Index

A

Abatement, see Pollution abatement and control

Accounts and accounting, definition and purpose, 12, 19, 27, 207

Acid precipitation, 40, 113, 116, 119, 121, 122, 142, 143, 145, 147 , 148

Aggregation and disaggregation, 14, 19, 32, 36, 37, 39-40, 84, 123 , 152, 186

see also Gross domestic product;

Gross national product

Agriculture, 34, 115, 168, 199

air pollutants, 114, 144, 145, 146, 147

forests and, 132, 133, 135, 138-139

hedonic valuation, 118

IEESA, 3, 106, 109, 111-112, 118, 168, 169

land and structures valuation, 111-112, 168

production costs, 135

see also Department of Agriculture

Air quality and pollution, 8, 32, 113-116, 121-122, 126, 141-149, 152, 178-180, 199

acid precipitation, 40, 113, 116, 119, 121, 122, 142, 143, 145, 147 , 148

agriculture, impacts on, 114, 144, 145, 146, 147

BEA methodology, 148-149

carbon dioxide, 134, 135, 136, 176, 208

carbon monoxide, 142-143, 145, 208-209

chlorofluorocarbons, 143

data requirements/availability, 149, 171-172, 199

defined, 207

ecosystem impacts, 149, 156

forests, 34, 145, 147

climate change and, 34, 134, 135, 136, 158, 178

fossil fuels, general, 60

see also Climate change

historical perspectives, 142, 145, 146, 147, 148

IEESA, 3, 55, 110, 112, 156-157, 160, 171-172

market forces, 142, 144-145

nitrogen dioxide, 143, 144, 145

ozone, ground-level, 143, 144, 145, 147

ozone layer depletion, 23, 115, 121, 122, 143-144, 145, 149, 218

particulate matter, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 218

photochemical, 218

recreation and, 114, 149, 156

residuals, 7, 113-116, 119, 121, 147, 150

secondary, 220

SEEA, 112

sulfur dioxide, 143, 144, 145

see also ''acid precipitation" supra



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Index A Abatement, see Pollution abatement and control Accounts and accounting, definition and purpose, 12, 19, 27, 207 Acid precipitation, 40, 113, 116, 119, 121, 122, 142, 143, 145, 147 , 148 Aggregation and disaggregation, 14, 19, 32, 36, 37, 39-40, 84, 123 , 152, 186 see also Gross domestic product; Gross national product Agriculture, 34, 115, 168, 199 air pollutants, 114, 144, 145, 146, 147 forests and, 132, 133, 135, 138-139 hedonic valuation, 118 IEESA, 3, 106, 109, 111-112, 118, 168, 169 land and structures valuation, 111-112, 168 production costs, 135 see also Department of Agriculture Air quality and pollution, 8, 32, 113-116, 121-122, 126, 141-149, 152, 178-180, 199 acid precipitation, 40, 113, 116, 119, 121, 122, 142, 143, 145, 147 , 148 agriculture, impacts on, 114, 144, 145, 146, 147 BEA methodology, 148-149 carbon dioxide, 134, 135, 136, 176, 208 carbon monoxide, 142-143, 145, 208-209 chlorofluorocarbons, 143 data requirements/availability, 149, 171-172, 199 defined, 207 ecosystem impacts, 149, 156 forests, 34, 145, 147 climate change and, 34, 134, 135, 136, 158, 178 fossil fuels, general, 60 see also Climate change historical perspectives, 142, 145, 146, 147, 148 IEESA, 3, 55, 110, 112, 156-157, 160, 171-172 market forces, 142, 144-145 nitrogen dioxide, 143, 144, 145 ozone, ground-level, 143, 144, 145, 147 ozone layer depletion, 23, 115, 121, 122, 143-144, 145, 149, 218 particulate matter, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 218 photochemical, 218 recreation and, 114, 149, 156 residuals, 7, 113-116, 119, 121, 147, 150 secondary, 220 SEEA, 112 sulfur dioxide, 143, 144, 145 see also ''acid precipitation" supra

