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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis Appendix A Road Map: Descriptions of TIMSS Databases This summary of current information about the data and reports from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), an international comparative study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), was prepared by National Research Council (NRC) staff for use by participants in a workshop sponsored by the Board on International Comparative Studies in Education. It is based in part on presentations made to the board by the TIMSS researchers and in part on publicly available information. OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY The Third International Mathematics and Science Study is, as its name suggests, the third in a series of international assessments of the mathematics and science learning of students around the world that has been carried out by the IEA. This complex study, which was conducted in 1995 and 1996, tested an unprecedentedly large number of students and countries worldwide; it also included a set of substudies designed to provide a wide variety of contextual information that could support and illuminate the achievement results. The data have now been collected, and the primary analyses have been completed. Most of the data is now or very soon will be available to researchers, but it exists in many forms and locations. This appendix provides descriptions of each set of data, and details about how researchers can gain access to them. Most of the information contained here is also available through the many websites and publications devoted to TIMSS that are already available; however, because of the large scope of TIMSS, there is no one source for information about each of its many facets. This appendix outlines the main purpose and nature of each of the study components; more in-depth understanding can be obtained from the publications and sources listed.
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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis THE ACHIEVEMENT RESULTS International Data Overview. The international achievement data is the core of TIMSS. Students in three populations were tested. Population 1 included students enrolled in the two adjacent grades that contained the largest proportion of 9-year-old students at the time of testing, grades 3 and 4 in most countries; Population 2 included students enrolled in the two adjacent grades that contained the largest proportion of 13-year-old students at the time of testing, grades 7 and 8 in most countries; and Population 3 included students enrolled in their final year of secondary education. All countries that participated in any aspect of TIMSS were asked to take part in the mathematics and science assessment of their Population 2 students. Many chose to participate in the Population 1 and Population 3 assessments as well. The assessments contain a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended cognitive items covering the range of mathematics and science topics designated in the TIMSS framework. This framework was developed through an international consensus process and represents the content on which a majority of countries could agree, rather than coherent curricula for either subject. The database includes separate proficiency scale scores for mathematics and science, students’ responses to each cognitive item, students’ responses to performance items, and coding reliability data for cognitive and performance items. The data disks provide sampling weights and information on how to link teachers to students. They also contain programs that allow the user to convert the raw data files (in ASCII format) into SPSS system files or SAS data sets, to estimate sampling variance using the jackknife repeated replication method, and to convert item response codes to score values. Codebooks documenting the structure of the data files and the source, format, descriptive labels, and response option codes for all variables are available. Finally, the disks contain data almanacs—text files that display unweighted summary statistics for each participating country for each variable in the background questionnaires. What Do the Data Consist Of ? Results from Achievement Tests in Mathematics and Science Administered to Sampled Students in All Three Populations in All Participating Countries All countries that chose to participate in any part of TIMSS were required to test their Population 2 students; each had the option of testing students in Populations 1 and 3. Countries also had the option of administering additional questions of their own to their own students and could also identify subsets of the
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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis TIMSS items that were most relevant to the material their own students have been taught. Population 1 Randomly sampled intact classes of students took the test, with each individual completing only a subset of the questions prepared for this population. There were 102 math items and 97 science items. In some countries a subset of students selected for the general assessment were randomly selected to complete a set of performance items. These sets presented students with four or five of twelve different extended (30-minute) problems; students used kits of materials to conduct experiments or complete other tasks. Population 2 Randomly sampled intact classes of students took the test, with each individual completing only a subset of the questions prepared for this population. There were 151 math items and 135 science items. In some countries a subset of students selected for the general assessment were randomly selected to complete a set of performance items, as above. Population 3 Randomly sampled intact classes of students took the test, with each individual completing only a subset of the math and science questions prepared for this population. No hands-on performance tasks were administered to Population 3 students. Countries also had the option of identifying students in two “specialist” populations—students enrolled in either an advanced mathematics course or a physics course—who were tested for their knowledge in these two subjects. This option makes it possible to compare results for advanced students from all of the countries who chose this option. Responses to