Index

A

Ab initio calculations, 272–73

Abrasives, 23, 81, 129

Academy of Sciences (U.S.S.R.), 195

Acoustic detectors, 219

Adhesives, 83

Advanced ceramics. See Ceramic materials

Advisory Board for the Research Councils (U.K.), 191–92

Aerospace industry

economic impact, 36–37

materials processing role, 228

materials role, 20, 38, 39

materials synthesis role, 217, 219

needs and opportunities, 39, 40–42, 69–73

research opportunities, 75–76

scope, 39

survey overview, 3, 35–36

U.S. leadership, 204

Agency of Industrial Technology and Science (Japan), 194

Aircraft industry. See Aerospace industry

Air Force Department, 169, 179

Alloys

design, 76, 79, 121, 246

microstructure formation, 274–76

Alumina, 92

Alumina zirconia abrasives, 129

Aluminum, 212

Aluminum alloys, 129, 231

Aluminum-nickel-cobalt alloys, 21

Alvey program (U.K.), 192

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 255

American Chemical Society, 157

American Physical Society, 157

American Society for Metals, 33–34

Amorphous materials, 129

Analysis and modeling, 112

applications, 7, 133, 138, 225, 269

atomistic studies, 270–73

ceramic performance, 81

continuum models, 274–77

design and manufacturing applications, 71, 74–76, 78, 109, 123, 124, 278–79

materials performance, 138, 242, 246

materials processing research, 234–35

metal failure mechanisms, 80

polymer science, 84

research needs, 12, 139, 140, 270

techniques, 118, 138–39, 269–70

Andersson, S., 263

Angle-resolved photoemission, 263–64

Anisotropies, 95, 101, 275

Antitrust laws, 198

Apparel fibers, 37, 49

   

Note: References pertain to the United States except where otherwise indicated.



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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials Index A Ab initio calculations, 272–73 Abrasives, 23, 81, 129 Academy of Sciences (U.S.S.R.), 195 Acoustic detectors, 219 Adhesives, 83 Advanced ceramics. See Ceramic materials Advisory Board for the Research Councils (U.K.), 191–92 Aerospace industry economic impact, 36–37 materials processing role, 228 materials role, 20, 38, 39 materials synthesis role, 217, 219 needs and opportunities, 39, 40–42, 69–73 research opportunities, 75–76 scope, 39 survey overview, 3, 35–36 U.S. leadership, 204 Agency of Industrial Technology and Science (Japan), 194 Aircraft industry. See Aerospace industry Air Force Department, 169, 179 Alloys design, 76, 79, 121, 246 microstructure formation, 274–76 Alumina, 92 Alumina zirconia abrasives, 129 Aluminum, 212 Aluminum alloys, 129, 231 Aluminum-nickel-cobalt alloys, 21 Alvey program (U.K.), 192 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 255 American Chemical Society, 157 American Physical Society, 157 American Society for Metals, 33–34 Amorphous materials, 129 Analysis and modeling, 112 applications, 7, 133, 138, 225, 269 atomistic studies, 270–73 ceramic performance, 81 continuum models, 274–77 design and manufacturing applications, 71, 74–76, 78, 109, 123, 124, 278–79 materials performance, 138, 242, 246 materials processing research, 234–35 metal failure mechanisms, 80 polymer science, 84 research needs, 12, 139, 140, 270 techniques, 118, 138–39, 269–70 Andersson, S., 263 Angle-resolved photoemission, 263–64 Anisotropies, 95, 101, 275 Antitrust laws, 198 Apparel fibers, 37, 49     Note: References pertain to the United States except where otherwise indicated.

