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Appendix A EOS Instrument Descriptions MODIS-T MODERATE RESOLUTION IMAGING SPECTROMETER TILT Imaging spectrometer for the measurement of biolog- ical and physical processes on a 1 km x 1 km scale. Scanning instrument covering a 150~km swath cen- tered at nadir, with a 0 to 30 scan mirror tilt for sun avoidance. Spectral range of 0.4 to 1.04 Em in 64 bands, any 17 selectable for telemetering. MODIS-N MODERATE RESOLUTION IMAGING SPECTROMETERNADIR Imaging spectrometer for the measurement of biolog- ical and physical processes on a 1 km x 1 km and a 0.5 km x 0.5 km scale. Scanning instrument covering 1500 km swath centered at nadir. Spectral ranges of 0.4 to 2.3 ~m, 3 to 5 ~m, and 6.7 to 14.2 ,um. At- mospheric sounding channels under study. Total of 40 bands, 27 at 1-km and 13 at 0.5-km resolution. Descriptions courtesy of NASA. 113

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114 HIRIS HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGING SPECTROMETER Spectrometer providing highly programmable local- ized measurements of biological and geological pro- ce~es at a spatial resolution of 30 m. Pointable instru- ment with a 5~km-swath coverage, viewing accessible areas up to 30 off track. Spectral coverage of 0.4- to 2.5-pm at Ram resolution. 210 spectral bands. TIMS THERMAL IMAGING SPECTROMETER Spectrometer providing high-resolution thermal imag- ing capability to the HIRIS for biological and geo- logical measurements. Instrument will be bore-sighted with HIRIS to provide 30-m resolution over a 5~km swath. Its spectral range will cover from 3.0 to 5.0 ,um and from 8.0 to 14.0 am, for a total of 8 bands of 50- and 50~nm spectral resolution. AMSR ADVANCED MECHANICALLY SCANNED RADIOMETER Radiometer providing measurements of atmospheric water vapor, precipitation, and snow and ice extent. Rotating antenna assembly scans the Earth in the for- ward velocity direction +75 to the subsatellite track for a swath of 1400 km. Resolution varies from 20 km to 2 km over the six frequencies of 6.0, 10.65, 18.7, 21.3, 36.5, and 91 GHz. Both H and V polarizations are available. Antenna size is approximately 4 m x 7 m. ESTAR ELECTRONICALLY SCANNED THINNED ARRAY RADIOMETER Microwave radiometer providing high-resolution soil moisture measurements using aperture synthesis tech- niques. Single-frequency instrument at 1.4 GHz. An- tenna size 18 m x 18 m covering a swath of 900 km. Approximate temperature resolution of 1K. AMSU ADVANCED MICROWAVE SOUNDING UNIT (A and B) Microwave radiometer providing measurements of at- mospheric temperature and humidity. Twenty-channel instrument divided into AMSU-A and AMSU-B su~ systems. AMSU-A primarily provides atmospheric

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115 LASA SAR ALT temperature measurements from the surface up to 40 km In 15 channels; i.e., channels at 23.8 GHz, 31.4 GHz, 12 channels between 50 and 60 GHz, and 89 GHz. Coverage is approximately 50 on both sides of the suborbital track, with an IFOV of 50 km. Tem- perature resolution equivalent to 0.25 to 1.3K. AMSU- B primarily provides atmospheric humidity measure- ments in 5 channeb at 89 GHz, 166 GHz, and 183 GHz (3 channeb). Coverage ~ the same as AMSU-A, with an IFOV of 15 km and a temperature resolution of I.0 to 1.2K. LIDAR ATMOSPHERIC SOUNDER AND ALTIMETER Lidar system(~) for the measurement of total column content water vapor, water vapor profiles, aerosob and clouds, atmospheric state parameters, ozone, ice sheet mass balance, and land topography. System ini- tially uses a 1.25-m-diarneter telescope and multiple- wavelength selective laser systems tailored to spe- cific measurement areas. Telescope is a fixed nadir viewing system, which may be modified for scanning and/or aperture size change. Growth version of the SISP LASA for the measurement of tropospheric con- stituents and atmospheric-state parameters. Multiple- wavelength meter class telescope/laser system with pointing and/or scanning capability. Water vapor and ozone profiles together with pressure and temperature measurements are system goals. SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR Imaging radar for all-weather studies of surface pro- cesses for land, vegetation, ice, and oceans. Resolution of 30 m over a swath width of approximately 100 m in width from 20 to 60 on either side of the subsatellite track. C, L, and X band frequencies with H and V polarizations. ALTIMETER Microwave system for the study of ocean topography

