Transforming Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology

Committee on Undergraduate Science Education

Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, DC
1999



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--> Transforming Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Committee on Undergraduate Science Education Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC 1999

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--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Research Council (NRC) is the operating arm of the National Academies Complex, which includes the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized in 1916 by the National Academy of Sciences to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and providing impartial advice to the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts, President of the National Academy of Sciences, and Dr. William Wulf, President of the National Academy of Engineering, also serve as chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education (CSMEE) was established in 1995 to provide coordination of all the National Research Council's education activities and reform efforts for students at all levels, specifically those in kindergarten through twelfth grade, undergraduate institutions, school-to-work programs, and continuing education. The Center reports directly to the Governing Board of the National Research Council. This study by CSMEE's Committee on Undergraduate Science Education (CUSE) was conducted under a grant from the Exxon Education Foundation to the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council. Any opinions, findings, or recommendations expressed in this report are those of the members of the committee and the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Exxon Education Foundation. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Transforming undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology / Committee on Undergraduate Science Education, Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. ). ISBN 0-309-06294-2 (perfectbound) 1. Science—Study and teaching (Higher)—United States. 2. Mathematics—Study and teaching (Higher)—United States. 3. Technology—Study and teaching (Higher)—United States. I. Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education. Committee on Undergraduate Science Education. Q183.3.A1 T73 1999 507.1'173—dc21 99-6151 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Lock Box 285, Washington, DC 20055. (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) This report is also available online at <http://www.nap.edu> Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Cover photos reproduced by permission: © Richard S. Mandelkorn © Department of Biology, Colby College © Jeffrey D. Marx © Arne Kuhlman, '97, Washington and Lee University

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--> COMMITTEE ON UNDERGRADUATE SCIENCE EDUCATION Current members MARYE ANNE FOX (NAS*), University of Texas at Austin, Chair MARY P. COLVARD, Cobleskill-Richmondville High School ARTHUR B. ELLIS, University of Wisconsin, Madison DOROTHY GABEL, Indiana University JAMES M. GENTILE, Hope College RONALD J. HENRY, Georgia State University HARVEY B. KEYNES, University of Minnesota PAUL J. KUERBIS, The Colorado College R. HEATHER MACDONALD, College of William and Mary GRACE MCWHORTER, Lawson State Community College EDWARD E. PENHOET, Chiron Corporation JAMES W. SERUM, Hewlett-Packard Company ELAINE SEYMOUR, University of Colorado, Boulder CHRISTY VOGEL, Cabrillo College DAVID WILKINSON (NAS*), Princeton University Former members** C. BRADLEY MOORE (NAS*), University of California, Berkeley, Past Chair ISAAC ABELLA, University of Chicago NEAL ABRAHAM, De Pauw University GEORGE R. BOGGS, Palomar College DENICE D. DENTON, University of Washington MICHAEL P. DOYLE, Research Corporation RAMESH GANGOLLI, University of Washington FREDERICK T. GRAYBEAL, ASARCO Incorporated NORMAN HACKERMAN (NAS*), The Robert A. Welch Foundation JOHN K. HAYNES, Morehouse College EILEEN DELGADO JOHANN, Miami-Dade Community College WILLIAM E. KIRWAN, Ohio State University SHARON LONG (NAS*), Stanford University DOROTHY MERRITTS, Franklin and Marshall College JOHN A. MOORE (NAS*), University of California at Riverside PENNY MOORE, Piedmont High School W. ANN REYNOLDS, University of Alabama at Birmingham *   NAS: Member of the National Academy of Sciences **   These former members of CUSE participated in the development of this report and have approved its contents.

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--> REVIEWERS This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: THEODORE BELYTSCHKO (NAE*), Northwestern University JOHN BOLLINGER (NAE*), University of Wisconsin, Madison BONNIE BRUNKHORST, California State University, San Bernadino WILLIAM DANFORTH (IOM*), Washington University JAMES DUDERSTADT (NAE*), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor JOAN GIRGUS, Princeton University DAVID KAUFFMAN, University of New Mexico JERRY MOHRIG, Carleton College NORMAN NESS (NAS*), University of Delaware RONALD RUSAY, Diablo Valley College BRUCE SHERWOOD, Carnegie Mellon University BROCK SPENCER, Beloit College JAMES STITH, American Institute of Physics SAMUEL WARD, University of Arizona While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the National Research Council. *   NAS: Member of the National Academy of Sciences; NAE: Member of the National Academy of Engineering; IOM: Member of the Institute of Medicine

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--> STAFF JAY B. LABOV, Study Director Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education NANCY L. DEVINO, Senior Staff Officer Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education KATHLEEN (KIT) JOHNSTON, Senior Editor Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education GAIL E. PRITCHARD, Research Associate Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education TERRY K. HOLMER, Senior Project Assistant Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education

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--> Table of Contents     Foreword: A Call to Action   ix     Preface   xi     Executive Summary         Primary Goal   1     Vision 1   2     Vision 2   3     Vision 3   6     Vision 4   7     Vision 5   8     Vision 6   10     Introduction   13     A Goal and an Agenda for Transforming Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology   18     Primary Goal   18     Reaching the Goal: An Agenda   18     Visions for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology   21     Vision 1   21     Background   21     Strategies for Promoting and Implementing Vision 1   23     Vision 2   25     Background   26     Strategies for Promoting and Implementing Vision 2   30     Vision 3   37     Background   37     Strategies for Promoting and Implementing Vision 3   38     Vision 4   41     Background   41     Strategies for Promoting and Implementing Vision 4   45

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-->     Vision 5   48     Background   48     Strategies for Promoting and Implementing Vision 5   50     Vision 6   53     Background   54     Strategies for Promoting and Implementing Vision 6   55     Conclusion and Epilogue   60     References   65 Appendix A:   Overview of the Committee on Undergraduate Science Education's Regional Symposia and Topical Forums   71     Regional Symposia and Topical Forums: Introduction   71     Regional Symposium Series: Structure And Demographics   72     Regional Symposia: General Themes   72     Regional Symposium Series: Conclusion   77     Topical Forums: Overview   77     Topical Forums: Structure and Demographics   78     Topical Forums: Synopses   78     Topical Forums: Conclusion   87 Appendix B:   Institutions and Organizations Represented at the Regional Symposia and Topical Forums   88 Appendix C:   Biographical Sketches of Members of the Committee on Undergraduate Science Education   95 Appendix D:   "Introducing the National Science Education Standards"   105