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials Appliances, 20 Aqueous precipitation, 80 Argonne National Laboratory, 181, 265 Army Department, 169, 179 Aromatic polyamide polymers, 83, 92, 250 Artificial intelligence, 124 Artificially structured materials analysis and modeling, 273 fabrication, 4, 51, 121, 123 research opportunities, 125–26, 236–37 ASM International, 34, 157 Association for Media-Based Continuing Education for Engineers, 158 Atomic Energy Commission, 176 Atomic layer epitaxy, 223 Atomistic studies analysis and modeling, 270–73 instrumentation, 74 performance, 114, 243, 246 Atom probe, 267 Attrition process, 81 Auger spectrometer, 135, 261, 264 Automotive industry economic impact, 36–37 materials processing role, 228 materials role, 6, 20, 38, 43 materials synthesis role, 217–18 needs and opportunities, 39, 43, 70–73 research opportunities, 43–44 scope, 42 survey overview, 3, 35–36 B Basic Research in Industrial Technologies for Europe (BRITE), 198 Basic Technology for Future Industries Project (Japan), 194 Batteries, 218 Bauer, 266 Beam scattering, 267–68 Bednorz, J.Georg, 100 Bell laboratories, 173, 214, 261, 263, 264 Binnig, G., 255, 262 Biological and Radiation Physics section, DOE, 265 Biologically derived materials, 106 Biomaterials industry, 27 economic impact, 36–37 foreign countries’ priorities, 167, 204 materials role, 38, 45 needs and opportunities, 39, 46, 70–73 research opportunities, 47–48, 103–8 scope, 45 survey overview, 3, 35–36 Bloch, Erich, 255 Bonding mechanism, 32 Boron nitride, 222 Brazil, 226 Brookhaven National Laboratory, 180–82, 265 Bulk forms, 129 Bureau of Mines, 166, 197 Business Week magazine, 172 C Cadmium telluride, 133 Canada, 186, 188–89, 199 Carbon, 106 Carrier mobilities, 126 Casting processes, 128–29 Catalytic converters, 122 Catalytic processes, 223 Centers for materials research. See Funding and institutions Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 191 Ceramic materials aerospace applications, 42 automotive applications, 43, 44 biomedical applications, 45, 106 chemical industry applications, 50 engine applications, 20 fabrication research areas, 80–82, 121 injection molding, 130 materials processing role, 225, 235–36 materials removal, 131 materials synthesis role, 212, 213, 217–18, 220 molecular precursors, 126–27, 220–21 new structures, 127 packaging technology, 91–92, 122, 220 properties, 113 rapid solidification processes, 80, 110, 129 research needs and opportunities, 75, 184 shape-limited synthesis, 222 superconducting materials, 99–103 toughening processes, 81, 236, 248 Ceramic-polymer layers, 92 Characterization facilities, 118, 163, 214

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials Chemical and Process Engineering Division, NSF, 170 Chemical beam epitaxy, 125 Chemical industry economic impact, 36–37 materials role, 37–38, 50 needs and opportunities, 39, 50–51, 70–73 scope, 48–50 survey overview, 3, 35–36 synthesis role in, 212 Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 89, 125, 129, 213, 225, 236–37, 273 China, 199 China Lake facility, 266 Chip fabrication facilities, 183 Clayton Act, 197 Clean rooms, 183, 184 Co-deposition processes, 130, 131, 133 Coercivities, 95 Collaborative centers. See Funding and institutions College education. See Manpower and education Collyear Committee report (U.K.), 192 Commerce Department (DOC), 14, 164, 165, 179, 197 Commercial exploitation, 187 Committee on Materials (COMAT), 18, 164, 196 Committee on Science and Materials Technology (COSMAT), 149 Communications industry. See Telecommunications industry Comparisons. See International comparisons Competitive position, 1 industry responsibility, 3–5, 71 See also Economic performance; International comparisons Composites, 32 automotive applications, 44 definition, 86 materials processing role, 228, 240 research opportunities, 50, 71, 75, 79, 121, 85–88, 220 Composition. See Structure and composition Computer industry foreign countries’ priorities, 167, 204 materials processing role, 228–29 See also Information technology Computer-integrated manufacturing, 79 Computers educational tool, 152 modeling. See Analysis and modeling Conductive polymers, 122 Consolidation processes, 123, 130–31 Consortia, 72, 187, 198 Contact and wear mechanisms, 250 Continuing education, 157–58, 161 Continuum models, 138, 270, 274–77 Cooperative education programs, 153–54 Cooperative Research Act of 1984, 197 Cooperative research centers, 171, 187 Cooperative research mechanisms, 187, 191, 197–99, 205 Copper purification, 127 Cornell University, 264 Corrosion cracking, 252 Corrosion resistance, 127 Cracking. See Fracture mechanics Craftsmen, 33 Crewe, A., 265 Critical current density, 101, 102 Cryogenic electroprocessing, 133 Crystal growth deformation analysis, 272 international comparisons, 98 polymers, 84, 85 quasi-crystals, 110, 118–19, 128, 129, 231 research opportunities, 75, 123, 225, 229 solidification, 128–29 Crystalline materials, 51 Curie temperature, 95 Cutting process, 131 Cutting tool speeds, 23–24 Czochralski crystal-pulling equipment, 184 D Damage zone mechanics, 253–54 Data bases, 114 Data processing. See Information technology Davisson, 264 de Broglie wavelengths, 126, 237 Deep-ultraviolet lasers, 88 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 169, 170, 177, 194 Defense Department (DOD) funding, 155, 164, 165, 168–70, 177, 197, 204, 259 instrumentation support, 135, 137, 257, 260