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116 and topographical measurements over ice. Two-m- diameter antenna for Tom precision height measure- ment over the oceans. System operates at 13.5 GHz with a subsatellite swath of 2 to 15 km. N-ROSS capa- bility of less than 5-cm altitude accuracy, 0.5-m or 10 percent significant wave height precision, 2-m/s wind speed accuracy. CR SCATT SCATTEROMETER Microwave system for the measurement of wind stress over the oceans. System provides measurement along two parallel swaths from 120 km to 700 km on either side of the subsatellite track. System has a Unstick an- tenna configuration, 1-m/s wind speed and 10 angular resolution are goal measurements. CORRELATION RADIOMETER Instrument for measurement of constituents in the tro- posphere using selective absorption gas cell radiome- try. Nominal 4.3 field-of-view, +5 to nadir. Pro- vides global distribution of carbon monoxide and other species, with limited vertical resolution. NCIS NADIR CLIMATE INTERFEROMETER SPECTROMETER Michelson interferometer-type instrument for the mea- surement of temperature profiles and tropospheric con- stituents, i.e., H2O, NO3, CH4, etc. Approximate spectral coverage of 6.0 to 40 ,um. Nominal 5 field-of- v~ew. LAWS LASER ATMOSPHERIC WIND SOUNDER Lidar system for direct tropospheric wind measure- ments. System corsets of a 1.25-m-diameter rotating telescope (3 rpm) with a half-cone angle of 53. In- strument covers a swath area of 300 km x 300 km for wind measurements of 1 m/~. IR-RAD INFRARED RADIOMETER Radiometer for the measurement of upper atmospheric temperature, winds, and certain atmospheric species. A multiband, cryogenically cooled instrument, which views the limb over an approximate 100 x 1.9 scan

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117 PMR MLS field-of-view. Measures temperature, ozone, and trace species distribution with approximately 3-km vertical resolution. PRESSURE MODULATED RADIOMETER Radiometer measuring emissions from selected atmo- spheric constituents and providing global maps of at- mospheric temperature and constituents abundance. Multichannel infrared instrument using pressure- modulated gas cells for detection of selected species. Views the Earth's limb perpendicular to the flight path. Approximate resolution Is 2.6 km at the Innb. MICROWAVE LIMB SOUNDER Microwave radiometer that detects and measures the distribution of trace chemical species in the upper at- mosphere. Radiometer is a multifrequency antenna system, which scans the Earth's I~rnb and detects the thermal emulsion of trace species at selected frequen- cies of 83, 119, 183, 205, and 231 GHz. Nominal vertical FOV of 3 to 10 km; horizontal FOV of 10 to 30 km at the limb. SUB-MM SUBMILLIMETER SPECTROMETER Advanced spectrometer technology that detects and measures the distribution of trace chemical species in the upper atmosphere. Instrument is a scanning heterodyne system that views the limb with an FOV of approximately 1.8 to 80. Improved resolution over the MLS. Measures trace species such as OH and HCL. VIS-UV VISIBL~ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROMETER Multiple spectrometer system for measuring trace species in the upper atmosphere using selected e~riis- sion lines. Instrument is a multiple-grating, high- resolution (3 to 10 A) spectrometer covering the wave- length range of from 300 to 12,000 A. F/P-INT FABRY-PEROT INTERFEROMETER Interferometer system measuring wind and tempera- ture in the upper atmosphere. Instrument consists of a multiple-etalon interferometer fed by a gimbaled telescope, which views the limb in the 1~ to 5~km

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118 altitude region to measure the absorption features of oxygen and scattered light bands and to measure the atmospheric emission features in the 60 to 30~km altitude region. Measures the vector wind field to less than 5 m/~. CIS CRYOGENIC INTERFEROMETER SPECTROMETER A combined cryogenically cooled Michelson interfer- ometer and multichannel radiometer (Ebert type), sharing a common narrow field-oview telescope. In- strument views the Earth's Innb and measures emus- sions from trace constituents and temperature in am proxanately five wavelength bands. SCM SOLAR CONSTANT MONITOR Instrument for the precise solar total irradiance moni- toring during the solar cycle. Active cavity radiometer- type instrument. Accuracy of 99.9 percent at solar total irradiance level. Wavelength coverage of 0.001 to 1,000 ,um. Total irradiance of 0 to 200 W/m2. Field- oview of +5 with +1 for solar pointing. SUSIM SOLAR UV SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE MONITOR Instrument system for the measurement of solar UV fluxes and their changes over a solar cycle. Full Ask solar spectral irradiance measurement. Two double dispersion scanning spectrometers, one for measuring solar flux and the second to measure the output of calibration lamps. Wavelength coverage from 120 to 400 nm with spectral resolution of 0.1, 1.0, and 5.0 nm. ERBI EARTH RADIATION BUDGET INSTRUMENT Multiple-channel instrument for the measurement of the Earth's radiation budget on a regional, tonal, and global scale, using selected fields of view. Instrument response is from 0.2 Em to 50 Em with selective filters. Instrument uses the Sun as a calibration source. The instrument is divided into a scanning and nonscanning portion for the selective measurements.