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toxins, 144, 149 see also Ozone layer depletion Air quality standards, 142-146 cost of, 23, 33, 146-147 defined, 207 dose-response relationship, 121-122 emission permits, 111 greenhouse gases, 34 see also Emission standards Ambient concentrations, 122, 208 defined, 207 Assimilation defined, 207 Associated capital, minerals, 5, 67, 68, 72, 73, 76, 79, 84, 87-89, 95, 96, 100, 101, 103, 174, 175 defined, 207 Augmented accounts, see Satellite accounts Australia, 52, 96, 97-98, 140 B BEA, see Bureau of Economic Analysis Biodiversity, 39, 144-145, 178, 198 defined, 208 forests, 39, 132, 134, 135 Bureau of Census, 54, 80, 111, 151, 159, 176 Bureau of Economic Analysis, 1-2, 24, 51, 53-55, 208 air quality, 148-149 forests, 134-141 IEESA, 3, 16, 106, 112, 141, 167-168, 169, 171 health and safety regulations, 33 mineral resources, 4, 70-96, 102-105 foreign comparisons, 96-99 renewable resources, 106-113, 134-141, 148-149, 151-152 see also Integrated Environmental and Economic Satellite Accounts; National Income and Product Accounts Bureau of Labor Statistics, 151, 154 Bureau of Mines, 80 Bush Administration, 154 C Canada, 17, 52, 96, 97, 98, 140 Capital, 117-119, 187-188 defined, 208, 185 forests, 136-137 Hicksian income, 24, 35, 188 mineral resources, 66, 67, 69, 72, 76, 78, 81-82, 87-88, 98 see also Associated capital, minerals foreign countries, 96 see also Depreciation and depletion; Human capital; Investments and investment accounts Capital accumulation, 15, 22, 31, 44, 56, 59, 116, 117 defined, 208 Capital consumption, 44 (n.10), 65, 187 defined, 208 Carbon dioxide, 176 defined, 208 forests, 134, 135, 136 see also Climate change Carbon monoxide, 142-143, 145 defined, 208-209 Carter Administration, 154 Chlorofluorocarbons, 143, 209 see also Ozone layer depletion Clean Air Act, 145-146 Clean Water Act, 45, 54 Climate change, 23, 29, 40, 60, 112, 116, 142, 143-145, 149, 200 cost-benefit analysis, 34-35, 57, 157-158 defined, 209 forests, 24, 134, 135, 136, 158, 178 Kyoto Protocol, 38, 136 public goods and, 128 Clinton Administration, 16 Coastal zones, 33, 116, 118, 125, 128, 131, 191 Commission of the European Communities, 51, 209 Consumer Price Index, 47 Consumer surplus, 47, 125, 128 defined, 209 Consumption augmented accounts, general, see "satellite accounts" infra defined, 209 environmental variables, 22, 113, 117, 119, 122, 128(n.5), 129, 133 , 145, 147, 150, 155, 162, 168, 176, 179 pollution abatement, 25, 53 foreign earnings and, 27 investment and, 13, 15, 25 mineral resources, 73-74

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nonmarket, 23, 31, 36, 43, 44 see also "environmental variables" supra and "satellite accounts" infra recreation, public resources, 23, 43 renewable resources, 25, 117, 119, 122, 128(n.5), 129, 133, 145, 147, 150 rent methods, 73-74, 119 residuals, 116 patterns, 2 public vs private services, 22 satellite accounts, general, 22, 27, 31, 57, 117 see also Capital consumption; Sustainability and sustainable development Contingent valuation, 7, 38, 125-128, 131, 166 defined, 209 Core accounts, 8, 24, 27, 58, 112, 159, 160 defined, 12, 209 foreign countries, 51 forests, 131 Hicksian income, 24, 35, 188 IEESA, 161-163 near-market goods, 130 satellite accounts vs, general, 21 UN systems, 21, 49 see also Gross domestic product; Gross national product Cost and cost-benefit factors, 8, 30, 58, 173, 216 agricultural production, 135 air pollution regulations, 23, 33, 146-147 climate change, 34-35, 57, 157-158 cost of living, CPI, 47 defensive environmental costs, 210 defined, 209-210 depletion costs, 49, 210 economic instruments, 210-211 environmental degradation, 48 environmental restoration, 49, 220 IESSA, 170, 172, 173, 180 minerals, exploration/extraction, 60, 61, 63-66, 68-69, 81-82, 83, 84, 85, 88, 95, 96, 97 imports, 105 replacement costs, 68-69, 76, 79, 89, 91 nonmarket activities, data collection, 23, 29 opportunity costs, 30, 63, 97, 218 pollution abatement, 22, 25, 30-31, 33-34, 45-46, 49, 53-54, 111, 146-147, 156, 157-158, 164, 178, 219 pollution expenditure accounting, 40, 45-46 public vs private goods, 7, 157 recreational services, 139 regulations, 15, 22, 32, 33, 46, 111, 157, 179 see also "air pollution regulations" and "pollution abatement" supra replacement costs, 49 mineral resources, 68-69, 76, 79, 89, 91 sectoral breakdowns, 33, 157 timber production, 26, 134-135, 137, 139, 176, 203, 204, 205 transaction prices, 47 mineral resources, 60, 66-68, 69, 76, 77, 79, 84, 86, 87, 90 travel costs, 17, 124, 126-127, 150, 165, 177, 222 user costs, 222 Crime, see Illegal activities Current rent method, 71-77 (passim), 79, 80, 84-85, 87, 88-89, 91, 95-101 (passim) defined, 210 CV, see Contingent valuation D Data requirements and availability, general, 31-32, 34, 37-38, 170 -178, 196-201 air quality, 149, 171-172, 199 environmental accounting, general, 121-123, 157 hedonic valuation, 119 interagency cooperation, 80, 139, 141, 151, 171-173 mineral resources, 77-78, 80, 95, 103, 173-175 nonmarket activities, general, 19, 23, 29, 38 pollution abatement, 111 public good issues, 157 renewable resources, 121-123, 149, 150-152, 171-172, 175-178 Department of Agriculture, 111-112, 151, 159, 176, 196, 198 Forest Service, 135, 136, 139, 141, 196, 198, 199, 205-206 Department of Commerce, 1-2, 13, 53-54, 154 Bureau of Census, 54, 80, 111, 151, 159, 176

