MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING FOR THE 1990s

Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials

Committee on Materials Science and Engineering

Solid State Sciences Committee

Board on Physics and Astronomy

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources

and

National Materials Advisory Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1989



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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING FOR THE 1990s Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials Committee on Materials Science and Engineering Solid State Sciences Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources and National Materials Advisory Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1989

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW • Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are chosen from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This report was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Energy, the Army Research Office, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-8521440. Additional support came from the National Research Council (NRC) Fund, a pool of private, discretionary, nonfederal funds that is used to support a program of Academy-initiated studies of national issues in which science and technology figure significantly. The NRC Fund consists of contributions from a consortium of private foundations including the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Charles E.Culpeper Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T.MacArthur Foundation, the Andrew W.Mellon Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Alfred P.Sloan Foundation; and from the Academy Industry Program, which seeks annual contributions from companies that are concerned with the health of U.S. science and technology and with public policy issues with technological content. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Materials Science and Engineering. Materials science and engineering for the 1990s: maintaining competitiveness in the age of materials/Committee on Materials Science and Engineering [and] Solid State Sciences Committee, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources, and National Materials Advisory Board, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council. p. cm. ISBN 0-309-03928-2. 1. Materials science. 2. Engineering. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Solid State Sciences Committee. II. National Research Council (U.S.). National Materials Advisory Board. III. Title. TA403.N332 1989 620.1′1–dc20 89–12630 CIP Cover: Computer-generated image of a mathematical model of Scherk’s first minimal surface. (Reprinted, by permission, from Edwin L.Thomas, David M.Anderson, Chris S.Henkee, and David Hoffman, 1988, Periodic Area-Minimizing Surfaces in Block Copolymers, Nature 334:598–601. Copyright © 1988 by Macmillan Magazines Ltd.) Copyright © 1989 by the National Academy of Sciences Printed in the United States of America

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 OFFICE OF THE CHAIRMAN This report, Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials, encompasses a broad enterprise. The field’s intellectual content ranges from the quantized Hall effect to dramatic advances in the performance of high-strength structural materials. The vitality and pace of the field are everywhere evident. The Nobel Committee recognized fundamental advances in materials research for three consecutive years—1985, 1986, and 1987. Success in translating advances in materials science and engineering into new and improved materials is unparalleled. There have been gratifyingly broad applications of new materials in areas with immediate impact on human welfare such as biomaterials, suitable for artificial organs, biochemical sensors, vascular grafts, and ophthalmological devices. Despite the diversity of the field, the report points to unifying trends that emphasize the need for scientists and engineers in universities, government laboratories, and industry to work together closely. In particular, the authoring group, the Committee on Materials Science and Engineering, urged greater efforts by the federal government to coalesce these sectors, and endorsed Congressional efforts to strengthen the coordination of federal agencies that support materials science and engineering. The committee focused its recommendations on synthesis and processing of materials. This is the area that has produced dramatic improvements in superconducting materials, growth in the number of components in integrated circuits, and increases in the strength of structural materials. On the basis of a survey of several key industries, the committee recommended a national initiative in synthesis and processing built on cooperation among universities, industry, and government. We believe that the field of materials science and engineering offers a special opportunity to act on the growing realization of the need for improved coordination and cooperation in the nation’s effort in science and technology. We commend the report to your attention. Frank Press Chairman National Research Council Robert M.White Vice Chairman National Research Council THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL IS THE PRINCIPAL OPERATING AGENCY OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING TO SERVE GOVERNMENT AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS.