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials laboratories, 179 research areas, 66–67 university research initiative, 137, 178, 260 Defense policy. See National security concerns Deformational instabilities, 249 Degree production, 7–8, 144–47, 161 Density-functional calculations, 272 Department of. See specific department names Diamond growth, 81–82 Diamond properties, 112 Die filling, 123 Dielectric constants, 92 Diffusion distances, 126, 237 Diffusion equations, 274 Direct ribbon casting, 231 Disordered structures, 126, 237 Distributed order parameters, 96 Double-alignment ion scattering, 262–63 Ductile-brittle transition, 248–49, 253 Ductile rupture, 248 Du Pont laboratories, 173, 214 E Economic performance aerospace industry, 39 automotive industry, 42 biomaterials industry, 45 chemical industry, 48–49 electronics industry, 51–52 energy industry, 54 industries overview, 36–37 metals industry, 57, 60 telecommunications industry, 61, 63 U.S. trade deficit, 186 Education. See Manpower and education Educational Modules for Materials Science and Engineering, 158 Education and Science Department (U.K.), 191, 192 Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (Zurich), 267 Elasticity theory, 274, 276–77 Electric Power Research Institute, 205 Electroactive polymers, 93 Electrodeposition, 80 Electrolytic processing, 131, 133 Electromagnetic stirring, 80 Electron beam etching, 89 Electron beam melting, 127 Electronic materials ceramic and polymer substrates, 91–93 metal wiring, 93 ultrapure materials, 126 See also Semiconductors Electronics industry, 6 economic impact, 36–37 materials processing role, 228–29 materials role, 29, 38, 52 needs and opportunities, 10, 39, 52–53, 70–73, 183–84 research opportunities, 88–93 scope, 51–52 survey overview, 3, 35–36 See also Integrated circuits Electron microscopy, 118, 264–66 Electron pairing, 101 Electrooptic systems, 64 Electrosynthesis, 131, 133 Elementary and secondary education, 158–59 Embedded atom method, 246 Energy Department (Canada), 189 Energy Department (U.K.), 192 Energy Department (U.S.) (DOE), 18 funding, 164–68, 197, 259 instrumentation support, 135, 137, 257, 260 laboratories, 178–79 national laboratories support, 14, 17, 72, 176 research areas, 66, 67 Energy industry economic impact, 36–37 materials role, 38, 54–55 materials synthesis role, 218–19 needs and opportunities, 39, 55–56, 70–73 scope, 54 survey overview, 3, 35–36 Engine efficiency, 20–21 Engineering research centers, 72, 156, 171, 174, 177–78, 199 Environmental Protection Agency, 164 Epitaxial growth processes ab initio modeling, 273 electronic materials, 51–53, 89, 96, 125–26, 236–37 superconducting materials, 103 vapor-solid processing, 129

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials Equilibrium thermodynamics, 118 Etching, 131 European Economic Community (EEC), 198 European research. See International comparisons; specific countries European Research Coordinating Agency (EUREKA), 191 European Research in Advanced Materials (EURAM), 198 European Strategic Program for Research in Information Technology (ESPRIT), 191, 198 Eyeglasses, 20 Excitations, 126, 237 Executive orders, 198 Expert systems, 124 Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (Japan), 193 Extraction processes, 238 Extrusion, 80, 239–40 Exxon laboratories, 261 F Fabrication. See Synthesis and processing Faculty profiles. See Manpower and education Failure mechanisms, 79–80 Fast-ion conductors, 127 Fatigue mechanics, 251–53 Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology, 164 Federal funding. See Funding and institutions Federal laboratories, 14, 72, 178–79, 197, 257–58 Federation of Materials Societies, 166 Ferroelectric ceramic materials, 97 Ferroelectric liquid crystals, 97 Fiber-forming technology, 222, 240 Fiber optics. See Telecommunications industry Fiber-reinforced composites, 84–85, 217, 240, 250 Field ion microscope, 267 Flame-resistant materials, 83, 217 Fluctuation phenomena, 101 Fluids use, 50 Food and Drug Administration, 38 Foreign comparisons. See International comparisons Forging ceramics, 80, 81 polymers, 225, 239 Forming processes, 130 Fracture mechanics analysis and modeling, 270, 276–77 ceramics, 81 crack mechanisms, 126, 220, 246–54 research opportunities, 75, 114 France, 186, 190–91, 199–202, 215 Fraunhofer Institutes (West Germany), 72, 183, 188, 190, 199 Frustration behavior, 100 Fuel cells, 218 Funding and institutions collaborative centers, 72, 156, 174, 176–78 engineering research centers, 72, 156, 171, 174, 177–78, 199 federal funding, 9, 163–71 federal laboratories, 72, 178–79, 197 findings and recommendations, 8–9, 12–18, 71, 183–85 funding concerns, 118, 124, 162–63 industrial research consortia, 72, 187, 198 industry laboratories, 171–74 industry-university cooperative centers, 171, 187 instrument development, 12, 137, 257–60, 265, 266 international comparisons, 188–97, 205 materials processing capability, 224–25 materials research groups, 170–71 materials research laboratories, 13, 72, 156, 170, 174, 176–77, 259 national facilities, 180–83 national initiative recommendation, 10–12 national laboratories, 68, 72, 124, 176, 197, 205 research infrastructure summarized, 8, 12–14, 162–63, 174 small groups, 174–76 state centers, 171 synthesis and processing, 210–11 G Gallium arsenide, 53, 63, 89–90, 121, 133, 222, 237 Gallium-arsenide/gallium-aluminum-arsenide system, 125–26, 237