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NOAA, 131, 196, 199, 200 study at hand, methodology, 16-17 see also Bureau of Economic Analysis Department of Energy, 80, 151 Department of Health and Human Services, 151, 196, 201 Depreciation and depletion, 25-26, 44-45, 48, 49, 50, 59 defined, 44, 65, 210 depletion vs, 87-89, 164 foreign systems, 50 forests, 139, 203-204 mineral resources, domestic, 45, 51, 53, 55, 59, 60, 65, 71-94 (passim), 101, 103, 104, 162, 168, 194 depreciation vs, 87-89, 164 scarcity and price, 92-95, 104-105 mineral resources, foreign countries, 96 recreational land, 112 Depression and recession, see Economic cycles Discounting of natural assets, 44-45, 50, 173, 189, 202, 206 defined, 210 mineral resources, 69-71, 74, 75, 76, 86, 89, 90, 95, 96, 97, 101 renewable resources, 115, 138, 146 Doses and dose-response relationship, 121-122, 124, 126-127, 149 E Earth Summit, see United Nations Conference on Environment and Development Ecological impacts, 42, 156, 177-178, 180 air pollutants, 149, 156 defined, 210 see also Biodiversity; Wildlife Economic assets, 12-13, 14, 19-20, 150, 155 air pollutants, impacts on, 113, 148 defined, 12, 210-211 forests, 136-137 mineral resource stocks, 20, 25, 43, 49, 55, 59, 60, 61, 73, 75, 77, 80, 81-82, 84, 85, 92, 95, 96, 101, 103, 162 renewable resources, 113, 136-137, 148, 175-177 see also Depreciation and depletion; Investments and investment accounts; Valuation of natural assets Economic cycles, 12, 13, 81 Great Depression, 13, 35 Economic profit/Economic rent, see Rent methods Education and training, 14, 21, 22, 23, 54, 119 Emission standards, 142-145 defined, 211 foreign countries, 52 see also Air quality standards; Water quality standards Energy Information Administration, 211 Energy resources, production and consumption, 6, 50, 193-194 Department of Energy, 80, 151, 211 price factors, 25, 84 primary energy consumption, 219 renewable, 219 valuation, 59-60, 71, 76, 78, 81, 82, 84, 96 wood fuel, 133, 135 see also Fossil fuels Environmental and Natural Resource Accounting Program, 42-43, 211 Environmental degradation, 11, 17, 25, 48 aggregation techniques, 40 foreign systems, 50-51 GDP and, 28 IEESA, 55, 112 recreational land, 112 SEEA, 112 see also Pollution abatement and control Environmental Protection Agency, 23, 142-144, 145-146, 147, 151, 159, 172, 179, 196, 197, 199-200, 212 Environmental restoration costs, 49, 220 defined, 212 foreign systems, 51 SEEA, 112 Equations forest assets, 202-206 mineral resources valuation, 71, 72-73, 75, 77, 101 NNP, 190 sustainable income, 192 Europe, 17, 40, 50, 121 Commission of the European Communities, 51, 154, 209 fossil fuels, 50, 96, 97, 98 see also specific countries European System for the Collection of Information on the Environment , 213 Exports and imports, see Foreign trade