Questionnaires Administered to Students, Teachers, and School Administrators Basic questionnaires were administered in all participating countries; each country had the option of including additional questions for their own purposes in their questionnaire booklets. Some questions were covered in more than one set of questionnaires so that responses of students, teachers, and administrators with regard to particular issues could be compared. Responses to each of the question types can be linked, so that, for example, students’ perceptions of their classroom activities can be compared to those of their teachers. It should be noted that not all questionnaire items yielded useful results. Student Questionnaires Questionnaires administered to all sampled students addressed topics such as classroom and out-of-school activities, home background, and attitudes toward mathematics and science. Some demographic data, such as the students’ gender, home language, and parents’ education level is also included. Additional questions about items found in the home and leisure activities fill out the picture of students’ lives somewhat. The questionnaires for Populations
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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis 1 and 3 include specific questions about the instruction students have received in mathematics and science, such as how new topics are introduced and how frequently they use calculators, computers, and worksheets. For Population 2, there are separate versions of the questionnaire for mathematics and science students, which probe some of the details of their instruction in these areas. Teacher Questionnaires The mathematics and science teachers of sampled students in Populations 1 and 2 were asked questions about issues such as their background, education, and professional training; their views about mathematics and science; their responsibilities within the school; and the support they receive. A number of questions addressed teachers’ coverage of specific topics in mathematics and science and their pedagogical approaches both in teaching certain material and in their general handling of students. Separate versions of the questionnaire were administered to mathematics and science teachers of Population 2 students to probe details about their classroom strategies and topic coverage; one version was administered to all teachers of Population 1 students, which contained some of these kinds of questions. No Population 3 teacher questionnaires were administered because it was not possible to link students and teachers at this level. School Questionnaires Administrators at the schools of sampled students were asked to respond to questions about school staffing and resources; responsibility for major activities such as determining course content, assigning teachers to classes, and establishing discipline policies; mathematics and science course offerings; and support for teachers. Other questions address the nature of the school's student population and problems the school confronts, as well as remedial and enrichment opportunities it offers. The questionnaires for Populations 1 and 2 are very similar; the Population 3 school questionnaire includes some additional questions about staffing for advanced courses, tracking, graduation requirements, and other issues. Results of the Test Curriculum Matching Analysis This analysis was designed to assist users of the data in understanding how well the items in the mathematics and science tests correspond to material taught within the participating countries. Experts within each country reviewed copies of each item and judged the extent to which it was appropriate for that country's students. Each country's performance on just the subset of items identified as appropriate for its students was then computed. In addition, each other country's performance on that subset of items was computed, so that results can be compared. Publicly Released Items Approximately three-fifths of the total items administered will be released to the public. Those not released will be available for future testing so that performance trends over time
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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis can be established. Item characteristic statistics are included for each released item. How Can One Gain Access to the Data? Data for all three populations have been released. The international achievement data was prepared by the staff at the TIMSS International Study Center at Boston College.1 The Database, User's Guide, and Released Items All can be ordered from Boston College, and are also available on the International Study Center's web page (http://www.csteep.bc.edu/TIMSS1.html). Compact Disk: Data Tapes Data for each population is on a separate disk. Files are in ASCII format. CDs can be obtained from the IEA Secretariat. What Has Been Published? A user's guide to the data is available both in printed form and on the World Wide Web. The guide describes TIMSS, including the data collection instruments, sample design, and data collection procedures. It also documents the content and format of the data files and provides example analyses. The guide provides guidance as to appropriate uses of the different files and variables included in the data. Four supplements to the guide contain copies of the background questionnaires as well as documentation of the ways in which particular questions were adapted for use in particular countries. Documentation of derived variables included in the published international reports is also included. The user's guide can be ordered from IEA or downloaded from the Boston College web address above. A number of reports based on the international database have already been released: Mathematics and Science Achievement in the Final Year of Secondary School: IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study Mathematics Achievement in the Middle School Years: IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study Science Achievement in the Middle School Years: IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study Mathematics Achievement in the Primary School Years: IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study Science Achievement in the Primary School Years: IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1 All addresses are listed at the end of this appendix.