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M.White is the president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M.White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials STEERING COMMITTEE FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING ALBERT NARATH, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Co-chairman ARDEN L.BEMENT, JR., TRW, Inc., Co-chairman JOHN H.BIRELY, Los Alamos National Laboratory MORRIS COHEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology WALTER KOHN, University of California WILLIAM P.SLIGHTER, AT&T Bell Laboratories (retired) Ex-Officio Members PRAVEEN CHAUDHARI, IBM T.J.Watson Research Center, Co-chairman, Committee on Materials Science and Engineering MERTON C.FLEMINGS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Co-chairman, Committee on Materials Science and Engineering HERBERT H.JOHNSON, Cornell University, Chairman, Solid State Sciences Committee BERNARD H.KEAR, Rutgers University, Chairman, National Materials Advisory Board NORMAN F.RAMSEY, Harvard University, Chairman, Board on Physics and Astronomy DONALD C.SHAPERO, Staff Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy KLAUS M.ZWILSKY, Staff Director, National Materials Advisory Board COMMITTEE ON MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PRAVEEN CHAUDHARI, IBM T.J.Watson Research Center, Co-chairman MERTON C.FLEMINGS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Co-chairman MELVIN BERNSTEIN, Illinois Institute of Technology MARTIN BLUME, Brookhaven National Laboratory ALAN CHYNOWETH, Morris Research & Engineering Center, Bell Communications Research, Inc. W.DALE COMPTON, Purdue University ROBERT S.HANSEN, Iowa State University JOHN HULM, Westinghouse Electric Research and Development Center R.GLEN KEPLER, Sandia National Laboratories JAMES S.LANGER, University of California

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials TERRY L.LOUCKS, Rothschild Ventures GEORGE PARSHALL, E.I.du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. RUSTUM ROY, Pennsylvania State University LYLE H.SCHWARTZ, National Institute of Standards and Technology JAMES O.STIEGLER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory GEORGE WHITESIDES, Harvard University JAMES C.WILLIAMS, General Electric Company DONALD C.SHAPERO, Staff Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy KLAUS M.ZWILSKY, Staff Director, National Materials Advisory Board JACK MOTEFF, NRC Fellow (1985–1987) ARLENE MACLIN, Program Officer (1985–1987) PATRICK RAPP, Program Officer (1988) STEVE OLSON, Consultant (1987–1988) Government Liaison Representatives TED BERLINCOURT, Director, Research and Laboratory Management, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Advanced Technology, Department of Defense ADRIAAN de GRAAF, Division of Materials Research, National Science Foundation B.CHALMERS FRAZER, Solid State Physics and Materials Chemistry, U.S. Department of Energy RICHARD E.HALPERN, National Aeronautics and Space Administration LOUIS C.IANNIELLO, Deputy Associate Director for Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy PAUL MAXWELL, Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives GEORGE MAYER, Director, Materials Science Division, U.S. Army Research Office RICHARD REYNOLDS, Director, Defense Science Office, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ALAN ROSENSTEIN, Air Force Office of Scientific Research AL SCHINDLER, Director, Division of Materials Research, National Science Foundation IRAN THOMAS, Director, Division of Materials Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy DONALD R.ULRICH, Senior Program Manager, Chemical Sciences, Air Force Office of Scientific Research ROBERT WEIGLE, U.S. Army Research Office BEN WILCOX, Assistant Director, Materials Science Division, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials PANEL ON RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES AND NEEDS IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING JAMES S.LANGER, University of California, Chairman GEORGE PARSHALL, E.I.du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., Vice-Chairman JAMES O.STIEGLER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Vice-Chairman SUMNER A.BARENBERG, Baxter Health Care Corporation ELIAS BURSTEIN, University of Pennsylvania PETER CANNON, Conductus Corporation MILDRED DRESSELHAUS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JAMES ECONOMY, University of Illinois GEORGE S.HAMMOND, Allied-Signal, Inc. ARTHUR H.HEUER, Case Western Reserve University JOHN P.HIRTH, Ohio State University PIERRE C.HOHENBERG, AT&T Bell Laboratories IAN HUGHES, Inland Steel Company Research Laboratories ROBERT I.JAFFEE, Electric Power Research Institute JOHN D.JOANNOPOULOS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology HERBERT H.JOHNSON, Cornell University ROBERT A.LAUDISE, AT&T Bell Laboratories CHRISTOPHER MAGEE, Ford Motor Company E.WARD PLUMMER, University of Pennsylvania JAMES R.RICE, Harvard University ROBERT STRATTON, Texas Instruments GARETH THOMAS, University of California MARK WRIGHTON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DONALD C.SHAPERO, Staff Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy KLAUS M.ZWILSKY, Staff Director, National Materials Advisory Board PANEL ON EXPLOITATION OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE NATIONAL WELFARE ALAN G.CHYNOWETH, Morris Research & Engineering Center, Bell Communications Research, Inc., Chairman R.GLEN KEPLER, Sandia National Laboratories, Vice-Chairman JAMES C.WILLIAMS, General Electric Company, Vice-Chairman JOSEPH D.ANDRADE, University of Utah MYLLE H.BELL, Bell South Corporation JOEL CLARKE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology L.ERIC CROSS, Pennsylvania State University