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F Farming and farmland, see Agriculture Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board, 172, 213 Federal government, general assets of, 31 budgetary accounts, 28 interagency cooperation, 80, 139, 141, 151, 171-173 mineral estate, 31, 34 see also Funding; Legislation; Regulatory issues; specific departments and agencies Fish and Wildlife Service, 196, 198, 200 Fisheries, 7, 25, 31, 156, 199 IEESA, 3, 16, 106, 167-168, 169, 171 Flow measures, 3, 38, 48, 51, 52, 57 environmental, 3, 22, 31, 37, 38, 44, 48, 52, 107, 113, 120-121, 122, 161-162, 165, 167, 170-171, 177, 178, 179, 186, 196 investment, 22 minerals, 59, 70, 74, 76, 79, 82, 84, 95, 96, 173 near-market, 130 nonmarket, general, 8, 151, 169, 178 public goods, 8, 151 renewable resources, 115, 116, 117, 121, 130, 132, 133, 135, 141, 149, 150, 151, 152, 161-162, 165, 167, 174, 177, 178, 186, 190, 196 SEEA, 48 sustainability, 186, 190 Ford Administration, 154 Foreign countries, see Europe; International perspectives; specific countries Foreign direct investment, 24, 30 Foreign trade, 24, 159 mineral resources, 6, 104, 105 services, 24 Forests, 7, 20, 25, 26, 30, 34, 131-141, 152, 176, 177-178, 180, 202-206 agriculture and, 132, 133, 135, 138-139 air pollutants, 34, 145, 147 climate change and, 34, 134, 135, 136, 158, 178 BEA methodology, 134-141 IEESA, 3, 16, 106, 112, 141, 167-168, 169, 171 biodiversity and, 39, 132, 134, 135 foreign countries, 52 historical perspectives, 132(n.6), 133, 137 household accounts, 134, 135, 141 NIPA, 131-136 nonmarket goods and services, 135-136, 141 price factors, 137, 138, 139, 140, 202, 204 public goods issues, 133-134 recreational activities, 132, 135, 139, 141, 156 timber, 3, 6, 7, 16, 17, 23, 30, 31, 34, 37-38, 39, 42, 44, 50, 106 , 112, 118, 132-133, 134-135, 137-138, 141, 168, 169, 174, 176-177, 199, 203 production costs, 26, 134-135, 137, 139, 176, 203, 204, 205 regional factors, 139, 205 stumpage value, 31, 139, 156, 171, 204, 221 valuation, general, 39, 112, 132-141, 156, 167-168, 176-178, 202-206 wildlife, 39, 132, 134, 135 wood fuel, 133, 135 Forest Service, 135, 136, 139, 141, 196, 198, 199, 205-206 Fossil fuels, 6, 18, 50, 59-60, 71, 76, 78, 81, 82, 84, 96, 97, 174 defined, 214 Europe, 50, 96, 97, 98 see also Climate change France, 38, 52 Funding committee recommendations, 4, 8, 159, 160 satellite accounts, 4, 8, 54, 111, 159, 160, 170 G Gas, see Fossil fuels Geological Survey, 80, 200 Global environment, general, 11, 23, 112 ozone depletion, 23, 115, 121, 122, 143-144, 145, 149, 218 public goods, 128, 131 see also Climate change Great Depression, 13, 35 Greenhouse effect, see Climate change Gross domestic product, 14, 16, 25, 26-27, 57, 162, 187 defined, 12, 20, 56, 214 depreciation, 26

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environmental disasters, 28 foreign accounting, 51 forests, 136 mineral resources, 60, 79, 80, 81, 91-92, 102 nonmarket accounts, 14, 20 omissions, 26-27 pollution abatement, 53-54 pollution expenditure accounting, 45 US residents' foreign earnings, 26-27, 187 Gross national product, 13, 163 defined, 214 foreign accounting, 51 US residents' foreign earnings, 26-27 H Health as a resource, 22, 25, 30-31, 33, 38, 114, 116, 119-120, 123 , 126-127, 179-180, 197, 201 air quality impacts, 142-144, 146, 147-149, 151, 156, 179-180, 197 Department of Health and Human Services, 151, 196, 201 pollutant doses and dose-response, 121-122, 124, 126-127, 149 public vs private goods, 128 see also Recreation activities and resources Hedonic modeling and pricing, 7, 118-119, 124-125, 126-127, 150, 165-166, 167 defined, 214-215 Hicksian income, 24, 35, 188 Historical perspectives, 11, 20-24, 53-56, 154 air quality, 142, 145, 146, 147, 148 comprehensive economic accounts, 41-42 forests, 132(n.6), 133, 137 IEESA, 54-55, 56, 58, 154, 158 NIPA, 13-14, 19, 20, 35-37, 41-42, 53 satellite accounts, 14-15, 16, 20-37, 55 Hotelling rents defined, 63, 215 mineral resources, 63, 64, 65, 69-70, 73, 74, 76, 83, 85, 87, 88, 89, 95, 103, 137, 175, 203 timber, 137, 137-138, 203 Households, 150 air pollutants, 113, 146, 148 capital acquisition, 30 production, 11, 12, 14, 46, 48, 50, 129-130 forests, 134, 135, 141 see also Near-market goods and services; Recreation activities and resources Human capital, 3, 5, 22, 54, 57, 119, 191 doses and dose-response relationship, 121-122, 124, 126-127, 149 education and training, 14, 21, 22, 23, 54, 119 see also Health as a resource I IEESA, see Integrated Environmental and Economic Satellite Accounts Illegal activities, 20 Incentives, general, 51, 174-175 Inflation, 24, 26, 97 Integrated Environmental and Economic Satellite Accounts, 1-3, 16-17, 18, 153-154, 155, 158-170 air quality and pollution, 3, 55, 110, 112, 156-157, 160, 171-172 asset accounts, by type of asset, 1987, 108-110 core accounts and, 161-163 cost-benefit analysis, 170, 172, 173, 180 environmental degradation, 55, 112 fisheries, 3, 16, 106, 167-168, 169, 171 forests, 3, 16, 106, 112, 141, 167-168, 169, 171 history of, 54-55, 56, 58, 154, 158 international perspectives, 2, 154, 163-165 land use, 109-110, 112 mineral resources, 3, 4-6, 16, 55, 61, 70-96, 102-105, 109, 156, 162, 167, 168, 169 near-market goods, 3, 161, 169 nonmarket goods and services, general, 16, 155-158, 161, 163 renewable resources, 3, 55, 107-113 study at hand, methodology, 17-18 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 136 International perspectives, 14-15, 24, 38, 40, 42-43, 50-53, 154, 160, 170 foreign direct investment, 24, 30 forests, 131, 136, 139, 140 IEESA, 2, 154, 163-165 mineral resources, 6, 96-99, 104, 105 US residents' foreign earnings, 26-27, 187 see also Climate change; Foreign trade; Global environment; specific countries; terms beginning "United Nations"

