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--> References 1. F. Fenner, D.A. Henderson, I. Arita, J. Jezek, and L.D. Ladnyi. Smallpox and Its Eradication. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1988. 2. Encyclopedia Britannica. "Smallpox" (CD-ROM). 1998. 3. A. Cann. Principles of Molecular Virology. London: Academic Press, 1997. 4. K. Alibek. Testimony before the U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee. "Terrorist and Intelligence Operations: Potential Impact on the U.S. Economy." May 20, 1998. 5. H.L. Ploegh. Viral strategies of immune evasion. Science 280:248–253, 1998. 6. R.F. Massung, V.N. Loparev, J.C. Knight, A.V. Totmenin, V.E. Chizhikov, J.M. Parsons, et al. Terminal refion sequence variations in variola virus DNA. Virology 221 (2):291–300, 1996. 7. B. Moss. Poxviridae: The viruses and their replication. In B.N. Fields, D.M. Knipe, and P.M. Howley, eds., Fields Virology. 3rd ed., Vol. 2. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1996. 8. T.G. Senkevich, E.V. Koonin, J.J. Bugert, G. Darai, and B. Moss. The genome of molluscum contagiosum virus: Analysis and comparison with other poxviruses. Virology 233(1):19–421, 1997. 9. E.J.H.J. Wiertz, D. Sotorella, M. Bogyo, J. Yu, W. Mothes, T.R. Jones, et al. Sec61-mediated transfer of a membrane protein from the endoplasmic reticulum to the proteasome for destruction. Nature 384(6608):432–438, 1996. 10. Encyclopedia Britannica. "Viruses: The Cycle of Infection" (CD-ROM). 1998. 11. F. Fenner and R.M.L. Bullet. Mousepox. In N. Nathanson, ed., Viral Pathogenesis. Philadelphia: Lippincott Raven, 1997.
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--> 12. Encyclopedia Britannica. "Jenner, Edward" (CD-ROM). 1998. 13. United Kingdom Ministry of Health. Smallpox 1961–63. In Reports on Public Health and Medical Subjects, No. 109. London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 1963. 14. T. Mack. Smallpox in Europe. Journal of Infectious Disease 125(2): 161–169, 1972. 15. D.A. Henderson. Historical Background. Paper prepared for the Workshop of the IOM Committee on Assessment of Future Scientific Needs for Live Variola Virus, 20 November 1998, Washington, D.C. 16. WHO (World Health Organization). Report of the Meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee on Orthopox Virus Infections. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1994. 17. NIH (National Institutes of Health). "Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules" (Online). Available at: http://www.nih.gov/od/ orda/apndxg.htm. Accessed 15 December 1998. 18. G. Holzer and F.G. Falkner. Construction of a vaccinia virus deficient in the essential DNA repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase by a complementing cell line. Journal of Virology 71(7):4997–5002, 1997. 19. WHO (World Health Organization). "World Health Assembly Closes in Geneva" (press release). 27 May 1996. Available at: http://www.who.int/inf-pr-1996/wha96-11.html. Accessed October 23, 1998 20. WHO (World Health Organization). Destruction of the smallpox virus. Weekly Epidemiological Report (serial online) 74(4):27–28, 29 January 1999. Available at: http://www.who.int/wer/pdf/1999/wer7404.pdf. Accessed 3 February 1999. 21. U.S. Department of Defense/Department of Health and Human Services Smallpox Research Group. Smallpox Research Plan, Memorandum of Transmittal to National Security Council (Daniel Ponneman), 30 June 1995. 22. J. Neyts and E. De Clercq. Efficacy of (S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2 phosphonyl-methoxypropyl)cytosine for the treatment of lethal vaccinia virus infections in severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mice. Journal of Medical Virology 41(3):242–246, 1993. 23. K.P. Meadows, S.K. Tyring, A.T. Pavia, and T.M. Rallis. Resolutionof recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum virus lesions in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients treated with cidofovir . Archives of Dermatology 133(8):987–990, 1997. 24. J. W. Huggins. Presentation at the Workshop of the IOM Committee on Assessment of Future Scientific Needs for Live Variola Virus, 20 November 1998, Washington, D.C. 25. P.B. Jahrling. Presentation at the Workshop of the IOM Committee on Assessment of Future Scientific Needs for Live Variola Virus, 20 November 1998, Washington, D.C.
