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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was
approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council,
whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy
of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute
of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the
report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard
for appropriate balance.
Support for this project was provided by the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration under Contract No. 50-DKNA-7-90052.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations
expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not
necessarily reflect the views of the above-mentioned agency.
International Standard Book Number 0-309-06375-2
Additional copies of this report are available from:
National Academy Press
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20055
202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area)
Cover: The cover design represents the environmental,
human, and computational elements that underlie climate modeling.
The equations in the design are a form of the so-called
“primitive equations,” which are included in all
dynamical climate models. The photograph is by Peggy June Ostrom
Schultz, an artist in Newark, Delaware.
Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights
Printed in the United States of America