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials Galvanomagnetic effects, 95 Gas Research Institute, 205 Gemstones, 130 General Accounting Office, 196 General Electric laboratories, 173 Germanium, 273 German Research Society, 190 Germany. See West Germany Germer, 264 Glass, 23, 106 Global Competition: The New Reality (GPO), 186 Government materials needs, 65–73 See also Funding and institutions Government laboratories, 14, 72, 178–79, 197, 257–58. See also National laboratories Graduate education. See Manpower and education Grain boundaries, 102–3 Grains, 75, 80 Grinding, 131 H Harwell Laboratory (U.K.), 192 Health and Human Services Department, 66 Heavy-fermion superconductors, 100 Henzler, 264 Heteroepitaxy, 90 Heterojunctions, 273 High-modulus polymer fibers, 233–34, 239, 240 High-resolution electron loss spectroscopy, 263 High Voltage Engineering Europa, B.V., 263 Holograms, 97 Honjo, Goro, 265 Hydrodynamic equations, 274 Hydrodynamics, 118, 274 Hydrogen embrittlement, 249, 252 I Ibach, H., 263 IBM laboratories, 173, 214, 261–63 Icosahedral symmetry, 118–19 Illinois Institute of Technology, 157–58 Incentives, 4, 71 Incubator programs, 199 Indiana University, 263 Indium phosphide, 53, 63 Industrial consortia, 72, 187, 198 Industrial Technology Law (Japan), 198 Industry concerns and responsibilities, 3–5, 15, 71–73 cooperative education programs, 153–54 materials processing capability, 224–25 materials role in, 3–4 research funding, 171–74 See also specific industries Industry-university cooperative research centers, 171, 187 Information technology advances in, 25, 30, 111 foreign countries’ priorities, 167, 204 information processing mechanism, 88 magnetic materials, 94–96 materials synthesis role, 216–17 photonic materials, 96–97 Injection molding, 130, 225, 239, 240 Instability analysis, 118 Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (Netherlands), 262–63 Instrumentation, 112 federal funding, 137, 170, 257, 259–60, 265, 266 historical developments, 261–68 international comparisons, 135–36, 138, 256, 257, 260–68 materials science need for, 6–7, 12, 140, 229, 244 research needs in, 123, 135–38, 255–58 upgrading need, 133, 135, 153 U.S. priorities, 258–61 See also specific equipment and facilities Integrated circuits development, 24, 25, 29, 32, 111, 229 transport-related limits, 252–53 Interfacial studies composites, 84, 86 fracture mechanisms, 246 materials processing, 225 polymers, 84 quantum calculations, 273 semiconductors, 90 Interior Department (DOI), 66, 164, 165, 197 Intermetallic compounds, 79, 112

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials International comparisons competitive status, 199–204 cooperative research mechanisms, 197–99 countries surveyed, 186, 199 crystal growth, 98 high-modulus polymer fibers, 233–34 instrument development, 135–36, 138, 256, 257, 260–68 materials science and engineering, 9–10, 188–97 neutron scattering research, 180 priority technologies, 167, 204 steel industry, 232–33 survey findings, 186–88, 204–5 synthesis and processing, 210, 226–27 synthesis of new materials, 214–15 International Congress on Electron Microscopy, 265 Inventory and Analysis of Materials Life Cycle Research and Development (COMAT), 172 Inventory and Analysis of Materials Life Cycle Research and Development in the Federal Government (COMAT), 164 Ion beam deposition, 125, 129, 237 Ion beam equipment, 74 Ion bombardment, 131 Iowa State University Laboratory at Ames, 167 Iron, 95 Isostatic pressing, 80, 81, 184 J Japan competitive position, 9, 199–204 crystal growth, 98 high-temperature superconductors, 215 instrumentation, 138, 257, 261, 265 materials processing, 226 materials science regime, 72, 183, 186–88, 192–94, 196, 198, 205 photovoltaic industry, 218 steel industry, 232–33 Japan Industrial Technology Association, 194 Japan Key Technology Center, 194 Japan Research Development Corporation, 193 Joining processes, 87, 130 Joint ventures, 187, 198, 205 Josephson junctions, 100, 111 K Kernforschungsanlage (West Germany), 263 Kesmodel, L., 263 Kinetic phenomena, 123 Korea. See South Korea Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 194 L Laboratories education component, 152–53 industry labs, 173, 214 instrumentation needs, 133, 135 See also Funding and institutions Lanthanum hexaboride, 133 Laser-assisted chemical processing, 223 Lasers, 30, 32, 97, 111, 126, 131, 184, 221 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 167, 181, 258 Layered structures, 79 Lead industry, 78, 237–38 Leybold-Heraeus (West Germany), 263, 264 Licensing arrangements, 187, 205 Life scientists, 144 Link program (U.K.), 192 Liquid-phase epitaxy, 125, 236 Lithium niobate, 64, 98 Lithography, 88, 89, 92 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 181 Low-energy electron diffraction, 135, 261, 264 Low-energy electron microscope, 266 Low-noise detectors, 96 Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, 125 M Machine equipment, 123, 136. See also Instrumentation Machining processes, 123, 131 Macromechanics, 251–54 Magnesium alloys, 127, 129, 231 Magnetic materials, 21, 94–96, 129, 231 Magnetic superconductors, 100

