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PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN THE DESIGN OF ENTRANCES TO PORTS AND HARBORS Proceedings of a Symposium August 13-15, 1980 Fort Belvoir, Virginia Convened by the Panel on Harbor/Port Entrance Design for the Marine Board Assembly of Engineering National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1981

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The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad c=~ununity of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of Eurthering knowledge and of advising the federal government, The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation, The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public' and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This report represents work supported by Grant No' N00014-80-G-0034 between the Office of Naval Research and the National Academy of Sciences. Limited copies are available from Marine Board Assembly of Engineering National Research Counci 1 2101 Constitution Avenue ~ N,~. Washington, D.C. 20418

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M=INE BOARD of the ASSEMBLY OF ENGINEERING NATIONAL RESEARCH CCUNCIL Members Ronald L, Geer, Chairman Senior Mechanical Engineering Consultant Shell 01~ Cop any Houston, Texas John E, Flipse, Yl ce Chairman Department of Civil Engineering Texas A&M IJni~rersity College Station, Texas H. Ray Brannon, Jr. Research Scientist Exxon Production Research Houston, Texas John D. Costlow, Jr Duke University Marine ~oratory neaufort, North Carolina Robert G. Dean Department of Civil ~ng~necrlng University of Delaware Newark, Delaware Davis L. Ford Senior Vice President Engineering Science Company Austin, T^YaS Robert A, Frosch American Association of Engineering Societies New York, New York Edward D, Goldberg Scripps institute of Oceanography University of California La Jolla, California Griff Lee vice President and Group Executive McDermott,.Ihc. New Orleans, Louisiana Bramlette McClelland President McClelland Engineers, Inc. Houston, Texas Leonard C, Meeker Center for Law and Social Policy Washington, D.C, J. Robert Moore Director and Prof, of Marine Studies Marine Science Institute University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas Hyla S. Napadenslcy I7T Research Institute Chicago, Illinois Myson H. Nordquist Nossaman, Frueger & Marsh Washington, D.C, Fredric Raichlen Professor of Civil Engineering Cal' fornia Institute of Technology Pasadena, California Willard F. Searle, Jr, Chairman Searle Consortium, Inc. Alexandria, Virginia Marshall P. Tulin Hydronautics, Inc. Laurel, Maryland James G. Wenzel Vice President, Ocean Systems Lockheed Missiles & Space Co,, Inc. Sunnyvale, California Staff Jack W. Holler, Executive Director Donald W. Perkins, Assistant Executive Director Charles A, BooRman, Staff Officer Aurora M. Gallagher, Staff Cfficer Linda J. Cannon, Administrative Assistant Doris C. HoLmes, Administrative Secretary Julia W. Leach, Secretary Joyclyn C, Lyons, Secretary Terrze Noble, Secretary

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PANEL ON HARBOR/PORT ENTRANCE DESIGN Robert L. Wiegel, Chairman Department of Civil Engineering University of California Berkeley, California John D. Costlow Duke University Marine Laboratory Pavers Island Beaufort, North Carolina C. Lincoln Crane, Jr. Exxon Inte'-~at~onal Company F1orham Park, New Jersey Robert G. Dean Department of Civil Engineering University of Delaware Newark, Delaware - 11 Eugene H. Harlan PRC Harris, Inc. Houston, Texas John B. Herbich Director, Center for Dredging Studies Texas A & ~ University College Station, Texas Joe W. Johnson Department of Civil Engineering University of California Berkeley, Cal' Cornea Martha H. Kobler Bechtel National, Inc. San Francisco, California

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EOREWORD Ben C. Gerwick Chairman, Marine Board Harbors offer vessels some measure of protection from the natural forces of winds, waves, and currents and a bottom capable of holding them at anchor. Of inestimable importance in the history of the world, natural harbors have been a necessary condition of seagoing trade and "warfare. With trade and travel, harbors become ports--gateways of goods and people at the juncture of land and sea trade routes. The technology of harbors and ports has a long history. The Phoenicians built harbors at Sidon and Tyre on the Mediterranean as far back as the thirteenth century B.C. A deepwater pier was constructed at Alexandria in 332 B.C., and the Pharos lighthouse, completed in 280 B.C., has been known as one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. The purpose and social importance of ports and harbors have not changed; present technologies serve many of the same purposes as those of ancient times--safe navigation, a protected haven, and the ability to load and unload passengers and cargoes. What has changed are the size and nature of the world cargo fleet and the socioeconomic concerns of populations. There is increasing demand abroad for this country's coal and food, for example, and increasing domestic demand for imported oil. The ships necessary to profitable trade in this international traffic demand deeper drafts and more room to stop: they present far different characteristics of maneuverability than the ships America's ports were designed to receive. While it was always necessary to know the patterns of tides and currents, the location of hazards, and other facts about the physical environment of ports and harbors, it is now necessary to know much more to design port and harbor works, manage greatly increased traffic, and effect safe passage. Commercial ports create wealth and attract settlement. In the past fifteen years, increasing attention has been directed to the social costs of settlement and trade on the world's coasts--to the effects of wastes emptied into waterways and the oceans, and to the potential for oil pollution and accidents involving hazardous cargoes. Concern for the marine and coastal environment brought about landmark legislation in the United States in the past decade, and created new decision making entitle" and procedures. The Marine Board has been concerned for some time that the rapid changes in naval technologies and social patterns, and the intensi . ~