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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis Performance Assessment in IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study Pursuing Excellence: A Study of U.S. Twelfth-Grade Mathematics and Science Achievement in International Context Pursuing Excellence: A Study of U.S. Eighth-Grade Mathematics and Science Teaching, Learning, Curriculum, and Achievement in International Context Pursuing Excellence: A Study of U.S. Fourth-Grade Mathematics and Science Achievement in International Context Individual Country Data Overview The international database is organized by population and by country. Any data for each of the participating countries beyond what is included in the international dataset can be obtained through the national research coordinator for the individual country. Some participating countries embedded data collection instruments of their own in the TIMSS material; some have conducted their own analyses of the some of the data that has been released. Names and addresses of coordinators are listed in the Acknowledgements sections of the achievement reports. The coordinator for the United States is William Schmidt. The U.S. data was collected by WESTAT, which has prepared U.S. datafiles to supplement the international files. The files can be used with the National Center for Education Statistics’ (NCES) Electronic Codebook, which means that researchers who want to combine international questionnaire variables with U.S. variables will be able to do so relatively easily. Further information about U.S. TIMSS can be obtained from the U.S. TIMSS website at http://ustimss.msu.edu/. What Do the Data Consist Of ? Results for the United States of Background Questions Administered to the International Population A few of the questions on the international questionnaire were not administered to the U.S. sample, such as those concerning tracking, for example. Results of Background Questions Administered to Students, Teachers, and Administrators in the U.S. Sample Only (“National Variables”) These results provide data on students’ race and ethnicity, details about students’ home background and study habits, teacher background, classroom practices, whether schools are public or private, and other variables. The datafiles will be set up in the same manner as the international files, and guidance for linking student and teacher files will be provided.
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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis Special Sampling Weights, Appropriate for Analyzing Data on the Teacher Questionnaire in the United States These weights were developed to handle missing data; procedures limiting the response burden on teachers in the United States resulted in gaps in the teacher data for the United States. How Can One Gain Access to the U.S. Questionnaire Data? User's guide and data almanacs are available from NCES. The Results of the Curriculum Study Overview. The curriculum study was designed to explore differences in the structure and content of mathematics and science instruction in the TIMSS countries. It was an examination of both textbooks and curriculum documents in each subject and was supplemented by interviews with curriculum experts within the participating countries. The study was lead by William Schmidt. What Do the Data Consist Of ? The data on which the curriculum study was based consist of a variety of curriculum materials and textbooks collected by the team. These materials were coded and analyzed in various ways. Below is a description of what is available. Topic Trace Mapping Experts within each country used national and, in some cases, regional curriculum documents as the basis for coding their country's coverage of the mathematics and science topics included in the TIMSS framework.2 The result is a visual representation of the extent to which each country covers each of the individual topics (44 in mathematics and 82 in science) at 12 different age/grade levels. The codes represent various categories of coverage that are possible for a particular country at a particular level, such as “topic already covered in previous grade, not covered this year,” “topic introduced this year,” and the like. The coding was done by panels of experts from within each country. This data covers 46 nations. Document Analysis—Data about the Curriculum Guides and Textbooks This dataset is the result of the research team's analysis and 2 The United States posed a particular difficulty for the researchers because of its policy of allowing states and districts to make choices about curriculum. The research team used an amalgam of six frameworks to come up with the U.S. codes.