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119 MRIR ATSR AVHRR/2 ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER (MOD 2) Visible/infrared radiometer for the measurement of cloud cover, sea surface temperature, and the maw ping of ice and snow. Also used to measure vegeta- tion cover. Five-band radiometer system covering the spectral range of 0.58 to 12.5 ~m, i.e., 0.58 to 0.68, 0.7 to 1.1, 3.55 to 3.93, 10.3 to 11.3, and 11.5 to 12.4 ~m. 1-km IFOV, 160~km swath, centered at nadir. Sea surface temperature resolution of less than 1K. AVHRR/3 operable on NOAA-K through M will have a tune-shared modified channel 3, i.e., 3a 1.57 to 1.78, 3b, 3.55 to 3.93 am for cloud cover detection. Also channel 2 will change to 0.82 to 0.92 ,um to eliminate a water vapor absorption. MEDIUM RESOLUTION IMAGING RADIO- METER Ten-band scanning radiometer for improved sea sur- face temperature, cloud mapping and the monitoring of surface processes in vegetation coverage. Four addi- tional bands to the AVHRR/3, i.e., 0.45 to 0.52, 0.52 to 0.60, 2.08 to 2.35, and 6.5 to 6.7 ~m. Improved spa- tial resolution of 250 to 500 m, with a ground swath of 2230 km. ALONG TRACK SCANNING RADIOMETER IR radiometer with a scanning technique that views the same point from two different angles, providing an improved atmospheric correction. Three-band system at 3.7, 11, and 12 ~m. 1-km spatial resolution with a 50~km-swath coverage. Temperature resolution am prox~nately 0.1K. ARGOS FRENCH DATA COI,LECTION and LOCATION SYSTEM (ADCES) Data collection and location system for drifting plat- forms and balloons. 401.65~MHz operating frequency for a drifting buoy location accuracy of 1 km and speed determination of 0.3 m/s.

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120 GOMR GLOBAL OZONE MONITORING RADIOMETER An atmospheric sounding instrument measuring radi- ances and solar IR radiances at the top of the atmo- sphere to provide ozone column amounts, ozone verti- cal profiles, and solar UV fluxes. Instrument operates in 13 bands over the wavelength region of 273.5 to 380 nm. The GOMR has a nadir FOV of 11.3, equivalent to a spatial resolution of 169 km. HIRS/2 HIGH RESOLUTION IR SOUNDER (MOD 2) Scanning radiometer for temperature and moisture profiles. Twenty-band system covering the wavelength regions of 3.76 to 14.96 am with an albedo measur- ing channel centered at 0.69 ~m. Cross-track scan is +49.5, equivalent to a ground swath of 2230 km cen- tered at nadir. Ground IFOV ~ 20 km in diameter. HIRS/3 mod will change the band pass of channel 20 to a broad response, i.e., 0.3 to I.1 Em or 0.4 to 1.8 ,um. MEA SEM MULTILINEAR ARRAY Conceptual system consisting of targetable and global coverage instruments for the study of land processes. Global Repetitive Coverage Seven-band instrument covering the wavelength regions of 0.45 to 0 9, 1.55 to 2.35, and 10.4 to 12.5 ~m. Thirty-meter resolu- tion in the visible, near, and middle infrared regions. Sixty-meter resolution in the thermal infrared. 185-km swath width. Targetable Coverage Thirty-two-band (8 selectable) in- strument covering the wavelength regions of 0.45 to 1.1 and 1.2 to 2.4 ~m. Ten-meter resolution In the visible and near infrared, Am resolution in the middle in- frared. Stereo and cross-track viewing +30 nominal. SPACE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITOR (ADVANCED CONFIGURATION) A group of seven sensors for in situ measurement of plasma parameters. Total Energy Detector (TED) Measures total energy deposited by magnetospheric electrons and protons in the range of 0.3 to 20 keV.

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121 Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED) Four directional sensors and an omni- directional sensor for measuring protons, electrons, and ions in the range of 30 to greater than 60 keV. Precipitating Proton-Electron and Cumulative-Dose Spectrometer Measures electron dose over the 1- to 1~ MeV range and protons of greater than 20 MeV. The spectrometer measures the precipitating electrons and ions in 20 energy bands between 30 eV and 30 keV. ionospheric Plasma Monitor Measures ambient elec- tron and ion density and temperature. Scanning Gamma- and X-Ray Sensor Measures x-ray intensity as a function of energy from 2 keV to 100 keV. X-Ray Energy Detector Measures x-ray energies in the range of 25, 45, 75, and 115 keV. High Frequency Receiver Monitors the ionospheric nome breakthrough frequency used in ionospheric forecast- ~ng. GEODYNAMICS LASER RANGING SYSTEM Laser Ranging System for the study of crustal move- ments. Range measurements made in tectonically ac- tive regions and across tectonic plate boundaries us- ing arrays of retroreflector targets acquired by the satellite system. System uses frequency double-mode locked Nd:YAG laser: 20 millijoules at 532 nm, 0.1 milliradians divergence with a 10 pulses/second repe- tition rate. Receiver telescope has a diameter of 18 cm and a ranging/tracking precision of 0.01 milliradians. Ground spot diameter, 80 m at nadir. Data is used to monitor intersite distances associated with crustal motion.

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