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials THEODORE GEBALLE, Stanford University GORDON H.GEIGER, North Star Steel Company FRANK E.JAMERSON, General Motors Research Laboratories HARRY A.LIPSITT, Wright State University JAMES L.McCALL, Battelle Columbus Division THOMAS C.McGILL, JR., California Institute of Technology JOHN P.RIGGS, Hoechst Celanese Corporation GERD M.ROSENBLATT, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory PALLE SMIDT, Microelectronics Corporation ROBERT STREET, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center HILLIARD WILLIAMS, Monsanto Company ARPAD A.BERGH, Morris Research & Engineering Center, Bell Communications Research, Inc., Consultant DONALD C.SHAPERO, Staff Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy KLAUS M.ZWILSKY, Staff Director, National Materials Advisory Board PANEL ON INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND COMPETITION IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING LYLE H.SCHWARTZ, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Chairman W.DALE COMPTON, Purdue University, Vice-Chairman RUSTUM ROY, Pennsylvania State University, Vice-Chairman JORDAN BARUCH, Jordon Baruch Associates C.PETER FLYNN, University of Illinois RICHARD J.FRUEHAN, Carnegie-Mellon University HERBERT I.FUSFELD, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute SERGE GRATCH, GMI Engineering and Management Institute RUDOLPH PARISER, E.I.du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. R.BYRON PIPES, University of Delaware MAXINE SAVITZ, The Garrett Corporation GABOR A.SOMORJAI, University of California GREGORY STILLMAN, University of Illinois JAMES J.TIETJEN, RCA Laboratories ROBERT WHITE, Control Data Corporation SAMUEL SCHNEIDER, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Consultant DONALD C.SHAPERO, Staff Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy KLAUS M.ZWILSKY, Staff Director, National Materials Advisory Board

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials PANEL ON RESEARCH RESOURCES IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING TERRY L.LOUCKS, Rothschild Ventures, Chairman MARTIN BLUME, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Vice-Chairman GEORGE WHITESIDES, Harvard University, Vice-Chairman BILL R.APPLETON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory ROBERT S.BAUER, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center H.KENT BOWEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology PETER M.EISENBERGER, Exxon Research & Engineering Co. NICHOLAS F.FIORE, Cabot Corporation JOHN J.GILMAN, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory KARL HESS, University of Illinois ISRAEL S.JACOBS, General Electric Research and Development Center J.DAVID LITSTER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology NOEL MacDONALD, Cornell University DENNIS McWHAN, AT&T Bell Laboratories EMIL PFENDER, University of Minnesota BHAKTA B.RATH, Naval Research Laboratories JOHN S.RYDZ, Emhart Corporation ISAAC F.SILVERA, Harvard University RICHARD S.STEIN, University of Massachusetts JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University DONALD C.SHAPERO, Staff Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy KLAUS M.ZWILSKY, Staff Director, National Materials Advisory Board PANEL ON EDUCATION IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING MELVIN BERNSTEIN, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chairman ROBERT S.HANSEN, Iowa State University, Vice-Chairman JOHN HULM, Westinghouse Electric Research and Development Center, Vice-Chairman DIRAN APELIAN, Drexel University ALI S. ARGON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MALCOLM R.BEASLEY, Stanford University GILBERT Y.CHIN, AT&T Bell Laboratories ROBERT CLAGETT, University of Rhode Island ANTHONY G.EVANS, University of California LEROY EYRING, Arizona State University HELLMUT FRITZSCHE, University of Chicago BRUCE N.HARMON, Iowa State University

