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212 Biodelectors CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TERRORISM Most of the funding for biodetection devices comes from the Department of Defense (56%), with IS% from commercial ventures. DOE, FDA, NASA, and TSWG account for the remaining 26%. With only 6 (out of 73) devices commercially available, 92% are in either the field testing stage (40%) or still in the laboratory (52%~. Where they are used. There are only 17 devices in the database that are explicitly intended for diagnostic purposes, that is, detecting biological agent in fluid or tissue samples from a patient. Most (85%) current devices are designed to detect biohazards in the environment (liquid, air, surface or other). Seven devices in the inventory are designed to detect agent in either patients or the environment, and numerous others aimed at environmental monitoring or detection could be adapted to patient diagnostics, but not without considerable additional research. What is needed. The most prevalent medium needed is liquid (44%), although ~ ~ devices are designed to detect agent in the air. Twelve devices utilize either liquid or air shinnies ~. . . . .. ~ ~ AN ~ ~. ~. .. . ~. . .. 1 -~ _ _ _ 1wenly-elgnl items <~uV/o' provide numeric estimates or agent concentration. A third (33%) of the biodetection devices do not provide a quantitative estimate of the pathogen detected, and another 27% of the devices provide no information whatsoever about quantification. Speed and portability. .. . .. . . . . . . . According to the inventory, device portability is evenly ct~str~outect among ~ano-~e~u, carriable by man, truck-Ioaded, or fixed. However, much of the newest research focuses on miniaturization of detectors. Fifty-nine percent of the devices in the inventory will provide results in a matter of minutes. Eight devices (] I%) can or will detect agent in a matter of seconds. How they work. There are basically two types of technology needed in a biodetection device: I) detection technology and 2) reporting technology. Detection technology refers to the mechanism by which the device differentiates the target from other organisms or molecules. Reporting technology refers to the transduction mechanism that makes the detection event apparent to a human observer. Thirty percent of the devices in the inventory depend upon nucleic acid hybridization for detection, while 23% use antibody/antigen binding. The remaining devices use chemical reactions, the composition of agent (size, charge, mass), ligand/receptor binding, or more than one of these technologies. Forty-one percent of the reporting technology is optical, with other devices using technologies based on charge, color, mass, electrochemical reaction, or some combination. Chemical Detectors There are 100 entries in the chemical detector inventory. Twenty-eight percent of the entries are tuncted by the Department ot L,etense and so To by commercial companies. Other funders include DOE, EPA, NASA, and TSWG. Chemical detection devices are much more developed than their biological counterparts; 60% of the items in the inventory are commercially available, with only t3% still in the field testing stage and 16% in the laboratory. it is also worth noting that there are three commercial devices that are designed specifically for a civilian market.