance Management System FY 1994/1995, Year End Report. This publication is a collection of data generated by the Colorado DOT's maintenance management system. The data are used to track maintenance activities and estimated costs, as well as to assist maintenance personnel in planning and budgeting for the future. Cumberiedge, G., C.A. Wilson and G.~. Hoffman, "integration of Management Systems for Maintenance Activities," Proceedings of the Seventh Maintenance Management Conference, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1995. ~-, Pennsylvania's Maintenance Operations Resource Information System (MORIS) is a large and complex mainframe system Mat has been fully operational since 1986. MORIS captures information on all aspects of maintenance operations, including personnel, equipment, and materials. It is a "real-time" system, updated daily through transactions-such as payrolls, invoice documents, equipment usage information, and work activities at terminals In Me I! constrict and 67 county offices and Me three central warehouse functions (sign shop, equipment division, consumable supplies). Since 1986, MORIS has continually evolved Trough enhanced integrations with over management systems. These include Me Roadway Management System, Bridge Management System, Accident and Reporting System, and Me Fiscal Management and Information System. Each of these five systems is large and can operate independently. MORIS Integrates functions and obtains key information from these systems to better manage Me maintenance of Pennsylvania's roadways. Cunard, R.A., Maintenance Management of Street and Highway Signs, NCHRP Report 157, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., September ~ 990. This report discusses ad of Me aspects of an effective sign maintenance management system. A number of Me chapter headings include: Description of Me Maintenance Effort; Orgariization of a Sign Maintenance Operation; Field Inventory of Traffic Signs; Maintenance Facilities, Equipment, and Materials; Maintenance Personnel; Maintenance Costs and Funding; and Management Control. A-7

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Day, D.S. and B.D. Martin, "Overview of Saskatchewan's Maintenance Management Information System," Transportation Research Record No. 1276, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1990, pp. 15-20. Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation operates a maintenance management information system that provides up-to-date resource usage, accomplishments, and expenditures at any organizational level. The system captures data for We department's equipment management information systems. Currently, the system operates on a mainframe computer located in the provincial capital. Data are entered daily at each area office on a microcomputer and communicated in batch mode to the mainframe. After the data pass certain validation tests, He system's year-to-date file Is updated and a report is immediately returned to the area office. The system contains some unique features, including holding accounts that provide up-to-date expenditures even though payroll is processed bi-weekly and equipment nightly. Saskatchewan's approach to data entry and the philosophy used in designing the system are described. Ibe type of data captured, the level at which He data are captured, hardware and software used, interfaces win over systems, and how the system itself Is managed are reviewed. It is concluded that the system's success is due to its design philosophy of meeting He needs of He frontl~ne maintenance manager. Evolution and Benefits of Preventive Maintenance strategies] NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 153, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1989, 69 PP The objective of this synthesis is to assist highway maintenance managers to broaden He acceptance of and communicate He value of timely preventive maintenance programs to transportation executives and legislative members. The benefits of PM are sometimes overlooked or are not well defined. Preventive maintenance programs are not always politically attractive. They often have difficulty competing for adequate funding. While addressing significant PM activities, this synthesis looks at other factors affecting He success of maintenance programs. Co~runon sense and experience must be used in evaluating PM benefits. Placing an objective value on PM benefits is most difficult because Here are many variables involved. Looking at the perceived results of doing PM and the unintended consequences of deferring or canceling PM activities may help to define He benefits more clearly. Costs of PM activities are somewhat easier to obtain from accounting systems. However, lowest unit costs do not always ensure an effective PM activity. Quality assurance of the materials being used and their placement during construction and maintenance activities may be one of He most cost-effective PM programs an agency has or can adopt. Training personnel to "do it right" may be the key to what is a cost-effective PM activity, because quality usually determines the life of a repair or He effect of a PM activity. A-8