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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis coding of documents relevant to the three age levels tested in TIMSS. The documents in this analysis were selected to represent those used with at least half of the students in the targeted grades; the researchers worked with country experts to select the documents. The coding was done by native-language speakers within each country; coders were trained in all of the coding categories, and reliability checks were done. The dataset is in three parts that are coded in such a way that they can be linked to one another. Document-Level File This file lists each of the documents that were analyzed by the research team and provides information such as its publication date, the grade levels for which it was intended, and other basic data. Approximately 1,600 documents, both texts and guides for both subjects, are included. Unit-Level File The researchers identified sets of material within the textbooks that could be considered units, defined as representing 1 to 3 days of instruction. This file identifies the units and provides basic information about them, such as what they cover, how long they are, and how they are presented. (This analysis was done for texts only, not curriculum guides.) Block-Level File This file presents the most detailed information about the content of the textbooks. Blocks of content—these are conceptual sections smaller than the units described above—were identified and coded. Information such as the primary and secondary content area covered in the block, number of pages devoted to the block, and primary and secondary levels of performance expectation are provided. Individual content blocks in all textbooks (not curriculum guides) were coded. Using this file, it would be possible for a researcher to identify particular pages of individual textbooks in the collection—pages that cover a particular topic, for example—and locate those pages in the actual book at the Michigan State Study Center. Manuals These list each of the variables used and define the codes. The Textbooks and Curriculum Guides All of the materials collected by the research team are housed at the TIMSS Study Center at Michigan State University, organized by country and by grade level. The researchers did their initial coding of these documents by marking directly in these books, so researchers can see what was done. Visitors are welcome to use these materials at the site, and staff are available to assist them. Summarized Data for Individual Countries Several countries have requested their own curriculum data, and the research team has made it available not only in its raw form, but also in an intermediate,
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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis summarized form that is easier to use. This is available to all participating countries. How Can One Gain Access to the Curriculum Study Data? The curriculum study data tapes will be available from the Michigan State Study Center. What Has Been Published? A Splintered Vision: An Investigation of U.S. Science and Mathematics Education Many Visions, Many Aims: A Cross-National Investigation of Curricular Intentions in School Mathematics Many Visions, Many Aims: A Cross-National Investigation of Curricular Intentions in School Science A Summary of Facing the Consequences: Using TIMSS for a Closer Look at United States Mathematics and Science Education Facing the Consequences: Using TIMSS for a Closer Look at United States Mathematics and Science Education The Results of the Video Study Overview The video study was designed to provide a window into middle-school mathematics classrooms in three countries, Germany, Japan, and the United States. The research team, led by James Stigler, identified a subset of the classrooms that were sampled in the Population 2 portion of the main TIMSS assessment and videotaped them in their entirely. The taped classrooms were chosen to be representative of 8th-grade classrooms in the three countries. Because the sample of classrooms was a subset of the testing sample, it may be possible to link the U.S. videos to the achievement results. This is probably not possible for the results from Japan because in some cases different classrooms were substituted for taping in that country; similar technical difficulties with the German sample would also make linking to achievement results difficult.3 Researchers interested in linking the results may wish to consult WESTAT or the TIMSS Study Center at Boston College for assistance. What Do the Data Consist Of ? Several kinds of data were produced by the videotape study. 3 The source for this information about linking is Keith Rust of WESTAT.
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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis The Videotapes One complete lesson in each of 231 different classrooms across the three participating countries was taped; there were 81 U.S. classrooms, 100 German, and 50 Japanese. The tapes have been converted to digital IMPEG1 files so they can be viewed and scanned on a computer. Transcripts All of the lessons that were taped have been translated into English and transcribed (this was a single process so only English-language versions are available). The transcripts include running time codes that make it possible to refer to individual lines or blocks of dialogue, and an indication of who is speaking (teacher or student). They were originally prepared as a rough guide for navigating through the tapes; some notes and pictures have been added subsequently to make them more useful to someone who does not have access to the tapes, but this process has not been comprehensive. The transcripts are Microsoft Word files that can be searched for keywords. Tables The research team has produced tables for the entire set of lessons, which provide descriptions of both the mathematical content of each lesson and the pedagogical activities