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Investments and investment accounts, 2, 12, 13-14, 22, 24, 25, 117 , 155 foreign direct investment, 24 gross, 12 human capital, 3, 5, 22, 30, 162 mineral resources, 81, 162 natural resources, 3 NDP, 15 omissions, 30, 31 public/private sector collaboration, 30 public vs private research, 32-33, 157, 161 technological innovation, 37 see also Capital; Depreciation and depletion J Japan, 41-42 K Kuznets, Simon, 13-14 Kyoto Protocol, 38, 136 L La Follette, Robert, 13 Land use, 15, 57, 106, 111, 167-168, 199 classification, 215 foreign countries, 52 IEESA, 109-110, 112 see also Agriculture; Forests; Recreation activities and resources Lead pollution, 143 Legislation Clean Air Act, 145-146 Clean Water Act, 45, 54 national accounts, 13 Resource Planning Act, 199 see also Regulatory issues Leisure activities, see Recreation activities and resources M Market forces, 37, 53, 56, 123, 124, 150 air quality impacts, 142, 144-145 contingent valuation, 7, 38, 125-128, 131, 166, 209 forests, 133 market valuation, 7, 216 mineral resources, 5, 63, 103 public goods, 7, 128-130 see Cost and cost-benefit factors; Near-market goods and services; Price factors Measurement of Economic and Social Performance Project, 42 Measure of Economic Welfare, 41 Minerals and mining, 4-6, 17, 30, 34, 45, 59-105, 156, 180 alternative methodologies, 99-102 associated capital, minerals, 5, 67, 68, 72, 73, 76, 79, 84, 87-89, 95, 96, 100, 101, 103, 174, 175, 207 BEA methodologies, 4, 70-96, 102-105 foreign comparisons, 96-99 stocks/reserves, 20, 25, 43, 49, 55, 59, 60-65, 70-96 (passim), 101 , 103, 167, 168, 173-174 see also "depletion" infra capital, 66, 67, 69, 72, 76, 78, 81-82, 87-88, 98 see also Associated capital, minerals foreign countries, 96 costs exploration/extortion, 60, 61, 63-66, 68-69, 81-82, 83, 84, 85, 88 , 95, 96, 97 replacement, 68-69, 76, 79, 89, 91 data requirements/availability, 77-78, 80, 95, 103, 173-175 definitions, 61, 216-217, 219, 221 depletion, domestic, 45, 51, 53, 55, 59, 60, 65, 71-94 (passim), 101, 103, 104, 162, 168, 194 depreciation vs, 87-89, 164 scarcity and price, 92-95, 104-105 depletion, foreign countries, 96 discounting of assets, 69-71, 74, 75, 76, 86, 89, 90, 95, 96, 97, 101 federal estate, 31, 34 flow measures, 59, 70, 74, 76, 79, 82, 84, 95, 96, 173 foreign countries, 52, 96-99, 104, 105 GDP, 60, 79, 80, 81, 91-92, 102 IEESA, 3, 4-6, 16, 55, 61, 70-96, 102-105, 109, 156, 162, 167, 168 , 169 market forces, 5, 63, 103 national forests, 135 NDP, 79, 80, 89, 92, 101-102

