acquire new research capabilities or change the direction of their research careers.
Other individual research training and career awards include the Howard Temin Award (K01 award), to enhance the research careers of the most promising doctoral-level scientists while they consolidate and focus their research programs and obtain independent funding; the Preventive Oncology Academic Award (K07 award), to promote the career development of researchers in the fields of cancer prevention, cancer control, and cancer etiology; the Mentored Clinical Scientist Development Award (K08 award), for clinically trained physicians who are committed to careers in cancer research to undertake 3 to 5 years of specialized study; and the Mentored Clinical Scientist Development Program Award (K12 award), an award to educational institutions to support career development experiences for clinicians that will lead to research independence in areas such as translation of basic research results into new clinical procedures and AIDS-related malignancies.
Overall, NCI reports that it allocated $80.4 million to training and education programs in FY 1997, including $43.7 million to the NRSA program, $20.9 million to the Research Career Program, and $12.2 million to the Cancer Education Program. DEA reports that it allocated approximately $15 million to minority training, including the programs cited above.
NCI reports that several programs, in addition to the ones reported above, have been designed specifically to expand opportunities for minority researchers or to address research questions critical to minority and medically underserved communities. These are described in the following sections.
More than $2.5 million was allocated for the Minority Biomedical Research Support program, which is offered in conjunction with NIGMS to expand opportunities for ethnic minority faculty and students by supporting specific cancer-related projects at minority-serving institutions. Nineteen such awards were provided in FY 1997.
To increase the research base at historically black institutions, NCI