that occurred during the lesson. These are linked to the time codes on the transcripts, and are intended to be used as tools for finding things in the transcripts and for understanding what is happening in each lesson. The descriptions of the content include representations of diagrams or other visual aids used by the teacher and other relevant notes. The content was described by mathematicians who reviewed the tapes. Supplementary Images The research team has collected additional materials that are relevant to particular lessons, such as pages from textbooks and worksheets. These have also been digitally scanned. Codes and Categories All of the videotaped lessons have been coded for various events, teaching strategies, and content elements. Some codes indicate the frequency of certain events; others indicate the duration of various activities. The code development team established a standard of 80% interrater reliability. These codes are available in an SPSS file. Manuals A transcription manual and a videographers manual were prepared for the study. Public-Use Videos Because of the need to maintain the privacy of those who were videotaped for the study, the tapes cannot be released to the public. However, many people were very eager to see the tapes, so the research team made a set of six tapes that replicated the
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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis conditions in which the study tapes were made. The teachers and students involved in these new tapes were volunteers who gave permission for the tapes to be made public. There are two tapes from each of the three countries. The taped classrooms were chosen to reflect what the researchers believed was typical of each country, not the range of competence within any country. Results of the Questionnaire A questionnaire was administered to the teachers of each of the classrooms that were taped (this questionnaire is entirely separate from the teacher questionnaire that was part of the main TIMSS battery). Through a combination of open-ended and multiple-choice questions, it explored in detail the teachers’ views of the lesson that was taped—its content, their goals for it, strategies used during it, and their sense of how typical it was. Additional questions cover their reaction to the taping itself and their exposure to current thinking about teaching and learning mathematics. How Can One Gain Access to the Videotape Study Data? The rules governing access are different for the different kinds of data described above. The Videotapes Because it would be impossible to disguise the identity of the students and teachers who were videotaped, access to the tapes is restricted. The tapes are housed at the TIMSS Video Research Center at UCLA, which has a site license. Researchers may use them there if they sign a confidentiality agreement. The center provides the necessary hardware and software, as well as native Japanese and German speakers to assist visiting researchers. Researchers may also apply for their own site licenses and obtain copies of the data. It will be possible to purchase the entire dataset or a subset (90 lessons—15 algebra and 15 geometry, randomly selected for each country). The digitized tapes will all be on a single hard-disk server at the UCLA center so the entire database can be searched at once. Everything Else All of the material described above that is not restricted will be available on a single CD ROM, which can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The videotapes prepared for public use are available from the Superintendent of Documents (GPO #065-000-01025-9). What Has Been Published? A formal report on the results of the videotape study has not yet been published, though several articles describing aspects of it have been.
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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis The Results of the Case Studies Overview The case studies were designed to provide contextual information about the experiences of students and teachers in three countries, Germany, Japan, and the United States. Harold Stevenson, the principal investigator for the study, has described it as “a descriptive study … a description of what you would find it you were in these particular cultures.” He also described it as a sort of hybrid between the methods of anthropological ethnography and those of psychology; the study was a combination of interviews with individual students, parents, and teachers, and observations of classroom lessons in grades 4, 8, and 12. The product is a combination of interview transcripts and summaries and field notes made during and after the observations. The research was collected by a team of 19 researchers who were both fluent in the necessary language and skilled in interviewing and observation techniques. The case study research focused on four major research topics: Standards: What kinds of standards exist in this culture? Where and how are they developed? How are they implemented? How do they affect teaching and learning? Individual Differences: What do people see as the causes of ability differences? How are ability differences dealt with? What are the practices for educating extremely disabled and extremely gifted students? The Role of Secondary School in Adolescents’ Lives: How do students spend their time both in and outside of school? What are students’ attitudes toward school? What influences and pressures exist in their lives? The Working Lives of Teachers: How and why do people become teachers? How do they spend their time both in and outside of school? What opportunities exist for professional development? How do they feel about their work? What are their general working conditions? What Do the Data Consist Of? Case study observations and interviews were conducted at three sites in each country, one primary site (in each case, the largest of the selected cities) and two secondary sites. The sites were selected in consultation with country representatives; the selection was designed to yield sites comparable in “size, geographic distribution, and economic base.” None of the sites was rural. Four researchers (one for each topic) went to the primary site in each country for 2 to 3 months; for each of the secondary sites, two researchers spent 2 weeks. Researchers visited elementary, middle, and secondary schools. All classroom observations took place in 4th-, 8th-, and 12th-grade classrooms. In