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lhis report also examines highway maintenance from a historical perspective, comments on the need for more maintenance input during Me design phase of construction and reconstruction projects, and addresses Me costs and benefits of PM. Some PM practices and subjective opinions on Weir cost-effectiveness are discussed. The use of PM strategies, development of funding requirements, and implementation of programs are addressed. The scope is limited to pavements, shoulders, bridges, drainage facilities, roadsides, some traffic services, and equipment areas. of_ Feighan, K.~., E.A. Sharaf, T.E. White and K.C. Sinha, "Estimation of Service Life and Cost of Routine Maintenance Activities," Transportation Research Record No. Il02, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1986, pp. 13-21. Results of research on service life and cost of various routine maintenance activities in Indiana are presented. This research is a part of a larger project to develop an optimization program for Me routine maintenance management system. The information on service life and cost is necessary to identify cost-effective solutions and to monitor whether or not changes in work practices or materials significantly influence Me effectiveness of the activity. The routine maintenance activities considered were in Me general areas of pavement, shoulders, and drainage. The unit cost information per production unit was obtained from an analysis of crew-day card reports. The service life data were developed Trough personal interviews win subdistrict foremen. The estimates of service life were related to pavement condition as wed as to accomplishment per day. The resulting information provides a reasonable set of input data for Me optimization of maintenance decisions. File, D.H., "How to Keep Your Maintenance Management System from Growing 016)" Proceedings of the Seventh Maintenance Management Conference, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1995. Most states now have a maintenance management information system (MMIS). Many states, including Illinois, have extensively revised or replacer! Weir original system. Now states are facing Me same dilemma win Heir second systems as Hey did win He first: how to keep Heir new MMIS from growing old. The new MMISs are much different from Heir predecessors in terms of the equipment used to support them and He experience of He managers who use ~em. ~ addition, He ~nveshnent In these systems is often substantial. It is Important that these systems not be aDowed to grow old and require total replacement when Hey can remain dynamic, growing, and emerging systems Cat keep up win management and organizational requirements. A-9

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Steele, G.W. and F.T. Higgins, Jr., "Quality Assurance - A System in Practice," Transportation Research Record No. 792, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1981, pp. 3-7. The trend toward rapid highway construction and maintenance operations has resulted in certain deficiencies in We classical specifications and procedures of past years. This has resulted in a decision to begin an ordered restructuring of the system then In existence. The objective was eventual establishment of a quality-assurance system that would be adequate for the department's needs and use the resources that would be made available. Major areas that have been substantially affected by the decision are briefly discussed. These areas include training, specifications, sampling and testing, information handling, and the owner-contractor relations. Changes noted that have been Implemented In these areas include: a) technician certification, by routine application of the concepts of probability, c) clear definitions of the contractor's responsibility for quality control and the department's responsibility for acceptance, d) use of contractor-developed data by the department, e) development and application of rapid test and evaluation methods, and f) the routine use of electronic data processing in daily operating procedures. Based on the favorable results obtained, performance specifications are workable, and the continued use of systems engineering techniques is the most practical way to maintain an overall course of action that is directed toward We achievement of our goal - a quality-assurance system Hat works In practice. Tuggle, D.R, "FHWA Demonstration Project No. 89 Quality Management and a National Quality Initiatives' Transportation Research Record No. 1340, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1992, pp. 56-60. Quality assurance specifications and programs in the highway construction industry have been evolving since the 1960s. Within the last decade there has been an increasing attention to promoting quality products and services throughout the U.S. economy. There has also been an increased level of interest within He highway community. Although there is currently significant interest and many independent activities associated win what has now become known as quality management, there is a need to coordinate these many activities. There Is also a need to increase awareness In and build support from upper management, and to provide technical skills and tools to those responsible for implementing quality management programs and specifications. A coordinated effort among He FHWA, AASHTO, He highway construction Industry, and others is being formulated to provide oversight and direction toward increasing emphasis In quality management and over construction quality and performance issues. This effort has been termed He National Quality Initiative. FHWA's Demonstration Project No. 89 Quality Management can provide the vehicle to implement the activities under the initiative. This paper describes the development of these activities and Heir current status and plans. And