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fication of discernible trends affecting the design of ports and harbors have not been met with corresponding alacrity and intensifi- cation of efforts to gather crucial data, formulate needed analytical techniques, or develop the processes for synthesis of all significant factors in a rational set of procedures for design. This situation can be seen in sharp focus at the entrance to a port or harbor, a critical area for navigation and traffic control that most clearly manifests the complex interactions of physical forces, vessel traffic, and other factors with the results of the designer's work. This area also seems a convenient locus for investigating the engineering implications of designing ports and harbors to meet several objectives; among them, safety of the public, of navigation, and of the marine environment, increased economic activity, and accommodation of the vessels of today and tomorrow. Among the responsibilities of the Marine Board under its charter is to undertake, on its own initiative, investigation of issues that lie outside the compass of any single agency of government. Accordingly, the National Research Council appointed a panel at the request of the Marine Board to investigate problems and opportunities in the design of entrances to ports and harbors under the board's direction. The panel planned and convened an interdisciplinary meeting of about 50 experts in the summer of 1980 to exchange information on these problems and opportunities, and to identify the most pressing problems requiring solution. The participants represented a great many views and interests in ports and harbors--those of research and design engineers, marine scientists and environmentalists, naval architects, port directors, dredgers, ship operators and captains, harbor pilots, salvers, authorities on modeling and simulation, representatives of the U. S. Coast Guard, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the U. S. Navy. An interesting result of bringing together such distinctly different views and interests was the enthusiastic exchange of information and experience and the questions and answers of the participants that gave ample evidence of the need most often expressed in the meeting: the need for methods of analysis and decision making that encompass necessary engineering and functional information, that allow full consideration of fundamentally different concerns and that instantiate man's long experience with ports and harbors. 1V

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SU+ARY The most critical area of a port or harbor for navigation, maintenance, and potential effects on the physical and biological marine environment is the entrance. The entrance to a harbor or port might conveniently be described as that region of a ship channel between the open sea and the protected area of the harbor, including, on the seaward side, the nearby approach fairways, and on the harbor side, sufficient distance to permit a ship to stop. A number of considerations affect the design of this critical area: the controllability of ships, transport and deposition of sediments, patterns and strength of waves, tides, and currents, interactions of ship traffic, environmental effects of structures and dredging operations, and others. Yet the development, testing, and improvement of reliable predictive models and development of a systems approach to the planning of these critical areas have not kept pace with the challenging demands of existing and projected needs for harbors and ports. Detailed attention is given to these subjects and their implications in the formal presentations collected in succeeding sections of these proceedings. In iterative and collaborative workshop sessions (described under ~Workshops," page 157 I, participants in the meeting agreed that the most important problems requiring resolution in the design of entrances to ports and harbors are the following, in order of urgency and consequence: . . . Improved and validated models for the prediction of horizontal and vertical ship movements in the particular conditions of harbor entrances; Use of systems analysis in the design of harbor entrances; Reliable and economical measurement, reduction, presentation, and storage of environmental data; Cost-effective models of the physical environment for prediction of natural conditions and forces, and changes caused by human activity; Improved procedures for prediction of shoaling rates and patterns, including development and verification of appropriate field metbodologies; Improved entrance-channel design and operating criteria; v

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. Development of accepted standards and uniform methods for measuring and assessing navigability of harbor entrances; Quantitative definition of the needs of mariners; Review and reform of decision making processes for port and harbor projects, and Evaluation of the importance of natural resource" for balanced decisions about harbor siting and related matters, and increased attention to the restoration of natural habitats. V1

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CONTENTS Foreword Ben C. Gerwick Summary Introduction Robert L. Wiegel Keynote Address: The Importance and Economic Status of America's Ports and Harbors Henry E. Soike Design and Maintenance Harbor/Port Entrance Design Eugene H. Hariow Rules and Regulations Governing Entrances to Ports and Harbors Daniel Charter Harbor and Port Aids to Navigation Guy Clark Maintenance Dredging John Downs Concerns of Ships and Users Concerns of Ship Operators C. Lincoln Crane, Jr. Evaluation of the Safety of Ship Navigation in Harbors Donald A. Atkins and William R. Bertsche ~ V11 . . 111 V 1 11 13 27 35 39 43 45 53

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Ship Controllability J. P. Hooft Harbor Entrance Design: A Pilot's View Thomas G. Knierim Nature and Environment Sedimentation in Harbors J. W. Johnson Tidal Hydraulics F. A. Herrmann, Jr. Waves at Ports and Harbors C. L. Vincent The Importance of Considering Environmental Effects in the Design of Entrance" to Ports and Harbors Scott McCreary The Workshops Eugene H. Harlow and John B. Herbicb 75 95 99 101 115 133 141 157 Appendix A: Statements of the Participants 167 Appendix B: Participants 175 ~ V111