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net present value, 69-70, 74-75, 76, 88, 95, 99 NIPA, 59-60, 80-82, 102-105 omitted from BEA accounts, 86-87, 90 option values, 64, 65 price factors, 5, 25, 34, 60, 63-72 (passim), 76, 77, 80, 82-92 (passim), 103, 104-105, 160-161, 180 foreign countries, 97, 98-99 revaluation effects, 65, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 82, 85, 90-91, 92 , 94, 99, 162 scarcity, 92-95, 104-105 transaction prices, 60, 66-68, 69, 76, 77, 79, 84, 86, 87, 90 regional factors, 5, 60, 63(n.3), 175 rents, 64, 65, 71-74, 79, 84-85, 87-89, 91, 95, 96-100 see also Hotelling rents replacement costs, 68-69, 76, 79, 89, 91 royalties, 67-68, 90, 98, 99, 220 social factors, 5, 103 stocks/reserves alternative, 99-102 BEA, 20, 25, 43, 49, 55, 59, 60-65, 70-96 (passim), 101, 103, 167, 168, 173-174 see also "depletion" supra foreign countries, 52, 96-99 strip mining, 221 sustainability, 5, 91, 92, 101, 102, 104-105 see also "depletion" and "stocks/reserves" supra replacement costs, 68-69, 76, 79, 89, 91 taxes, 67-68, 78, 90, 98, 99 timber harvest vs, 137 transaction prices, 60, 66-68, 69, 76, 77, 79, 84, 86, 87, 90 valuation, 61, 64, 65-105, 167, 168 equations, 71, 72-73, 75, 77, 101 see also Energy resources, production and consumption; Fossil fuels N National Accounting Matrix Including Environmental Accounts, 38, 40 National Bureau of Economic Research, 13 National Center for Health Statistics, 196, 201 National Income and Product Accounts, general, 2, 12-14, 19-58, 155 committee recommendations, 2-3, 4, 6, 7-8, 9, 102-105 defined, 1, 12, 14, 217 forests, 134-141 history of, 13-14, 19, 20, 35-37, 41-42, 53 investment, 25, 26 mineral resources, 59-60, 80-82, 102-105 sectoral breakdowns, 27, 29, 30, 32, 33, 42, 43 sustainability, 187, 188, 189, 195 see also Core accounts; Gross domestic product; Gross national product; Satellite accounts National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 131, 196, 199, 200 National parks, 8, 20, 23, 26 as public goods, 128(n.5), 130 National Performance Review, 40 National Science Foundation, 42 National Toxins Inventory, 146 Natural gas, see Fossil fuels Near-market goods and services, 7, 11, 20, 23, 37-38, 46, 150, 152 forest products, 135 IEESA, 3, 161, 169 public vs private goods, 129-130 see also Households Net domestic product defined, 15, 217 environmental degradation, 48 mineral resources, 79, 80, 89, 92, 101-102 sustainable income, general, 36-37, 189, 190, 192-193, 195 Netherlands, 38, 40, 52, 98 Net national income, 26, 31, 43 Net national product, 26, 27, 31, 35, 163, 184, 187-188, 189-190 defined, 184 environmental degradation, 48 forests, 136 Net National Welfare, 41-42 Net present value, 44, 45 defined, 217 forests, 140 mineral resources, 69-70, 74-75, 76, 88, 95, 99 NIPA, see National Income and Product Accounts Nitrogen dioxide, 143, 144, 145 Nonmarket accounts, general, 3, 7-8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 23, 29, 36, 113 , 123-131, 165-169, 190 air quality impacts, 142

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climate change, 34-35 consumption measures, 23, 31, 36, 43, 44 contingent valuation, 7, 38, 125-128, 131, 166, 209 CPI, 47 data collection costs, 19, 23, 29, 38 defined, 218 flow measures, 8, 151, 169, 178 forests, 135-136, 141 hedonic modeling and pricing, 7, 118-119, 124-125, 126-127, 150, 165-166, 167, 214-215 IEESA, 16, 155-158, 161, 163 NIPA lacking, 13 travel-cost valuation, 7, 124, 126-127, 150, 165, 177, 222 see also Air quality and pollution; Biodiversity; Health as a resource; Households; Near-market goods and services; Recreation activities and resources; Satellite accounts; Water resources and pollution Norway, 38, 52, 96, 98 NPV, see Net present value O Office of Management and Budget, 172 Oil and gas, see Fossil fuels Opportunity costs, 30, 63, 97, 218 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 154(n.1), 218 Ozone, ground-level, 143, 144, 145, 147 Ozone layer depletion, 23, 115, 121, 122, 143-144, 145, 149 defined, 218 P Parks, see National parks Particulate matter, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147 defined, 218 Petroleum, see Fossil fuels Petty, Sir William, 13 Philippines, 42-43, 140 Photochemical air pollution, 113-114, 218 Physical accounting, general, 3, 7, 8, 19, 23, 34, 37, 38-41, 47, 48, 120, 165, 167 defined, 218 environmental accounting, 113, 120-121, 123 mineral resources, 88, 96, 97, 98 see also Flow measures Pollutant transport, 113, 119, 121, 122, 221 Pollution, general, see Air quality and pollution; Doses and dose-response relationship; Environmental degradation; Health as a resource; Residuals, pollutants; Water resources and pollution Pollution abatement and control, 18, 22, 25, 30-31, 45-46, 49, 53-54, 108, 111, 146-147, 156, 157-158, 164, 178, 219 defined, 219 foreign systems, 50, 52 GDP, 53-54 see also Air quality standards; Regulatory issues Pollution expenditure accounting, 40, 45-46 President's Council on Sustainable Development, 40 Price factors, 8, 24, 27, 43, 118, 150, 160-161, 166, 188 complement, 209 CPI, 47 energy resources, 25, 84 forest resources, 137, 138, 139, 140, 202, 204 hedonic, 7, 118-119, 124-125, 126-127, 150, 165-166, 167, 214-215 inflation, 24, 26, 97 mineral resources, 5, 25, 34, 60, 63-72 (passim), 76, 77, 80, 82-92 (passim), 103, 104-105, 160-161, 180 foreign countries, 97, 98-99 revaluation effects, 65, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 82, 85, 90-91, 92 , 94, 99, 162 scarcity, 92-95, 104-105 transaction prices, 60, 66-68, 69, 76, 77, 79, 84, 86, 87, 90 nonmarket services, 43 public vs private goods, 7, 129, 150 residual pollutants, 116 revaluation effects, 30, 37, 44, 189, 192-193, 195, 206 mineral resources, 65, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 82, 85, 90-91, 92, 94, 99, 162 timber, 137, 138 transaction prices, 47, 204 mineral resources, 60, 66-68, 69, 76, 77, 79, 84, 86, 87, 90 Public goods, 23, 128-130, 150, 152, 169 CPI and, 47

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data requirements/availability, 157 defined, 128, 219 forests as, 133-134 national parks as, 128(n.5), 130 near-market, 129-130 price factors, 7, 129, 150 private vs, 7, 128-129, 134, 150 recreation resources, 128(n.5), 130, 131 see also Air quality and pollution; Water resources and pollution Q Quality of life CPI and, 47 defined, 219 standard of living, 15, 28, 36, 185, 186, 187, 193, 194 R Recession, see Economic cycles Recreation activities and resources, 20, 23, 28, 30, 39, 156, 160, 177, 197, 198, 201 air pollutants, 114, 149, 156 consumption measures, 23, 43 defined, 219 forests, 132, 135, 139, 141, 156 IEESA, 55 national parks, 8, 20, 23, 26, 128(n.5), 130 pollution abatement, 31 public goods issues, 128(n.5), 130, 131 valuation of land, 112, 167-168 Regional factors, 27, 29, 152 mineral resources, 5, 60, 63(n.3), 175 timber, 139, 205 Regulatory issues, 39, 155, 196 air quality, 142 see also Air quality standards costs of, 15, 22, 32, 33, 46, 111, 157, 179 air pollution regulations, 23, 33, 146-147 pollution abatement and control, 22, 25, 30-31, 33-34, 45-46, 49, 53-54, 111, 146-147, 156, 157-158, 164, 178, 219 health and safety, 33 satellite accounts, 15, 22, 31, 56-57 see also Environmental Protection Agency; Standards Renewable resources, general, 6-8, 106-152, 161 BEA methodology, 3, 106-113, 134-141, 148-149, 151-152 consumption measures, 25, 117, 119, 122, 128(n.5), 129, 133, 145, 147, 150 data requirements/availability, 121-123, 149, 150-152, 171-172, 175 -178 defined, 219 depreciation, 45 discounting, 115, 138, 146 flow measures, 115, 116, 117, 121, 130, 132, 133, 135, 141, 149, 150, 151, 152, 161-162, 165, 167, 174, 177, 178, 186, 190, 196 IEESA, 3, 55, 107-113 see also Agriculture; Air quality and pollution; Fisheries; Forests; Sustainability and sustainable development Rent methods defined, 219-220 forests, 202 mineral resources, 64, 65, 71-74, 79, 84-85, 87-89, 91, 95, 96-100 see also Hotelling rents Replacement costs, 49 mineral resources, 68-69, 76, 79, 89, 91 Residuals, pollutants, 7, 113-116, 119, 121, 147, 150 see also Ozone layer depletion Resource Planning Act, 199 Revaluation effects, 30, 37, 44, 189, 192-193, 195, 206 mineral resources, 65, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 82, 85, 90-91, 92, 94, 99, 162 Ricardian rents, mineral resources, 64, 65, 87 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, see United Nations Conference on Environment and Development Risk assessment and management, 36, 186, 220 Royalties, mineral resources, 67-68, 90, 98, 99, 220 S Satellite accounts, 3-4, 7, 17, 21, 46, 48, 151, 153, 154-158 air quality, 148-149, 151

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capital assets, 117-118 comprehensive economic accounts, 41 consumption measures, 22, 27, 31, 57, 117 defined, 3-4, 22, 220 foreign countries, 53, 58 funding, 4, 8, 54, 111, 159, 160, 170 history of, 14-15, 20-37, 55 mineral resources, 55, 61 regulatory issues, 15, 22, 31, 56-57 sustainability, 183-184 see also Integrated Environmental and Economic Satellite Accounts; Nonmarket accounts Savings, 22, 28, 30 Scorekeeping, 27-28, 39, 40, 119 defined, 119 foreign countries, 53 Sectoral factors, general air quality as sector, 8 cost-benefit analysis by sector, 33, 157 ENRAP, 42, 43 IEESA, 3 NIPA, 27, 29, 30, 32, 33, 42, 43 sustainability, 186-187, 194 see also specific sectors SEEA, see System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting SERIEE, see European System for the Collection of Information on the Environment Smog, see Photochemical air pollution SNA, see System of National Accounts Social factors, 11, 25, 54, 180, 188, 191, 193 mineral resources, 5, 103 quality of life, 15, 28, 36, 47, 185, 186, 187, 193, 194, 219 see also Health as a resource; Human capital Soils, 6, 61, 118, 148, 165, 167, 198, 201 acid precipitation, 40, 113, 116, 119, 121, 122, 142, 143, 145, 147 , 148 see also Agriculture Standard of living, 15, 28, 36, 185, 186, 187, 193, 194 Standards data collection/classification, 51, 84, 163-164, 173 see also Air quality standards; Emission standards; Regulatory issues State government and state-level factors, 29 mineral resources, 5 see also Regional factors Subsoil assets, see also Minerals and mining Sulfur dioxide, 143, 144, 145 see also Acid precipitation Survey of Current Business, 16 Sustainability and sustainable development, 2, 26-27, 28, 35-37, 44, 57, 155, 162, 183-195 defined, 15, 28, 36, 183, 221 flow measures, 186, 190 mineral resources, 5, 91, 92, 101, 102, 104-105 NDP, 36-37, 189, 190, 192-193, 195 NIPA, 187, 188, 189, 195 replacement costs, 49, 68-69, 76, 79, 89, 91 satellite accounts, 183-184 see also Quality of life Sweden, 98-99 System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting, 48, 49 -50, 81, 112, 154, 163-165, 221 System of National Accounts, 21, 47-50, 58, 80, 221 T Taxation, 22, 155 ecological, 51 indirect, 12 mineral resources, 67-68, 78, 90, 98, 99 Technological change, 37, 186, 191, 194, 195 defined, 221 mineral extraction, 63 pollution abatement, impact on, 111 Timber resources, 3, 6, 7, 16, 17, 23, 30, 31, 34, 37-38, 39, 42, 44, 50, 106, 112, 118, 132-133, 134-135, 137-138, 141, 168, 169, 174, 176-177, 199, 203 production costs, 26, 134-135, 137, 139, 176, 203, 204, 205 regional factors, 139, 205 stumpage value, 31, 139, 156, 171, 204, 221 wood fuel, 133, 135 Trade, international, see Foreign trade Transaction prices, 47 mineral resources, 60, 66-68, 69, 76, 77, 79, 84, 86, 87, 90

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Transport of pollutants, see Pollutant transport Travel-cost valuation, 7, 124, 126-127, 150, 165, 177, 222 U United Kingdom, 52, 98, 99 United Nations, 38, 154 core accounts, 21, 49 System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting, 48, 49 -50, 81, 112, 154, 163-165, 221 System of National Accounts, 21, 47-50, 58, 80, 221 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 222 United Nations Environment Program, 222 Utility, 82, 162, 189, 222 defined, 222 V Valuation of natural assets, 3, 26, 38, 44-45, 46-47, 123-131, 154 , 163-167 contingent valuation, 7, 38, 125-128, 131, 166, 209 defined, 222 energy resources, 59-60, 71, 76, 78, 81, 82, 84, 96 forests, 39, 112, 132-141, 156, 167-168, 176-178, 202-206 hedonic modeling and pricing, 7, 118-119, 124-125, 126-127, 150, 165-166, 214-215 mineral resources, 61, 64, 65-105, 167, 168 equations, 71, 72-73, 75, 77, 101 net present value, 44, 45, 140, 217 mineral resources, 69-70, 74-75, 76, 88, 95, 99 private vs public goods, 7, 128-129, 134, 150 recommendations, 7, 102-103, 150 recreation resources, 112, 167-168 travel-cost valuation, 7, 124, 126-127, 222, 150, 165, 222 see also Depreciation and depletion; Discounting of natural assets; Market forces; Price factors; Revaluation effects W Water quality standards, 29, 223 Water resources and pollution, 8, 20, 32, 126-127, 156-157, 178-180, 197, 199-200, 223 acid precipitation, 40, 113, 116, 119, 121, 122, 142, 143, 145, 147 , 148 foreign countries, 52 forested watersheds, 133, 135 human exposure, 151 IEESA, 3, 16, 55, 112, 160, 169, 171-172 pollution abatement, 46 wetlands, 113, 118, 123, 197, 198, 200 Western Europe, see Europe Wetlands, 113, 118, 123, 197, 198, 200 Wildlife, 177, 198, 200 air quality, 144-145 forests, 39, 132, 134, 135 see also Biodiversity; Fisheries Willingness to pay, see Contingent valuation World Bank, 43, 140 World Resources Institute, 43