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Virginia Department of Transportation, Maintenance Division, Condition Evaluation Unit, Quality Evaluation Manual, September 1993. The goal of this publication is "to help ensure the most effective use of monetary and human resources by giving VDOT maintenance managers an unbiased external view of maintenance problems and successes." It states explicidy Me Department's commitment to quality and Me role of maintenance quality assurance. Detailed guidelines are provided for every facet of maintenance, Including evaluation procedures, quality standards for various types of pavements and related structures, and reporting requirements. Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Quality Highways: Key preservation needs on Wisconsin State Highway System/ Madison' Wisconsin' July 1994' 22 pp. This report describes Me maintenance and improvements required to keep Wisconsin's state highway system at its current level and quality of service. A-49

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Pavement Management Corn~nonwealth of Pennsylvania Departnent of Transportation. Pavement Condition -rim -- ~ Survey Field Manual, Publication No.36, liarrisburg, Pennsylvania, April 1995, 116 PP This manual Is a practical guide for conducting pavement condition surveys. It in~l,'A~c ~ HP~nti~n of the rearm reanirec! for We task, procedures for performing the task, and photographs and drawings of various conditions that need to be documented. ~~~ ~ ~~~~~r ~ ERES Consultants, InCe' Development of a Pavement Condition Analysis Methodology, Final Report, February 1995e This report was written for a project performed for the Illinois Department of Transportation. IDOT collects data using a video inspection vehicle and analyzes Me data at workstations in -weir offices. The Condition Rating Survey Distress Manual contains guidelines for determining pavement distresses, and a companion software program calculates Me condition rating survey value based on bow distress data and over collected data (e.g., rutting measurements). ERES Consultants, Inc., Condition Rating Survey Distress Manual, draft, April 1995. This manual was prepared for the Illinois Department of Transportation. The manual provides detailed guidelines for determ~rung Me seventy of pavement surface distresses, including bow text and photographs describing Me various distress types. Florida Department of Transportation, Flexible Pavetnent Condition Suroey Manual, April 1993. The information in this manual defines a method for conducting a visual and mechanical evaluation of flexible pavements. Items evaluated in Me survey include ride quality, cracking, rut depth, patching, and raveling. The data from the evaluation can Den be used, together win other data, for pavement management decision making. Florida Depa'-~ent of Transportation, Rigid Pavement Condition Survey Manual, Apn} 1993. The ~nformabon in this manual defines a method for conducting a visual and mechanical evaluation of rigid pavements. Items evaluated in Me survey include ride A-50

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quality, cracking, spelling, faulting, shattered slabs, pumping, patching, and joint condition. The data from the evaluation can Men be used, together win over data, for pavement management decision making. Guidelines on Pavement Management, AASHTO Joint Task Force On Pavements, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Washington D.C., 1985. ~, This document discusses the need for pavement management systems' defines pavement management related terms, outlines an "approach for improving pavement management", and recommends guidelines for He "development of a pavement management information system." Henderson, B., W.A. Phang and C. Richter, "Quality Standards for Reliable Pavement Roughness Evaluation," Conference Proceedings ~ Vol. 2, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Managing Pavements 1994 Do. 302-314. , ~ ~ As part of the SHRP-LTPP program, profile data are currently collected on nearly 3,000 pavement test sections in He US and Canada. To ensure accuracy and uniformity in data collection and to reduce the raw profile data to performance indexes that can be used for pavement evaluation purposes, SHRP has developed a suite of computer programs to support this data collection program. Four programs were developed, interfaced and coupled into a single module called PROQUAL. Idaho Department of Transportation, Division of Planning, Pavement Management Summary and Individual Section Report, Dissect One, January 1996. This publication is a compilation of pavement management data collected for Idaho's District One. Illinois Deparhnent of Transportation, 1994 Interstate Surface Quality: An Analysis of International Roughness Index and Rut Depths on Illinois Interstate Pavements IncludFing Todays, January 1995. The International Roughness Index (IRI) was created to provide a universal roughness rating system worldwide. The Illinois Department of Transportation collects IRI data with a South Dakota-type road profiler. This report contains Illinois' IRI and rut depth data for 1994. _ . A-51

