. "3 Measuring and Evaluating Federally Funded Research." Evaluating Federal Research Programs: Research and the Government Performance and Results Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1999.
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The Drug Information Association (DIA), founded in 1964, is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary, member-driven scientific association with more than 20,000 members. Its membership consists primarily of individuals from regulatory agencies; academia; contract support organizations; pharmaceutical, biological and device industries; and from other health care organizations. DIA provides a neutral global forum for the exchange and dissemination of information on the discovery, development, evaluation, and utilization of medical products and related health care technologies. The meetings, workshops, and training courses sponsored by DIA are responsive to the rapidly evolving, multidisciplinary needs of its international membership.
Basic research programs can be evaluated meaningfully on a regular basis, but as explained in Chapter 2, ultimate outcomes of research into fundamental processes are seldom predictable or quantifiable in advance. It is normal and necessary for basic research investigators to modify their goals, change course, and test competing hypotheses as they move closer to the fundamental understandings that justify public investment in their work. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of basic research programs by using measures not of practical outcomes but of performance, such as the generation of new knowledge, the quality of research, the attainment of leadership in the field, and the development of human resources.
Historical evidence shows us unmistakably that by any measure, the benefit of leadership in science and engineering to the United States is extremely high. Many agree on this point.10