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials Magnetohydrodynamics, 77 Magnetooptic storage, 95 Major Facilities for Materials Research and Related Disciplines (NRC), 181 Management and Budget, Office of, 196 Manpower and education, 141–42, 160–61 continuing education, 157–58 degree production, 7, 8, 144–47 findings and recommendations, 14–18 government role, 16–18 graduate education, 7, 15, 154–57 industry role, 15 international comparisons, 187–88, 195 materials performance programs, 243, 245 personnel needs, 1, 7–8, 73 personnel statistics, 33–34, 142–44 precollege education, 158–59 professional societies role, 159–60 steel industry, 233 synthesis and processing programs, 15, 210, 213, 224 textbooks, 15, 152, 158, 161 undergraduate education, 7, 15, 147–54 universities’ role, 14–15, 71, 73 Manufacturing processes analysis and modeling, 71, 74–76, 78, 109, 123, 124, 278–79 research needs, 184 See also Synthesis and processing Martensitic steels, 246 Mass transport mechanisms, 123 Materials and Structures Science and Technology Program, DOD, 168–69 Materials Education Council, 158 Materials processing. See Synthesis and processing Materials Research Division (DMR), NSF, 137, 170, 257, 260, 265 Materials research groups, 170–71 Materials research laboratories, 13, 72, 156, 170, 174, 176–77, 259 Materials Research Society, 34, 148, 157 Materials removal, 131 Materials science and engineering basic science role in, 110–11 career opportunities, 141–42, 160 field characterized, 5–6, 27–33, 139–40 national initiative recommendation, 10–12 report summarized, 1–3, 34 Materials Science Division (MSD), DOE, 167–68, 260 Materials synthesis. See Synthesis and processing Max Planck Institutes (West Germany), 72, 190, 258 Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics Division, NSF, 170 Melt atomization, 81 Melt processing, 80, 81, 225 Memory chips, 88 Mercury, 30, 99 Metal alloys, 41, 248–49 Metallic glass, 230 Metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition, 129 Metallo-organic molecular beam epitaxy, 125 Metallurgists, 32 Metal matrix composites, 41, 57 Metals biomedical applications, 105–6 ductile-brittle transition, 248–49 ductile rupture, 248 electronic systems applications, 93 injection molding, 130 properties, 112 rapid solidification, 110, 128–29, 184, 225, 230–31 recycling technology, 238 thermal deposition, 223 ultrapure materials, 127 vapor purification processes, 130 Metals industry economic impact, 36–37 materials processing role, 225, 237–38 materials role, 37–38, 60 needs, opportunities, and issues, 39, 60–61, 70–73, 184 research opportunities, 77–80 status, 57–60 survey overview, 3, 35–36 synthesis role in, 213 Metastable structures, 127–28, 272 Michelson Laboratory, 266 Microelectronics. See Electronic materials; Electronics industry Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, 72, 198, 205 Micromechanics, 126, 244, 247–51 Microscopic porosity, 92 Microstructure formation, 81, 118, 274–76 Military needs. See National security concerns

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials Mines and Resources Department (Canada), 189 Minister of Posts and Telecommunications (Japan), 194 Ministry of Defense (U.K.), 192 Ministry of Education (France), 191 Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture (Japan), 193 Ministry of Higher and Secondary Education (U.S.S.R.), 195 Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) (Japan), 72, 193–94, 196, 198, 199 Ministry of Research and Technology (France), 191 Ministry of Research and Technology (West Germany), 189–90 Ministry of State for Science and Technology (Canada), 189 Modeling. See Analysis and modeling Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) ab initio modeling, 273 instrumentation, 74, 174, 183–84, 261 materials processing applications, 125, 225, 236–37 semiconductor fabrication, 65, 89 surface modification, 223 vapor-solid processing, 129 Molecular bonding, 32 Molecular composites, 85 Molecular precursors, 126–27, 220–21 Molybdenum, 92 Monte Carlo techniques, 84, 95 Mueller, 264, 267 Muller, Karl Alex, 100 Multilayers, 95 Multinational corporations, 198 Multiquantum wells, 96–97 Multitechnology chips, 219 N Nanocomposites, 75 Nano-crystalline structures, 128 Nanometer-scale structures, 119, 121 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 66, 69–70, 164, 165, 197, 204 National Bureau of Standards (NBS), 17, 262, 263, 267 National Critical Materials Act of 1984, 17, 197 National Critical Materials Council, 17, 18, 167, 197 National Engineering Laboratory (U.K.), 192 National facilities, 68, 170, 174, 180–83 National Institute for Research in Inorganic Materials (Japan), 193 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 199 facilities and research, 14, 179, 181, 182 instrument development, 258 support activities, 17, 18, 72, 197, 205 National Institutes of Health laboratories, 18, 72, 265 National laboratories establishment of, 176 focus and support, 14, 17–18, 68, 72, 124, 197 instrument development, 12, 257–58 international comparisons, 192, 193, 205 materials processing capability, 225 National Magnet Laboratory, 181 National Materials and Minerals Policy, Research and Development Act of 1980, 196–97 National Physical Laboratory (U.K.), 192 National Research Council (Canada), 189 National Research Council (U.S.) (NRC), 18, 181, 196 National Research Development Corporation (U.K.), 192 National Research Institute for Metals (Japan), 193 National Science Foundation (NSF), 18 funding data, 164–66, 170–71, 197, 259 instrumentation support, 135, 137, 257, 259, 260, 265, 266 research support, 72, 152, 155, 159, 176, 177, 197, 199, 215 National security concerns, 3 electronics industry, 51 industry targeting, 71 materials needs, 65–68 materials synthesis role, 219–20 U.K. expenditures, 166, 192 U.S. expenditures, 197 National Synchrotron Light Source, 68, 181, 182 National Technological University, 158 Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Canada), 189