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials EDWARD J.KRAMER, Cornell University GERALD L.LIEDL, Purdue University KATHLEEN TAYLOR, General Motors Research Laboratory EDWIN L.THOMAS, University of Massachusetts RICHARD E.TRESSLER, Pennsylvania State University KENNETH G.WILSON, Cornell University DONALD C.SHAPERO, Staff Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy KLAUS M.ZWILSKY, Staff Director, National Materials Advisory Board SOLID STATE SCIENCES COMMITTEE HERBERT H.JOHNSON, Cornell University, Chairman BILL R.APPLETON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory MALCOLM R.BEASLEY, Stanford University PRAVEEN CHAUDHARI, IBM T.J.Watson Research Center JOHN K.HULM, Westinghouse Electric Corporation JAMES S.LANGER, University of California J.DAVID LITSTER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology THOMAS J.McCARTHY, University of Massachusetts ALBERT NARATH, AT&T Bell Laboratories ROBERT E.NEWNHAM, Pennsylvania State University PAUL S.PEERCY, Sandia National Laboratories JOHN H.PEREPEZKO, University of Wisconsin E.WARD PLUMMER, University of Pennsylvania JAMES R.RICE, Harvard University GERD M.ROSENBLATT, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory LYLE H.SCHWARTZ, National Institute of Standards and Technology JOHN R.SMITH, General Motors Research Laboratory DONALD C.SHAPERO, Staff Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy ROBERT L.RIEMER, Associate Staff Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy WESLEY MATHEWS, JR., Consultant

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY NORMAN F.RAMSEY, Harvard University, Chairman SAM B.TREIMAN, Princeton University, Vice-Chairman ROBERT K.ADAIR, Yale University DAVID ARNETT, University of Arizona R.STEPHEN BERRY, University of Chicago WILLIAM F.BRINKMAN, AT&T Bell Laboratories ARTHUR D.CODE, University of Wisconsin JOHN M.DAWSON, University of California FRANK D.DRAKE, University of California ANDREA K.DUPREE, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory BERTRAND I.HALPERIN, Harvard University JOHN J.HOPFIELD, California Institute of Technology KENNETH I.KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory CHARLES F.KENNEL, University of California DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DONALD C.SHAPERO, Staff Director ROBERT L.RIEMER, Associate Staff Director SUSAN M.WYATT, Administrative Associate MARY RIENDEAU, Administrative Secretary ANNE K.SIMMONS, Secretary COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND RESOURCES NORMAN HACKERMAN, Robert A.Welch Foundation, Chairman GEORGE F.CARRIER, Harvard University HERBERT D.DOAN, The Dow Chemical Company (retired) PETER S.EAGLESON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DEAN E.EASTMAN, IBM T.J.Watson Research Center MARYE ANNE FOX, University of Texas GERHART FRIEDLANDER, Brookhaven National Laboratory LAWRENCE W.FUNKHOUSER, Chevron Corporation (retired) PHILLIP A.GRIFFITHS, Duke University CHRISTOPHER F.McKEE, University of California at Berkeley JACK E.OLIVER, Cornell University JEREMIAH P.OSTRIKER, Princeton University Observatory FRANK L.PARKER, Vanderbilt University DENIS J.PRAGER, MacArthur Foundation

