Since 1996, NCI has undertaken several significant changes in its internal structure that affect both intramural and extramural scientific programs. Many of the these changes were initiated in response to a series of internal program reviews, including the 1995 Bishop-Calabresi report (Ad Hoc Working Group of the National Cancer Advisory Board, 1995), which recommended a complete organizational separation of intramural and extramural programs. Two new extramural divisions, the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) and the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS), were created. DCP was created to add "visibility, prominence, and strength to the NCI's prevention programs" (National Cancer Institute, 1998d, p. 11), whereas DCCPS was created from programs of the Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, which has been eliminated, as well as extramural portions of the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics.
Perhaps most significantly for ethnic minority and medically underserved groups, three new offices were created to develop partnerships with community-based groups that focus on cancer. The Office of Special Populations Research (OSPR) was formed to provide a focal point and coordinating center for research related to "special populations," defined by NCI as economically disadvantaged people, elderly people, and certain ethnic minority groups. OSPR works with other NCI offices to assist in defining scientific questions relating to special populations, as well as in evaluating the effectiveness of outreach efforts aimed at these populations. The Office of Liaison Activities links to national cancer advocacy organizations to facilitate communication between NCI and community-based groups. Similarly, the Office of Cancer Survivorship develops and coordinates research on cancer survivorship to address "the unique physical, social, psychological, and economic issues faced by these individuals" (National Cancer Institute, 1998d).
Intramural research at NCI is conducted principally in the Divisions of Basic Sciences, Clinical Sciences, and Epidemiology and Genetics. This research encompasses basic, clinical, and population-based research. In addition, NCI intramural laboratories and clinics train cancer research