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials Naval Research Laboratory, 182 Navy Department, 169, 179 Near-net-shape forming, 70, 75, 128, 238 Neodymium-iron-boron compounds, 21, 96, 133 Netherlands, 262–63 Net shape forming, 77 Neutron research facilities, 68, 174, 180, 181, 183 Neutron scattering, 101 New materials synthesis, 214–15 New structures, 127–28 Nickel-aluminum alloy, 246 Nickel-based superalloys, 129, 231, 237 Niobium-germanium, 99 Niobium-tin, 100 Niobium-titanium, 100 Nobel prizes, 30, 114, 174, 255, 262 Nondestructive testing, 81, 254 Nonequilibrium processes analysis and modeling, 271, 273, 277 ceramics processing, 80 characterization techniques, 118 research opportunities, 225 solidification processing, 128–29, 230–31 Nonergodic phase transitions, 96 Nonlinear optics, 97, 98, 127, 221 North American Rockwell, 264 Nuclear fusion, 219 Nuclear magnetic resonance, 118 Nuclear Science Research Center (West Germany), 190 Nuclear waste disposal, 76, 218 Nuclear weapons technology, 67–68 Nucleation, 80, 128, 130, 247, 250 O Office of. See specific office names Omicron (West Germany), 264 Onnes, H.Kamerlingh, 99 Optical attenuation, 96, 97 Optical bistability, 97 Optical fibers materials processing role, 228, 229 nonlinear phenomena, 97 properties and performance, 23, 96 Optimization theory, 272 Optoelectronic devices, 125, 236 Optoelectronic materials, 98, 225 Organic nonlinear optical materials, 127, 221 Organic photoresist materials, 88 Organometallic precursors, 126, 221 Oxidation, 252–53 Oxide abrasive materials, 129 P Packaging technology, 91–93, 216–17, 220 Packard Committee, 258 Palladium, 122 Palmberg, 264 Pattern formation, 249, 270 Pennsylvania State University, 267 Performance. See Properties and performance Peria, W., 264 Personnel needs. See Manpower and education Petroff, P., 265 Phase transformations, 123 Phase transitions research, 84, 85, 271 PHI Corporation, 264, 267 Phonons, 126, 237 Photo-ferroelectric effect, 97 Photolithography, 24, 52 Photonic materials, 96–98 Photonics industry, 10 Photonic switching, 64, 97 Photorefractive effect, 97, 98 Photoresists, 88, 217 Photovoltaic technology, 218–19 Physical vapor deposition, 129, 225 Piezoelectric polymers, 83 Piper, W., 263 Plasma-assisted vapor deposition, 129 Plasma chemistry, 52 Platinum, 122 Polyethylene fiber, 86, 233, 239, 250 Polymers adhesives, 83 aerospace industry applications, 42 automotive applications, 6, 217 biomedical applications, 45, 84, 103–5 chemical industry applications, 38, 50 composites, 49, 83–84 high-modulus polymer fibers, 233–34, 239 materials processing role, 225, 238–41 molecular precursors, 126–27, 220–21 new structures, 127 packaging technology, 92–93, 216–17 polymer-modified concrete, 121