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials engineering had changed dramatically since the completion of the COSMAT report. A wealth of new discoveries and technological advances had drawn many new people to the field and had radically altered the field’s concerns and methods. At the same time, a number of industries closely associated with materials science and engineering had undergone similarly dramatic changes—and not always for the better. America’s mining and metals beneficiation industries, its commodity metals industry, its machine tool industry, its computer industry, and its electronics industry, which had been, and still are, major users of the results of materials science and engineering, were all losing major portions of their market shares to overseas competitors and shutting down research operations. Prompted by Fuqua’s letter, the Solid State Sciences Committee, in collaboration with the National Materials Advisory Board, devoted its spring 1985 forum to the question of whether a new survey of materials science and engineering should be conducted and, if so, how it should be structured. At the forum a remarkable degree of unanimity emerged regarding the potential value of such a study, and forum participants outlined a general statement of task for the project. Shortly thereafter, the National Research Council initiated a joint project under the Solid State Sciences Committee and the National Materials Advisory Board to conduct a survey along the lines suggested, and funding was obtained from the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, as well as from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Army Research Office, and the National Research Council. The National Research Council’s principal goal for the study was to present “a unified view of recent progress and new directions in materials science and engineering.” Among the specific issues identified in the charge were areas of research and development particularly ripe for important advances; relationships among the various elements of materials research and development; the roles of the federal and private sectors, particularly as they relate to a balanced national materials effort; the effectiveness of the materials infrastructure in developing and commercializing new materials technologies; the effectiveness of materials research and education at universities; and international cooperation and competition in materials science and engineering. The Committee on Materials Science and Engineering was constituted by the National Research Council with a special focus on the unity of materials science and engineering. The committee was carefully balanced with respect

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials to several different factors including the range of disciplines that conduct materials science and engineering, the variety of institutions in which these activities take place, and the scope of the field from science to engineering. By the summer of 1986, a committee of 17 eminently qualified individuals representing government, industry, and academia had been formed. In addition, a steering committee was established to provide oversight and guidance throughout the committee’s deliberations. One of the first and most challenging tasks facing the committee was to find a way of breaking down a subject as large and complex as materials science and engineering into manageable parts. The committee formed five panels, each of which examined an important area of the field that cut across all materials classes and ranged from science to engineering to industrial practice. The Panel on Research Opportunities and Needs in Materials Science and Engineering identified research areas of national importance in materials science and engineering and evaluated opportunities and needs in the field. The Panel on Exploitation of Materials Science and Technology for the National Welfare examined the links between scientific advances and economically competitive products and processes and other ways in which materials science and engineering affects the national well-being. The Panel on International Cooperation and Competition in Materials Science and Engineering outlined the global dimensions of the field, particularly as it affects industrial competitiveness in the United States. The Panel on Research Resources in Materials Science and Engineering assessed the resources available now and in the future for materials science and engineering in terms of facilities, instrumentation, and funding at universities, national laboratories, and industrial laboratories. The Panel on Education in Materials Science and Engineering considered personnel issues and the means by which future generations of materials scientists and engineers are to be educated. The leadership of each panel consisted of one chairman and two vice chairmen drawn from the committee (the two committee co-chairmen were the only committee members not serving on a panel). Panel leaders included one person from industry, one from a government laboratory, and one from academia. In turn, the National Research Council appointed a balanced panel, and the panels conducted meetings and surveys, commissioned papers, and gathered data. In this way, a broad cross section of the materials community was involved in the preparation of this report (there were 109 formally constituted committee and panel members and nearly 400 other individuals who contributed to the study). The co-chairmen of the committee and the committee members also appeared before a number of professional societies to present status reports on the committee’s deliberations and to encourage participation and feedback. Each panel produced a major report on its assigned issue, and these panel reports form the basis for this report. However, this report is not organized