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Janott, M.S., Pavement Roughness and Rideability Field Evaluation, NCHRP Report 308, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., July 1988. The objective of this field-evaluation project was to validate the form and accuracy of He relationships developed In a previous project (NCHRP Report 275, "Pavement Roughness and Rideability") which were based on data from only one state (Ohio), by extending the process to four additional states. Additional data was collected in New Jersey, Michigan, New Mexico, and Louisiana. The results documented In this report are based on combined data from all five states. These findings show the relationships between physical profile measurements and the subjective panel ratings of rideability, between Mays Ride Meter measurements and the panel ratings, and between panel ratings and subjective appraisals of a pavement's need for repair. RN, which Is defined as He r~deability number, is computed from transforms Hat predict rideability from profile index measurements. The transforms recommended for use in determining pavement RN are shown to be accurate and valid over a wide range of roughness and can be used for any paved surface. The validated procedure described in this report can be used to assess He ride characteristics of pavements, assisting highway agencies to 1) evaluate newly constructed pavements, 2) measure and report totally comparable rideability and roughness data, and 3) provide information for decisions on pavement rehabilitation or reconstruction. This procedure is recommended for consideration by AASE~O as a standard for measuring pavement rideability number (RN), similar to the standard previously adopted for measuring the friction number of pavement surfaces. Kansas Department of Transportation, Bureau of Materials & Research, Pavement Management System Field Operations Manual, January ~ 996. This manual provides a practical guide to pavement management data collection for field crews. It contains sections pertaining to locating test sections, operation of the data recorder and over relevant equipment, entering data/codes Into the data recorder, and assigning distress ratings to pavements. Kilareski, W.P. and I.P. Tarris, "Data Base Integrated Advisory System for Pavement Management," Transportation Research Record No. 1276, Transportation Research Board, Washington., D.C., 1990, pp. 76-89. Expert (advisory) systems are designed to improve productivity and the quality of decisions by making computers more useful. The objectives are accomplished by providing the user win a better understanding of the program knowledge base through enhanced explanation facilities. An effort at the Pennsylvania Transportation A-52

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Institute (PTI) of We Pennsylvania State University to develop an advisory system for pavement management activities is described. The knowledge base for the advisory system Incorporates the current treatment decision criteria of the Per nsylvania DOT's roadway management system, Me Systematic Technique to Analyze and Manage Pennsylvanians Pavements. PTI researchers emphasized the Integration of a data base win the advisory system. If users of this system have access to a data base, Hey can quickly obtain physical, traffic, and pavement condition information for a particular roadway sentient for review and Men concentrate Weir efforts on selecting appropriate , ~ maintenance strategies. the appllcanon was aevelopea usmg a comm~r~lally aV~ll~Ult: expert system shell. It is currently limited to rigid pavements and provides an interactive environment to assist Me user In deterrru~ung appropriate maintenance strategies, including estimated cost, for a particular roadway segment. The application can also analyze multiple roadway segments to assist an engineer with project development activities. Markow, M.~., "Life-Cycle Cost Evaluations of the Effects of Pavement Maintenance," Transportation Research Record No. 1276, Transportation Research Board' Washington, D.C., 1990, pp. 37-47. Several recent trends In highway programs suggest an increasingly important role for maintenance in future pavement management, operations, data collection, and research. The movement toward life-cycle costing as Me economic framework for ~ e ~ -11 ~ ~~~ ~~-~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ^^ one of a spectrum of options available and to evaluate {Takeoffs among these alternatives in pavement management decisions Will cause managers to consoler mama a:j ~. a more flexible, Integrated decision-making process. Furthermore, maintenance is a prime candidate for emerging technologies and research In unproved data acquisition ~ ~ _ ~ 1 _. _~ ~__~__ _~ ~_~_1~_~ ~_~ ~ Rho ~q;~q~= and processing, nonuestrucnve tesnng ana evaluanon, ma us ~ ~ ~=lll`=llall~= function, and materials and equipment needed for maintenance performance The ways in which the technical, economic, and management aspects of maintenance can be Incorporated in life-cycle costing and Me results of different assumptions In these areas and their implications for pavement performance and costs are explored. A microcomputer-based procedure for pavement life-c~rcle costing was employed. The program emphasizes pavement policy at the network level and includes an analytic trea~anent of routine maintenance Mat accounts for relative levels of effort and the technological effectiveness of maintenance activities, as well as their scheduling and costs. The benefits of maintenance are expressed as reductions In user costs of vehicle operation as a function of pavement condition; Me discounted benefits are compared win Me discounted costs of maintenance performance to assess Me value of different maintenance options and Me technological characteristics of maintenance. The findings affirm the substantial benefits of maintenance relative to costs, Me benefits of further unprovements in maintenance technology, the long-term benefits of early and frequent maintenance, and the need for management decisions to reinforce the inherent technological capabilities of maintenance in correcting pavement condition. A-53

