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Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics Basic Research for Tomorrow's Technology Committee on Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics Board on Physics and Astronomy Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1999
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Page ii NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was supported by the Department of Commerce under Contract No. 50SBNB5C8819, the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-96-ER45613, and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-9632837. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06349-3 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 99-62179 Front cover: A scanning-tunneling microscope image that shows the wave nature of electrons con- fined in a "quantum corral" of 48 individually positioned atoms. See page 233. (Courtesy of IBM Research.) Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu; and Board on Physics and Astronomy, National Research Council, HA 562, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20418 Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Page iii COMMITTEE ON CONDENSED-MATTER AND MATERIALS PHYSICS VENKATESH NARAYANAMURTI, Harvard University, Chair JAMES B. ROBERTO, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Vice Chair GABRIEL AEPPLI, NEC Research Institute J. MURRAY GIBSON, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign STEVEN GIRVIN, Indiana University MARK KETCHEN, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center EDWARD J. KRAMER, University of California, Santa Barbara JAMES S. LANGER, University of California, Santa Barbara CHERRY ANN MURRAY, Lucent Technologies, Bell Laboratories V. ADRIAN PARSEGIAN, National Institutes of Health PAUL S. PEERCY, SEMI/SEMATECH JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories ROBERT C. RICHARDSON, Cornell University FRANS SPAEPEN, Harvard University KATEPALLI R. SREENIVASAN, Yale University DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director DANIEL F. MORGAN, Program Officer (until June 1, 1998) KEVIN D. AYLESWORTH, Program Officer (as of September 7, 1998)
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Page iv BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY ROBERT C. DYNES, University of California, San Diego, Chair ROBERT C. RICHARDSON, Cornell University, Vice Chair STEVEN CHU, Stanford University VAL FITCH, Princeton University IVAR GIAEVER, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute JOHN HUCHRA, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics R.G. HAMISH ROBERTSON, University of Washington KATHLEEN TAYLOR, General Motors Research and Development Center J. ANTHONY TYSON, Lucent Technologies, Bell Laboratories GEORGE WHITESIDES, Harvard University DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director ROBERT L. RIEMER, Associate Director KEVIN D. AYLESWORTH, Program Officer NATASHA CASEY, Senior Administrative Associate GRACE WANG, Project Assistant
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Page v COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Co-chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-chair WILLIAM BROWDER, Princeton University LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania MARSHALL H. COHEN, California Institute of Technology RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California, Santa Barbara JERRY P. GOLLUB, Haverford College MARTHA HAYNES, Cornell University JOHN L. HENNESSY, Stanford University CAROL JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California, Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL, Stanford University NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory CHANG-LIN TIEN, University of California, Berkeley NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director
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Page vii Preface In the spring of 1996, the National Research Council's Board on Physics and Astronomy established the Committee on Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics to prepare a scholarly assessment of the field as part of the new survey of physics, Physics in a New Era, that is now in progress. This assessment has five objectives. 1. Identify future opportunities and priorities in the field. 2. Articulate the fundamental scientific challenges in the field. 3. Assess related infrastructure, institutional, resource, and educational issues. 4. Provide evidence of the societal impact of the field. 5. Provide a forum for coordinated community-wide communications with federal agencies, policy makers, and the public. The committee was composed of individuals whose backgrounds reflect the diversity of the field and its close connections with related branches of science, including chemistry, biology, and engineering. The field spans research environments from principal investigators carrying out benchtop studies in universities to large collaborations carrying out experiments at major national facilities. It also spans the forefronts of many-body theory, the behavior of complex materials and fluids, and the design of semiconductor devices and circuits. Condensed-matter and materials physics research is carried out in various institutional settings, including university, government, and industrial research laboratories. In the course of the study, the committee held two workshops on research frontiers and policy issues. These workshops brought together leading research-