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials strictly along the lines of the issues assigned to the panels. As intended, there was considerable overlap among the panels, an overlap that contributed to the richness of the committee’s conclusions. This report builds on that overlap to provide a committee consensus of all of the panels’ conclusions. Although the findings of particular panels may contribute more heavily to some of the chapters in this report than to others, in effect, each of the panels contributed to each of the chapters of this report. The introduction to the report briefly reviews the contents of the chapters. We would like to mention one issue that arose from the work of the Panel on Research Opportunities and Needs in Materials Science and Engineering and the work of the Panel on International Cooperation and Competition in Materials Science and Engineering that is treated in Chapter 2. The work of these panels uncovered significant issues with regard to competitiveness. One of the committee’s conclusions is that better integration of materials science and engineering with the rest of business operations is needed to improve the positions of U.S. firms in domestic and international competition; the objective is to strengthen long-range R&D in industry. Other issues of competitiveness emerged that are alluded to above and that have more to do with the entire structure and climate of industry in the United States. These issues are profound and deserve more attention than a study whose scope is limited to materials science and engineering can give them. As would be expected for a diverse field such as materials science and engineering, the findings range over many topics, and the recommendations are broad in character. In the spirit that has characterized the whole endeavor of the Committee on Materials Science and Engineering, this report is offered with the hope that its important recommendations will be adopted and implemented in ways that will benefit the United States. PRAVEEN CHAUDHARI MERTON FLEMINGS Co-chairmen Committee on Materials Science and Engineering

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials Acknowledgments Successful completion of this report involved the contributions of many. The work of the committee was supported by National Research Council staff members Arlene Maclin, Jack Moteff, and Pat Rapp as well as Board on Physics and Astronomy and National Materials Advisory Board directors Don Shapero and Klaus Zwilsky. The editing team included Roseanne Price, Susan Maurizi, and Susan Wyatt. Writer Steve Olson’s work in synthesizing the reports of the five panels was indispensable. Oversight by a steering committee co-chaired by Arden Bement and Al Narath helped at several crucial junctures along the way to completing the project. A critical review process overseen by the Report Review Committee contributed to the refining of this report. The National Academy Press staff designed the book and brought it through production. The Committee on Materials Science and Engineering would also like to thank the following members of the materials community for their assistance in providing information for this report: Aerospace Industry Subpanel members Peter Cannon (Chairman), Donald P.Ames, Andrew Baker, Arden Bement, Wayne Burwell, Richard Delasi, Russell Duttweiller, Richard Hartke, Stephen Lukasik, Edith Martin, Robert Sprague, Earl Thompson, James Whitesides, and Carl Zweben; Automotive Industry Subpanel members C. Magee (Chairman), P.Beardmore, H.Cook, J.Hunter, M.Liedtke, A. McLean, G.Robinson, and R.Sjoberg; Biomaterials Industry Subpanel members S.Barenberg (Chairman), J.Andrade, P.Bosen, R.Crowninshield, P.Galetti, W.Grantz, A.Haubold, M.Helmus, R.Kronenthal, J.Lemmons, L.Lynch, E.Mueller, M.Ostler, M.Refojo, S.Shalaby, J.Shaw, and J. Williams; Chemistry Subpanel members George Hammond (Chairman), James