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Maze, T.H. and O.G. Smadi, "Taxonomy of Institutional Barriers to the Implementation of Pavement Management Systems," Proceedings of the Seventh Maintenance Management Conference, Transportation Research Board Washington, D.C.' 1995. The benefits of pavement management system (PMS) when fully implemented are well known, and Me history of successful implementation is rich. Implementation occurs when Me EMS is the critical component for making pavement decisions. However, Were are barriers to Me full implementation of PMS's. Institutional barriers, not technical and financial barriers, are more con~nonly responsible for a system's falling short of full implementation. In general, highway agencies should put more effort into overcoming these barriers. The Iowa Department of Transportation has designed an Implementation process to overcome institutional obstacles and facilitate the unplementation of its PMS. _ Peterson, D.E., Pavement Management Practices, NCHRP Report 135, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., November 1987. This report is specific to defining, describing, and summarizing the concepts and practices involved win pavement management systems (PMS,s). Chapter 2 is titled "What is Pavement Management?" and describes not only Me objectives of a PMS, but the components and outputs of such a system. Chanter 3 is titled "Current Practice" and describes many of the details involved In current PMS's. Chapters 4 and 5 discuss Me application and development/improvement of a PMS respectively. - ~ - - -r Virginia Department of Transportation, pavement management system memoranda and documentation, 1994 & 1995. In 1994 and 1995, VDOT was in Me process of implementing a new pavement management system. The improvements to Me system were classified under two prunary Initiatives: distress data collection and new PMS analytical software. This collection of memoranda charts Me progress of these Initiative, focusing prunarily on Me structure and function of the analytical software. Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Pavement Surface Distress Survey Manual, Pavement Management Section, February 1993. the early 1980s, Wisconsin developed a method for documenting pavement surface distress, and Me first edition of Me referenced manual was published In 1983. The State continued to research and refine its rating method and unplemented a rater training program. The 1993 edition of Me manual provides Me techniques for pavement surface distress documentation and evaluation currently used by WisDOT. A-54

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Customer Input Hester, E.L., Successful Marketing Research: The Complete Guide to Getting and Using Essential Information About Your Customers and Competitors, Wiley & Sons, 1996. This book is intended as a resource for small businesses interested In conducting market research and competitive intelligence activities. It explains the value of these activities and provides low-cost, time-efflcient methods for conduchng ~em. Basic market research can be conducted by examining advertisements or win resources available at any public library. More ~n-dep+, direct methods for conducting research, such as questionnaires and surveys, are also described. Kopac, P.A., "QUA: How to Conduct Questionnaire Surveys," Public Roads, June 1991) pp. 8-15. This article provides guidance for the development of generic questionnaires. Discussions of the various aspects of survey development and conduct are given, Including selecting the appropriate survey method and sampling method, determining the required sample size, developing Me right set of questions, and organizing Me questions in a suitable format. Miller, J., "Maintenance Management from the Customer's Viewpoint," Proceedings of Seventh Maintenance Management Conference, Transportation Research Board, WaShingtOnl D.C.J 1995. Technicians in Me maintenance operation field must start thirsting like Weir customers and use measurements to meet Me customer's expectations. In 1991 Me Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) began developing a business plan to improve its customer orientation. MnDOT's maintenance staff developed a mission statement, and to guide it in defining maintenance products and services were defined as outcomes. These outcomes include smooth pavement, roadways clear of obstructions, pleasing roadsides, highly visible signs and stripes, and Me availability of motorist services. Pilot tests have been Implemented Trough Me district offices of MnDOT to assess products and services and methods of evaluating Dose services. This is In addition to the measurement of inputs and activities within Me present maintenance management system. Customer research has also been initiated to further define products and services and to help MnDOT evaluate its response to customer concerns. A-55