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--> 26. J.J. Esposito. Comment at the Workshop of the IOM Committee on Assessment of Future Scientific Needs for Live Variola Virus, 20 November 1998, Washington, D.C. 27. E. De Clerc q. Antiviral drug discovery. In G.J. Galasso, R.J. Whitley, and T.C. Merigan, eds., Antiviral Agents and Human Viral Diseases. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1997. 28. Physicians' Desk Reference. 52nd ed. Oradell, N.J.: Medical Economics Co., 1998. 29. B.N. Fields, D.M. Knipe, and P.M. Howley. Fields Virology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1996. 30. M.S. Hirsch, B. Conway, R.T. D'Aquila, V.A. Johnson, F. Brun-Vezinet, B. Clotet, et al. Antiretroviral drug resistance testing in adults with HIV infection: Implications for clinical management. International AIDS Society—USA Panel. Journal of the American Medical Association 279(24):1984–1991, 1998. 31. B. Mahy and L.Collier, eds. Virology. Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Injections. Vol. 1. London: Oxford University Press, 1998. 32. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Vaccinia (smallpox) vaccine recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 40(R14): 1–10, 1991. 33. R.R. Redfield, D.C. Wright, W.D. James, T.S. Jones, C. Brown, and D.S. Burke. Disseminated vaccinia in a military recruit with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. New England Journal of Medicine 316(11):673–676, 1987. 34. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Epidemiologicnotes and reports: Disseminated vaccinia infection in a college student in Tennessee . Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 31 (50):682–683,1982. 35. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Notice to readers: smallpox vaccine no longer available for civilians—United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 32(29):387, 1983. 36. S.N. Shchelkunov, R.F. Massung, and J.J. Esposito. Comparison of the genome DNA sequences of Bangladesh-1975 and India-1967 variola viruses. Virus Research 36:107–118, 1995. 37. J.J. Esposito. Presentation at the Workshop of the IOM Committee on Assessment of Future Scientific Needs for Live Variola Virus, 20 November 1998, Washington, D.C. 38. R.F. Massung, J.C. Knight, and J.J. Esposito. Topography of variola smallpox virus inverted terminal repeats. Virology 211:350–355, 1995. 39. H. Neubauer, U. Reischl, S. Ropp, J.J. Esposito, H. Wolf, and H. Meyer. Specific detection of monkeypox virus by polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 74(2):201–207, 1998.
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--> 40. M.S. Ibrahim, J.J. Esposito, P.B. Jahrling, and R.S. Lofts. The potential of 5' nuclease PCR for detecting a single-base polymorphism in orthopoxvirus. Molecular Cell Probes 11(2): 143–147, 1997. 41. S.L. Ropp, Q. Jin, J.C. Knight, R.F. Massung, and J.J. Esposito. PCR strategy for identification and differentiation of smallpox and other orthopoxviruses. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 33(8):2069–2076, 1995. 42. F. Scheiflinger, F. Dorner, and F.G. Falkner. Construction of chimeric vaccinia viruses by molecular cloning and packaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89:9977–9981, 1992. 43. P.C. Turner and R.W. Moyer. The molecular pathogenesis of poxviruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 163:125–151, 1990. 44. R.M. Buller and O.J. Palumbo. Poxvirus pathogenesis. Microbiological Review 55:80–122, 1991. 45. G.J. Kotwal. Microorganisms and their interaction with the immune system. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 62(4):415–429, 1997. 46. G. McFadden. DNA viruses that affect cytokine networks. In B.B. Aggarwal and R.K. Purl, eds., Human Cytokines: Their Role in Disease and Therapy. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Press, 1995. 47. G. McFadden. Viroceptors, Virokines and Related Immune Modulators Encoded by DNA Viruses. Austin, Tex.: R.G. Landes Co., 1995. 48. G.L. Smith, J.A. Symons, A. Khanna, A. Vanderplasschen, and A. Alcami. Vaccinia virus immune evasion. Immunological Reviews 159:137–154, 1997. 49. M.K. Spriggs. One step ahead of the game: Viral immunomodulatory molecules. Annual Review of Immunology 14:101–131, 1996. 50. R.M. Zinkernagel. Immunology taught by viruses. Science 271(5246): 173–178, 1996. 51. M. Barry and G. McFadden. Virokines and viroceptors. In D.G. Remick and J.S. Friedland, eds., Cytokines in Health and Disease. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997. 52. B. MOSS. Replication of poxviruses. In B.N. Fields, D.M. Knipe, and P.M. Howley, eds. Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1996. 53. A.S. Lalani and G. McFadden. Secreted poxvirus chemokine binding proteins. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 62, 1997. 54. P.C. Turner, P.Y. Musy and R.W. Moyer. Poxvirus serpins. In O. McFadden, ed., Viroceptors, Virokines, and Related Immune Modulators Encoded by DNA Viruses. Austin, Tex.: R.G. Landes Co., 1995. 55. D.A. Lomas, D.L. Evans, C. Upton, G. McFadden, and R.W. Carrell. Inhibition of plasmin, urokinase, tissue plasminogen activator, and C1S by a myxoma virus serine proteinase inhibitor. Journal of Biological Chemistry 268(1):516–521, 1993.
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--> 56. P. Nash, A. Lucas, and G. McFadden. SERP-1, a poxvirus-encoded serpin, is expressed as a secreted glycoprotein that inhibits the inflammatory response to myxoma virus infection. In F.C. Church, D.D. Cunningham, D. Ginsburg, M. Hoffman, S.R. Stone, and D.M. Tollefsen, eds., Chemistry and Biology of Serpins. New York: Plenum Press, 1997. 57. A. Lucas, Y. Liu, J. Macen, P. Nash, E. Dai, M. Stewart, et al. Virus-encoded serine proteinase inhibitor SERP-1 inhibits atherosclerotic plaque development after balloon angioplasty. Circulation 94(11):2890–2900, 1996. 58. G. McFadden and M. Barry. How poxviruses oppose apoptosis. Virology 8:429–442, 1998. 59. J.A. Macen, K.B. Takahashi, K.B. Moon, R. Nathaniel, P.C. Turner, and R.W. Moyer. Activation of capsizes in pig kidney cells infected with wild type and cram/SIP-2 mutants of cowpox and rabbitpox viruses. Journal of Virology 72(5):3524–3533, 1998. 60. G. McFadden, K. Graham, and M. Barry. New strategies of immune modulation by DNA viruses. Transplantation Proceedings 28(4):2085–2088, 1996.
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