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials Clovis, Ted Evans, Edith Flanigen, Lawrence Hare, Harris Hartzler, Robert Jannson, Donald McLemore, and Lloyd Robeson; Electronics Industry Subpanel members Bob Stratton (Chairman), Al Cho, Dick Delagi, William Gallagher, Kent Hansen, Webb Howard, Howard Huff, Milo Johnson, Bill Mitchell, Elsa Reichmanis, Bob Rosenberg, Ralph Ruth, and Pei Wang; Energy Industry Subpanel members R.Jaffee (Chairman), E.DeMeo, B. Kear, W.Liang, R.Richman, J.Roberts, and D.Shannon; Metals Industry Subpanel members Ian Hughes (Chairman), Philip Abramowitz, Yaz Bilimoria, Larry Hicks, Noel Jarrett, John Mihelich, Neil Paton, and Joseph Winter; and Telecommunications Industry Subpanel members Robert Laudise (Chairman), Glenn Cullen, Barry Dunbridge, Kenneth Jackson, Charles Jonscher, Robert Maurer, Gregory Stillman, and Jack Wernick. In addition, the committee would like to thank those who participated in the workshop held by the Panel on Materials Research Opportunities and Needs in Materials Science and Engineering: Harry Allcock, Sumner Barenberg, Malcolm Beasley, H.Kent Bowen, Morris Cohen, Lance Davis, Frank Di Salvo, Anthony Evans, Paul Fleury, John Hirth, John Joannopoulos, Frank Karasz, Bernard Kear, David Litster, Alex Maradudin, Robert Mehrabian, Raumond Orbach, Richard Osgood, John Quinn, John Silcox, Robert White, and James Williams. The committee is also grateful to the participants of the two workshops held by the Panel on Exploitation of Materials Science and Technology for the National Welfare: Workshop on Technological Innovations and Technology Transfer participants Alan Chynoweth (Chairman), Michael Chartock, Joel Clark, J.William Doane, Ted Geballe, Harry Gibson, Lyman Johnson, Harry Lipsitt, Stewart Miller, Phillip Parrish, John Riggs, Palle Smidt, Robert Sundahl, and Port Wheeler; and Workshop on Institutional Aspects of Technology Transfer participants Alan Chynoweth (Chairman), Gordon Geiger, Sigfried Hecker, Herb Johnson, Ronald Kerber, Bob McKee, Richard Pitler, Vince Russo, Larry Sumney, Douglas Walgren, and Karl Willenbrock. Thanks are also extended by the committee to those who participated in case studies, including C.Flynn, G.Somorjai, W.Dennis, H.Paxton, and L.Kuhn. We acknowledge with gratitude the help of A.Malozemoff and R.Rosenberg with writing sections of this report. PRAVEEN CHAUDHARI MERTON FLEMINGS Co-chairmen Committee on Materials Science and Engineering

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials Contents     SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS   1     Summary,   1     Conclusions,   3     Recommendations,   10 1   WHAT IS MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING?   19     Modern Materials,   19     Materials Science and Engineering as a Field,   27     Who Are Materials Scientists and Engineers?,   33     Scope of This Report,   34 2   MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING AND NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND STRATEGIC SECURITY   35     Significance of Materials Science and Engineering in Industry,   35     Significance of Materials Science and Engineering for the Public Sector,   65     Findings,   70 3   RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES AND FUNCTIONAL ROLES OF MATERIALS   74     Structural Materials,   75     Electronic Materials,   88     Magnetic Materials,   94     Photonic Materials,   96     Superconducting Materials,   99     Biomaterials,   103     Findings,   108

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials 4   RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES AND THE ELEMENTS OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   110     Properties and Performance,   112     Structure and Composition,   116     Synthesis and Processing,   121     Common Themes,   133     Findings,   139 5   MANPOWER AND EDUCATION IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   141     Personnel in Materials Science and Engineering,   142     Degree Production in Materials-Related Disciplines,   144     Undergraduate Education in Materials Science and Engineering,   147     Graduate Education in Materials Science and Engineering,   154     Continuing Education in Materials Science and Engineering,   157     Precollege Education,   158     Role of Professional Societies,   159     Findings,   160 6   RESOURCES FOR RESEARCH IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   162     Federal Funding for Research in Materials Science and Engineering,   163     Industrial Funding for Materials Science and Engineering,   171     Research Settings,   174     Federal Laboratories,   178     Major National Facilities,   180     Findings,   183 7   COMPARISONS OF EFFORTS IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF SELECTED NATIONS   186     Materials Science and Engineering Abroad,   188     Materials Science and Engineering in the United States,   195     Mechanisms for Cooperative Research,   197     Comparative Analysis of U.S. Competitive Status in Materials Science and Engineering,   199     Findings,   204

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials     APPENDIXES: ISSUES IN MATERIALS RESEARCH         A SYNTHESIS,   209     B PROCESSING,   224     C PERFORMANCE,   242     D INSTRUMENTATION,   255     E ANALYSIS AND MODELING,   269     INDEX   281

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Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING FOR THE 1990s

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