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials properti es and performance, 20, 82, 113, 250 research needs and opportunities, 27, 82–85, 184 superconducting structures, 103 synthesis, 212 ultrapure materials, 127, 221 Polymethyl methacrylate, 250 Polystyrene, 250 Polyvinylidenefluoride, 219 Precollege education, 158–59 President’s Commission on Industrial Competitiveness, 186 Pressing processes, 130–31 Prime Minister, Office of (Japan), 193 Processing equipment, 136 Production processes, 75 Productivity, 6, 24, 123, 166 Professional societies, 18, 158, 159, 161 Properties and performance, 28, 32–33, 71 analysis and modeling, 138 atomistic studies, 246 ceramics, 80, 248 ceramic substrates, 91–92 composites, 86 cutting tool speeds, 23–24 macromechanics, 251–54 manpower and education, 245 mechanisms studied, 245–46 micromechanics, 247–51 modern materials, 19–27 polymers, 82–83, 250 polymer substrates, 92 research needs and opportunities, 3, 11–12, 112–16, 140, 242–45 silicon, 88 structural materials, 75 what constitutes, 5, 112, 114 Propst, F., 263 Propulsion technology, 75 Pseudopotential calculations, 272 Public Broadcasting Service, 159 Public sector materials needs, 65–73 Pultrusion, 240 Q Quantum Hall effect, 6, 30, 114 Quantum mechanics, 28, 29, 111, 118, 270–73 Quasi-crystals, 110, 118–19, 128, 129, 231 R Radioactive waste disposal, 76, 218 Random spin glass interactions, 96 Rapid solidification, 80, 110, 128–29, 184, 225, 230–31 Rare earth/cobalt alloys, 21 Rare-earth-doped optical fibers, 97 Reaction injection molding, 225, 239 Recycling technology, 238 Regional Industrial Expansion Department (Canada), 189 Reptation, 84 Research and Advanced Technology, Office of, 169 Research and development analysis and modeling, 138–39 automotive industry, 43–44 biomaterials, 103–8 commercial exploitation, 187 cooperative research, 4, 15–18, 71, 124, 156, 187, 191, 197–99, 205 electronic materials, 88–89 government role, 16–18, 71, 72 industry role, 15, 71 instrumentation, 123, 133–38 international comparisons, 39, 186–95 magnetic materials, 94–96 photonic materials, 96–98 properties and performance, 112–16, 242–45 research areas, 3–5, 74–75, 108–12, 139–40 structural materials, 75–88 structure and composition, 116–21 superconducting materials, 99–103 synthesis and processing, 121–33, 216–23, 234–41 universities’ role, 14–15, 71–72 U.S. regime summarized, 195–97 Research and Development agency (U.K.), 191 Research settings. See Funding and institutions Rheological behavior, 123 Rhodium, 122 Rice University, 267 Robotization, 79 Rohrer, H., 255, 262 Rolling operations, 78, 80, 238, 250 Room-temperature semiconductor lasers, 96

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials S Scanning Auger spectroscopy, 264 Scanning force microscope, 108 Scanning transmission electron microscopy, 265–66 Scanning tunneling microscope, 30, 74, 76, 108, 116, 255, 262 Science and Technology Agency (Japan), 193 Science and Technology Council (Japan), 193 Science and Technology Policy, Office of, 18, 164, 196, 258 Science Council (Japan), 193 Seitz, F., 272 Self-induced transparency, 97 Self-organizing polymers, 239 Sematech, 168, 198 Semiconductor Research Corporation, 72, 198, 205 Semiconductors artificially structured materials, 125–26, 236–37 crystal growth, 128 industry competitiveness, 51–52 processing equipment, 136 quantum calculations, 273 research discoveries, 29, 30, 32 research opportunities, 88–91 surface passivation, 222 ultrapure materials, 127, 220 Semisolid metals and composites, 183 Sensing devices, 27, 123–24, 219, 254 Shape-limited synthesis, 221–22 Shaping operations, 78, 238 Shear localization, 249, 250 Silicon, 88, 98, 121, 127, 220, 228 Silicon carbide fibers, 222 Silicon-germanium alloy, 89 Silver, 78 Simulated annealing, 272 Simulation. See Analysis and modeling Single-phase materials, 79 Sintering, 80, 81, 121, 123, 130 Sliding contact, 250 Slip textures, 249 Small group research, 174–76 Solar cells, 97 Solar-electric technologies, 164, 218–19 Sol-gel technology, 80, 81, 121, 184, 213, 222, 223 Solidification microstructure formation, 81, 118, 274–76 rapid solidification, 80, 110, 128–29, 184, 225, 230–31 Solid-phase epitaxy, 125, 237 Solid-state forming processes, 130, 223 South Korea competitive position, 199–202 materials processing, 226 materials science regime, 186–88, 194–95 Soviet Union, 186, 195, 199 Spectral hole burning, 98 Spin glasses, 96 Spin-orbit interactions, 95 Spin-polarized measurements, 266–67 Sputter deposition, 125, 236, 237 Stanford Linear Accelerator, 267 Stanford University, 157 State Committee for Science and Technology (U.S.S.R.), 195 State funding, 171 State Planning Committee (U.S.S.R.), 195 Statistical mechanics, 96, 270–71 Steel industry competitive position, 203 materials processing role, 78, 232–33, 237–38 processing techniques, 121, 130 productivity, 6, 24 Strained-layer superlattices, 89 Strategic Defense Initiative, 191 Strength-to-density ratio, 19–20 Strength-to-weight ratio, 75 Strip casting, 75, 77, 128, 238 Structural materials, 38 performance measurement, 114–15, 243, 245–54 properties and performance, 19–20, 29 research opportunities, 75–88, 220 Structure and composition, 28, 32–33 instrumentation role in, 12 research opportunities, 112, 116–21, 140 what constitutes, 5 Structure-property relationships, 127, 221 Substrate fabrication, 91–93, 122, 216–17, 229 Superalloys, 20, 127 Supercomputers, 76, 111, 123 Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), 100 Superconductivity applications, 38