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Page viii ers in the field as well as leading policy makers from government, industry, and universities. The committee met several times to plan its work, debate the issues, and formulate its report. An early output of the study was the report The Physics of Materials: How Science Improves Our Lives, a short, colorful, and easy-to-read pamphlet illustrating how research in the field affects our daily lives. The committee generated several progress reports and held public forums at materials-related meetings of the American Physical Society and the Materials Research Society. The committee also sought input from the general science and engineering communities. We are particularly grateful to our colleagues in biology, chemistry, and materials and electrical engineering for their support and help in carrying out this study. The committee would like to thank Donald C. Shapero, Daniel F. Morgan, and Kevin D. Aylesworth from the Board on Physics and Astronomy for their efforts throughout the course of this study. Special thanks also to Arthur Bienenstock, who served on the committee until the fall of 1997, when he assumed responsibilities at the Office of Science and Technology Policy. The committee gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following individuals who provided material or particular advice that influenced its study: David Abraham, Eric J. Amis, Bill Appleton, Meigan Aronson, David Aspnes, John Axe, Arthur P. Baddorf, Samuel Bader, A. Balazs, N. Balsara, Troy Barbee, F. Bates, Bertram Batlogg, Robert Behringer, Jerzy Bernholc, Arthur Bienenstock, Jörg Bilgram, Howard Birnbaum, Stephen G. Bishop, Steve Block, Lynn A. Boatner, Eberhardt Bodenschatz, Greg Boebinger, William Boettinger, Bill Brinkman, R. Bubeck, David Cannell, Federico Capasso, G. Slade Cargill, John Carruthers, Robert Cava, Robert Celotta, David Ceperley, Paul Chaikin, Albert Chang, S.S. (Leroy) Chang, Eric Chason, Daniel Chemla, Shiyi Chen, S. Cheng, B. Chmelka, Alfred Cho, John R. Clem, Daniel Colbert, Piers Coleman, George Crabtree, George Craford, Harold Craighead, Roman Czujko, Elbio Dagatto, Adriaan de Graaf, Satyen Deb, Patricia Dehmer, Cees Dekker, David DiVincenzo, Russ Donnelly, Robert Doremus, J. Douglas, Mildred S. Dresselhaus, Bob Dunlap, J. Dutcher, Bob Dynes, Robert Eisenstein, Chang-Beom Eom, Evan Evans, Ferydoon Family, Matthew P.A. Fisher, Zachary Fisk, Paul Fleury, Mike Fluss, Judy Franz, Jean Fréchet, Glenn Fredrickson, Hellmut Fritsche, William Gallagher, E. Giannelis, Allen M. Goldman, Jerry Gollub, Matt Grayson, P. Green, G. Grest, Peter Grüter, Richard Hake, Thomas Halsey, Donald Hamann, Christopher Hanna, Bill Harris, Beverly Hartline, Kristl Hathaway, Lance Haworth, Frances Hellman, George Hentschel, Jan Herbst, Pierre Hohenberg, Susan Houde-Walter, Evelyn Hu, Robert Hull, David Huse, Eric Isaacs, Nikos Jaeger, Adam B. Jaffe, Sungho Jin, David Johnson, James Jorgensen, Malvin H. Kalos, A. Karin, Marc Kastner, Efthimios Kaxiras, Jeffrey Koberstein, Carl C. Koch, Kei Koizumi, J. Kornfield, Mark Kryder, Max Lagally, David V. Lang, Robert Laudise, G. Leal, Manfred Leiser, Ross Lemons, Joseph Levitzky, Peter Levy, David Litster, T. Lodge, Gabrielle Long, Steven Louie, Michael
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Page ix Lowenberg, Tom Lubensky, C. Macosko, Richard Martin, Denis McWhan, Jim Meindl, Jim Merz, Burkhard Militzer, Andrew Millis, S. Milner, David Moncton, Jagadeesh Moodera, Donald Murphy, M. Muthukumar, Sidney Nagel, Al Narath, David Nelson, Jeff Nelson, Robert J. Nemanich, Robert Newnham, K.L. Ngai, William Oosterhuis, Stuart Parkin, Seevak Parpia, Michelle Parrinello, Kumar Patel, Eva Pebay-Peyroula, Stephen J. Pennycook, V. Percec, Pierre Petroff, Tom Picraux, Gary Prinz, Itamar Procaccia, Peter Pusey, R. Ramesh, R. Register, James Rice, Kevin Robbie, Mark Robbins, Jack Rowe, Michael Rowe, John M. Rowell, M. Rubinstein, Jack Rush, Robert Schafrik, Hans Scheel, Sheldon Schultz, Lyle Schwartz, Pabitra Sen, James Sethna, Don Shaw, K. Shull, Jerry Simmons, John Slonczewski, James Speck, Gene Stanley, Galen Stucky, Harold Swinney, Bruce Taggart, Andrew Taylor, Philip Taylor, Zlatko Tešanovi, Iran Thomas, Carl V. Thompson, David Tirrell, Matt Tirrell, Robert Trew, Ruud Tromp, Jeffrey Tsao, Dan Tsui, David Turnbull, Paul Umbanhowar, Priya Vashishta, Stephan von Molnar, Jim Voytuk, James Warren, John Weaver, Eicke Weber, Tom Weber, David Weitz, Steven White, Hollis Wickman, John Wilkins, Ellen D. Williams, Stan Williams, T. Witten, Horst Wittmann, Victor Yakhot, Sidney Yip, Andrew Zangwill, Richard Zare, Z. Zhang, and Thomas Zipperian. The committee also thanks Janet Overton, who edited the final production draft of the report. The committee's work was supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. The committee thanks them for their support.
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Page x Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and the draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Phillip W. Anderson, Princeton University, Steven Chu, Stanford University, Esther Conwell, University of Rochester, Robert Dynes, University of California, San Diego, Val Fitch, Princeton University, Paul Fleury, University of New Mexico, Jerry P. Gollub, Haverford College, David Moncton, Argonne National Laboratory, Thomas Russell, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and Thomas Theis, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center. Although the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, the responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.
