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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.

Support for this project was provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under Contract No. 50-DKNA-7-90052. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the above-mentioned agency.

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Cover: The cover design represents the environmental, human, and computational elements that underlie climate modeling. The equations in the design are a form of the so-called “primitive equations,” which are included in all dynamical climate models. The photograph is by Peggy June Ostrom Schultz, an artist in Newark, Delaware.

Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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