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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis each case they attempted to identify a mix of high-and low-achieving schools. Selection of schools, classrooms, and parents was done through consultation with local officials. The research was conducted in 1995. The case study database consists of word processing files (Microsoft Word and WordPerfect) organized by country, by topic, and by researcher. It is not coded but can be searched by keywords (sets of keywords for each topic were identified in advance). The data all fit on a CD ROM. Text is labeled as being either interview or observation data. Transcriptions and summaries of interviews with students, teachers, administrators, and parents; a total of 600 interviews were conducted. Observations (field notes) of lessons and general observations of schools and neighborhoods; 200 separate school and classroom observations were conducted. How Can One Gain Access to the Case Study Data? Access to the case study database is restricted because it was impossible for the researchers to disguise the identities of those who were willing to be interviewed and observed sufficiently to protect their privacy. Consequently, researchers who would like to use the database must apply for site licenses and sign confidentiality agreements. Those who would like to gain access should call Cynthia Barton of the National Center for Education Statistics at 202/219-2199 for details. What Has Been Published? A five-volume report of the case study results is being published, to be available on the U.S. Department of Education's home page on the Internet (http://www.ed.gov), and in alternate formats upon request. The five volumes, listed below, consist of a separate report for each of the three countries, a synthesis report that integrates the four research topics for all three countries, and a summary of the research that was done in advance to prepare for the field work. Further information about these publications can be obtained at the website http://www.ed.gov or Internet address TIMSS@ed.gov/. The Educational System in Germany: Case Study Findings The Educational System in Japan: Case Study Findings The Educational System in the United States: Case Study Findings To Sum It Up: Case Studies of Education in Germany, Japan, and the United States Contemporary Research in the United States, Germany, and Japan on Five Education Issues
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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis OTHER PUBLICATIONS The following publications are available from Pacific Educational Press: Curriculum Frameworks for Mathematics and Science, 1993. TIMSS Monograph Series No. 1 Research Questions and Study Design, 1996. TIMSS Monograph Series No. 2 Mathematics Textbooks: A Comparative Study of Grade 8 Texts, 1995. TIMSS Monograph Series No. 3 National Contexts for Mathematics and Science Education: An Encyclopedia of the Education Systems Participating in TIMSS Quality Assurance in Data Collection Technical Report No. 1 on Design and Development RESOURCES. International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Secretariat Herengracht 487 1017 BT Amsterdam The Netherlands telephone: +31 20 625 3625 facsimile: +31 20 420 7136 e-mail: Department@IEA.nl IEA Clearinghouse on the World Wide Web: http://uttou2.to.utwente.nl/ Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, Order Department P.O. Box 358, Accord Station Hingham, MA 02138-0358 telephone: 617/871-6600 fascimile: 617/871-6528 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org World Wide Web: gopher://gopher.wkap.nl National Center for Education Statistics TIMSS Project 555 New Jersey Ave., N.W., Suite #402A Washington, DC 20208 telephone: 202/219-1333 (TIMSS Customer Service Line) facsimile: 202/219-1736 e-mail: TIMSS@ed.gov World Wide Web: http://www.ed.gov/NCES/timss Pacific Educational Press Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia
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Next Steps for TIMSS: Directions for Secondary Analysis University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1Z4 telephone: 604-822-5385 facsimile: 604-822-6603 e-mail: email@example.com World Wide Web: http://www.curricstudies.educ.ubc.ca/projects/TIMSS/ TIMSS International Study Center Center for the Study of Testing, Evaluation, and Educational Policy Campion Hall 323 School of Education, Boston College Chestnut Hill, MA 02167 telephone: 617/552-4521 facsimile: 617/552-8419 World Wide Web: www.csteep.bc.edu/timss TIMSS U.S. National Research Center College of Education 457 Erickson Hall Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-1034 telephone: 517/353-7755 facsimile: 517/432-1727 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org World Wide Web: http://ustimss.msu.edu TIMSS Videotape Study Center UCLA Department of Psychology Graduate Mail Room Los Angeles, CA 90095-1653 telephone: 310/794-9554 e-mail: email@example.com U.S. Superintendent of Documents P.O. Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 telephone: 202/512-1800 facsimile: 202/512-2250 Attaining Excellence: A TIMSS Resource Kit. Available from the U.S. Government Printing Office and on the World Wide Web at http://www.ed.gov/NCES/timss Resources on the World Wide Web related to TIMSS: http://ra.terc.edu/alliance/TEMPLATE/regional_networks/cia/assessment/timss.cfm TIMSS Video Study: General Discussion http://forum.swarthmore.edu/epigone/vstudy
Representative terms from entire chapter: