approaches for recruiting and training minorities for health research. Ruffin specifically asked for assistance in responding to new challenges, including developments in human genome research and changes to federal affirmative action policies that may affect minority scientist recruitment and training.

ORMH Research Funding

Funding for ORMH has increased significantly since the office was created in 1991, but its overall funding remains minuscule in comparison to the $14 billion overall budget of NIH. In FY 1991 the office initiated activities with a budget of $1.5 million. In FY 1993 ORMH's budget allocation increased to $48.4 million, coinciding with passage of the Minority Health Improvement Act of 1993. In FY 1994 and FY 1995 ORMH funding increased to $62.7 million and $67.8 million, respectively, but it saw its first budget decline in FY 1997, when the ORMH allocation dropped to $70.1 million from a high of $71.1 million in FY 1996.

In research relevant to the study of cancer among ethnic minority populations, ORMH reports that from 1992 to 1997, it provided nearly $20 million in funding to assist NCI minority initiatives. The bulk of this funding has been to support the Minority Adolescent HIV Prevention and Treatment Project (approximately $10 million from FY 1994 to FY 1997). Other significant expenditures include funding for grants to improve ethnic minority recruitment and retention in clinical trials, funds for training of minority investigators, and small research supplements. In FY 1997 ORMH allocated slightly less than $6 million to NCI (see Table 3-3), including $1.75 million to support the Minority Adolescent HIV Prevention and Treatment Project, $1 million to cancer centers to support minority recruitment to NCI-sponsored clinical trials, and nearly $750,000 to support other efforts to increase minority participation in clinical trials. These expenditures for cancer-related projects were approximately 9 percent of ORMH's total budget in FY 1997. ORMH reports that NCI did not provide additional funds beyond initial funding (e.g., for overall cancer center or clinical trial operations) to support these projects.

Estimated ORMH expenditures on cancer in FY 1998 reflect its two-fold mission. The office allocated $6.22 million to assist NCI projects on cancer among minorities in FY 1998. The three largest NCI projects supported by ORMH are the Minority Adolescent HIV Prevention and Treatment Project ($1.75 million), funds to encourage minority participation in NCI-sponsored trials ($1 million), and training supplements for under-represented minorities ($75,000; see Training of Minority Scientists below). Other expenditures include grants for regional workshops for minority



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