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Page xi Contents Executive Summary 1 Overview 5 Introduction, 5 A New Era, 7 The Science of Modern Technology, 8 New Materials and Structures, 10 Novel Quantum Phenomena, 11 Nonequilibrium Physics, 15 Complex Fluids and Macromolecular and Biological Systems, 17 New Tools for Research: From the Benchtop to the National Laboratory, 19 Findings and Recommendations, 24 Research Infrastructure, 25 Major Facilities, 26 Partnerships, 27 Education, 28 Research Themes, 29 1 Electronic, Optical, and Magnetic Materials and Phenomena: The Science of Modern Technology 31 Electronic Materials and Phenomena, 38 Materials and Physics That Drive Today's Technology, 38 Challenges, Priorities, and Frontiers of Electronic Materials and Phenomena, 55
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Page xii Optical Materials and Phenomena, 56 Materials and Physics That Drive Today's Technology, 56 Challenges, Priorities, and Frontiers of Optical Materials and Phenomena, 75 Science and Technology of Magnetism, 75 Technology Pull, 76 The Physics of Magnetism, 82 Major Outstanding Materials and Physics Questions and Issues in Magnetism, 89 Future Directions and Research Priorities, 90 Major Outstanding Scientific and Technological Questions, 92 Priorities, 92 2 New Materials and Structures 93 Complex Oxides, 98 Electroceramics, 106 New Forms of Carbon, 109 Nanoclusters, 114 Thin Films, Surfaces, and Interfaces, 120 Artificially Structured Materials, 126 Future Directions and Research Priorities, 131 Materials Properties by Design: Complexity, 132 Synthesis and Processing: Control, 135 Physics: Understanding, 135 Technology: Relevance, 135 Outstanding Scientific Questions, 136 Research Priorities, 136 3 Novel Quantum Phenomena 137 Superfluidity and Superconductivity, 140 Bose-Einstein Condensation in Atom Traps, 145 Quantum Spin Chains and Ladders, 148 The Quantum Hall Effect, 155 Composite Particles, 158 Edge States, 160 Magnetic Order of Spins and Pseudospins, 162 Summary, 166 Future Directions and Research Priorities, 166 4 Nonequilibrium Physics 168 Pattern Formation and Turbulence in Fluid Dynamics, 170 Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Fluids, 170 Pattern Formation, 171
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Page xiii Turbulence, 173 Processing and Performance of Structural Materials: Metallurgical Microstructures, 176 Processing and Performance of Structural Materials: Solid Mechanics, 178 Brittle and Ductile Solids, 180 Instabilities in Dynamic Fracture, 180 Polymers and Adhesives, 183 Friction, 184 Granular Materials, 187 Length Scales, Complexity, and Predictability, 189 Further Prospects for the Future, 190 Nonequilibrium Phenomena in the Quantum Domain, 190 Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Biology, 191 Future Directions and Research Priorities, 192 5 Soft Condensed Matter: Complex Fluids, Macromolecular Systems, and Biological Systems 194 Complex Fluids, 197 Liquid Crystals and Microemulsions, 197 Colloidal and Macromolecular Interactions, 200 Polyelectrolytes, 202 Polysaccharides, 203 Macromolecules and Macromolecular Films, 204 Phase Separation and Ordering in Thin Polymer Films, 204 New Macromolecular Materials, 205 Structural Polymers: Controlling Properties of New Polymers from Old Monomers, 210 Biological Connections, 211 Biological Systems, 211 Two Traditions of Learning Must Merge to Allow Systematic Progress, 212 Physics and Structural Biology, 213 Molecular Conformation and Protein Folding, 215 Single-Molecule Motions and Mechanics, 215 Molecular Association, 219 Consequences of the Human Genome Project and Other Genome Determinations, 221 Directions and Priorities, 222 Priorities, 223 6 New Tools for Research 225 Atomic Visualization Through Microscopy, 227 Atomic Structure, 229
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Page xiv Electronic Structure, 231 Nanoproperties of Materials, 231 Atomic Manipulation, 233 Conclusions, 234 Neutron Scattering, 234 The Past Decade, 235 The Next Decade, 242 Synchrotron Radiation, 244 The Past Decade, 247 The Next Decade, 252 The Reinvention of Traditional Condensed-Matter Experiments, 253 Man-Made Extreme Conditions, 255 Matter at Very Low Temperatures, 256 Matter at Very High Pressures, 257 Matter in Large Magnetic Fields, 260 The Next Decade, 262 Computational Materials Physics, 262 Progress in Algorithms, 264 Computational Physics in a Teraflop World, 267 Quantum Computers, 269 Future Directions and Research Priorities, 270 Outstanding Scientific Questions, 272 Priorities, 273 7 Changes in the R&D Landscape 274 From the Cold War to the Global Economy, 274 A Decade of Change, 275 Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics Today, 282 Measuring Performance and Economic Impacts, 284 8 The Next Decade 288 Making the Right Investments, 288 Human Capital, 289 Facilities and Infrastructure, 290 Redefining Roles and Relationships, 295 Role of Research Universities, 296 Role of Government Laboratories, 297 Interactions with Industry, 298 The Importance of Partnerships, 299 Integrating Research and Education, 302 A Research Strategy for Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics, 303 Discovery, 304 Scientific Themes, 304 Excellence with Relevance, 307
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Page xv Condensed-Matter and Material Physics
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