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Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, County Maintenance Customer Service Index Pilot Process., 1993J 26 pp. During fiscal year 1993-94, county maintenance was identified by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation as one of Tree district areas to pilot the new Customer Service Index methodology to gauge customer expectations and to measure performance. A statewide team win representatives from Me districts and counties was formed. The team completed a 12 step Customer Service Index process Cat is summarized in this paper. The 12 steps are defined as We following: 1) Create a Vision, 2) Determine a Mission, 3) Identify Goals and Objectives, 4) Identify Customers, 5) Identify Products and Services, 6) Identify Moments of Truth, 7) Identifying Preliminary Measures, 8-9) Clarify Measures wad Customers Survey Results and Follow-up, 10-12) Determine Current Perfonnance/Complete Me Index Using Survey Results to Complete the Customer Service Indexes. Satisfaction Management Systems, Tnc., Maintenance Division 1994 Business Planning Surrey Statewide Report, Minnelonka, Minnesota, Fall 1994, 1 10 pp. Is document reports Me findings of Me 1994 Minnesota DOT customer satisfaction shady, which was performed in November 1994 by Satisfaction Management Systems. _ ~. . ~ . . ~. c,- ~ The report includes a project overviews a discussion ot use ot data., a sulrunary of findingsr conclusions and recommendations, demographic results, psychographic results, and overall study results. Stein-Hudson, K.E., R.K. Sloane, M.C. Jackson and A.~. Bloch, Customer-Based Quality in Transportation, Final Report, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board National Research Council, Washington' D.C., March 1995, ~1 5 pp. ~, This report presents the findings of research investigating Me existing and potential uses of customer-based quality in transportation among state depa~ents of transportation (DOTs). The research methods included interviews win ten state WTs and focus groups with DOT customers held in nine states. The interview findings identified DOT definitions of internal and external customers and Me approaches DOTs use to identify customer needs and expectations including focus groups, formal and informal customer surveys, customer panels, and formal and informal feedback from customers. Many states have nutially concentrated on Me internal customer as a way of improving quality, while others have expressed an interest in reaching directly to Weir external customers. The results of Me focus groups identified many areas of interest and concern to DOT customers, ranging from construction and maintenance of highways to transit and A-56

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over modes, to more specific issues and concerns. The focus groups also identified customer definitions of quality and value of services, products, and facilities provided. An appendix includes Guidelines on Using Focus Groups in Cusiomer-based Quality to assist DOTs in bow planriing and conducHng focus groups, and in using Me findings to improve customer-based quality. Wikelius, M.R., Driving Customer Defined Quality into Highway Maintenance, Minnesota Depa~nent of Transportation, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1995, 16 pp. This report describes Me results of a study performed by Me Minnesota Department of Transportation. The investigation started as an attempt to improve an ineffective maintenance management system and turned out to be a whole new approach to managing a public sector service. The new approach involves redefining Me provided products and services to reflect customer point of view, iden~ing some indicators by which Me customer measures Me DOT's performance, measuring Me level of customer satisfaction, initiate strategies to fib gaps if satisfaction levels are low, and determine Me true costs of performing work. A-57

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