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials federal funding, 167, 168 Japanese research, 183 research discoveries, 6, 21, 23, 30, 99–100, 114 research opportunities, 99–103, 213, 215, 235 Superhard materials, 128 Superlattices, 89, 95, 273 Surface modification, 107, 222, 223 Surface processing, 129 Surface science, 32, 108 instrumentation, 135, 261–68 quantum calculations, 273 Surveillance devices, 219 Sweden, 263 Switzerland, 215, 266, 267 Synchrotron radiation facilities, 7, 13, 68, 174, 180–82, 184 Synchrotron x-ray beams, 88 Synthesis and processing, 28, 32–33, 115 artificially structured materials, 125–26, 236–37 ceramics, 80–82, 212, 235–36 competitive position, 210, 226–27 composites, 86–88 electrolytic processing, 131, 133 findings and recommendations, 10–11, 209–11 funding and institutions, 210–11, 224–25 historical background, 212–14, 227 joining, consolidation, and materials removal, 130–31 manpower and education needs, 15, 147, 148, 152–54, 161, 210, 224 metals, 77–80, 237–38 new structures, 127–28 personnel needs, 144 photonic materials, 98 polymers, 212, 238–41 research needs and opportunities, 3, 23, 70, 109, 112, 121–25, 140, 184–85, 216–23, 225, 234–41 role in materials research, 214–16 role in technology development, 227–34 semiconductors, 88–91 shape-limited synthesis, 221–22 solidification, 128–29 solid-state forming, 130 substrates, 91–93 superconducting materials, 101, 235 ultrapure materials, 126–27, 220–21 vapor deposition and surface processing, 129–30 what constitutes, 6, 11, 121, 209, 211–12, 224, 226 Synthetic diamond, 131 T Takayanagi, 265 Tank armor, 170 Technology Assessment, Office of, 196 Telecommunications industry economic impact, 36–37 materials processing role, 228, 229 materials role, 38, 63 needs and opportunities, 39, 64, 70–73 optical fiber developments, 23, 25, 96, 228, 229 photonic materials, 96–98 research opportunities and issues, 64–65 scope, 61–63 survey overview, 3, 35–36 Television, educational programs, 159 Telieps, 266 Textbooks, 15, 152, 158, 161 Thermoplastics synthesis, 212 Thin-film heads, 94 Thin films, 79, 213, 218 Titanium, 127, 237 Tokyo Institute of Technology, 265 Tool steels, 129 Topagrafiner, 262 Toughening mechanisms ceramics, 81, 236, 248 metals, 127, 231 polymers, 250 Trade and Industry Department (U.K.), 192 Trade data. See Economic performance Transistors, 228 Transmission electron microscope, 74, 76 Transportation Department (DOT), 66, 68–69 Transportation needs, 68–69, 217–18 Transport coefficients, 274 Triacontahedral faceting, 118–19 Tribology, 250 Tungsten carbide, 133 Turbine blades, 75, 121, 128, 129 Turbine disk design, 278

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials U Ultrafine structures, 129 Ultrapure materials, 126–27, 220–21 Ultrasound, 81 Undergraduate education. See Manpower and education United Kingdom competitive position, 199–202 instrumentation, 265 materials science regime, 186, 191–92 Universities funding, international comparisons, 191–92 industry-university cooperative research centers, 171, 187 instrumentation needs, 135, 153 instrument development, 137–38, 256–61 See also Manpower and education University Materials Council, 152 University of Chicago, 265 University of Illinois, 263 University of Minnesota, 157 University of Pennsylvania, 263 University Research Initiative program, DOD, 137, 178, 260 Uranium chalcogenides, 96 U.S. Scientists and Engineers: 1986 (NSF), 142, 173 V Vacuum arc melting, 127 Vacuum evaporation, 125, 237 Vacuum induction melting, 127 Vacuum melting equipment, 184 Vapor deposition, 80, 81, 123, 129–30 Vapor processing, 80, 129 Varian Corporation, 264 Very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits, 64, 197 VG Instruments (U.K.), 265 Viscoelastic behavior, 84 Visiting scientist program, 179 W Waveguides, 98 Wear mechanisms, 250 West Germany collaborative centers, 72, 183, 188 competitive position, 9, 199–202, 205 instrument development, 258, 263–68 materials science regime, 186, 189–190 Wigner, E., 272 Wilson, 265 XYZ Xerox laboratories, 261 X-Ray Optics Center, 258 X-ray spectroscopy, 182 X-ray tomography, 81, 182 Yagi, 265 Young, R., 262 Zinc industry, 78, 237–38 Zirconia, 81, 213, 236 Zone refining, 127, 228