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Cumulative Index A AADI (adjusted acceptable daily intake), (6)171 2-AAF (2-acetylaminofluorene), (6)145 Abbreviations, definitions of, (6)218-219 Abortions, spontaneous, (see spontaneous abortions), (6) ABS, (see acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene). (4) Absorption, (1); (4); (6); (8); (9) of chemical agents. (1)29 extrapolation of, (8) 139- 140 gastrointestinal, (8) 122 measurement by DNA adducts, (9)7 process in GI tract, (6)210-211 rate of, (8) 121 rates, differences between species, (1)32, 53 skin, (8) 122- 123 systemic, (6)257 (see metabolism), (4) Acanthamoeba species, (1) 113 Acceptable daily intake (ADI), (3)2, 25; (5); (6) 171, 254, 257, 296, 410-411 aldicarb, (5) 12; (6)309 arsenic, (5)123 carcinogens, considerations of, (3)36-37 chronic exposure, (3)29-37 di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, (6)358, 410 dose-response methodology, (3)31-37 nitrofen, (6)379 187 no-adverse-effect level, (3)31 p-dichlorobenzene, (5)27 trichlorfon, (6)408 uncertainty factors, (3)36 Acceptable risk, (1)24 Acculturation and hypertension, (1)407-409 Acetaldehyde, (1)686-687; (6)50; (7)152- 153 effects on animals, ( / )687 effects on man, (1)686 Acetic acid (AA), (7) 134- 135 Acetone, chloroform precursors (2) 158 Acetonitrile, (4)202-906; (7)43 health effects, (4)204-205 metabolism, (4)203-204 SNARL, (4)205-206 TWA standard. (4)203 (see also nitrites). (4) 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), (6)145; (9)26, 27 Acetylcholinesterase (6)306; (9) inhibitors, (9) 146- 159 170 Acetylsalicylic acid toxicity, (/)37 ACGIH, (see American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) (1); (3); (6)105 Acicular crystals, (1) 144- 147, 158- 159 Acidity, high pH conditions (2)86 Acinetobacter, (2)309 Acneiform skin eruptions, iodine effects (3)306

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188 CUMULATIVE INDEX A/C pipe, (see asbestos-cement pipe), (4) Acrocyanosis, (1)324 Acrolein, (1)553, 554-556, 798; (7)152 toxicity, (1)554-555 Acroosteolysis, (1)784 Acrylaldehyde, (see acrolein), (1) Acrylamide, (6)118, 297-303; (9)26-27, 61 -63 ADI, (6)410 carcinogenic risk estimate, (6)301-302, 410 carcinogenicity, (6)300 developmental effects, (6)302 health aspects in humans, (6)298-299 health aspects in other species, (6)299- 302 lifetime cancer risk estimate, (6)410 metabolism, (6)298 mutagenicity, (6)300 SNARL, (6)410 studies needed, (6)409 tumor incidence, (6)301 Acrylonitrile toxicity, (3)71-76 Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene pipe, (4)4, 13 ACSL language, (8)232-233 Actinom!'ces, (2)309 Action potential (6) 111 Activated carbon. (see granular activated carbon), (2) Activated charcoal, (2)319 Acute diseases. waterborne, (4)5 bacteria. protozoa, and viruses implicated in, (4)137 defined, (4) 138 outbreaks of, (4) 140- 149 Acute effects, (7) of chlorophenols. (7) 170- 172 of chloropicrin. (7) 165- 166 of haloacetonitriles, (7)159 of haloacids, (7) 138- 139 of haloaldehydes. (7) 146- 147 of haloketones, (7) 155 of monochloramine. (7)93-94, 95 of trihalomethanes, (7) 117- 118 Acute exposure, (3); (9)58 risk estimation, (3)26-28 A:D ratio (ratio of adult to developmental toxicity), (6)28. 273 Additive, (3); (6) effects in drinking water, (3)27 risk, (6)242 Additives, food, ( / ) 15; (9) 123 Adenine arabinoside model, (8)58 Adenomas, hepatocellular, (8)459 Adenoviruses, (1)3, 88, 90, 96, 108 Adequate and safe intake, (3)372 chromium, (3)366, 372 copper, (3)313, 372 fluoride, (3)280, 372 manganese, (3)334, 372 molybdenum, (3)361, 372 potassium, (3)294, 372 selenium, (3)325, 372 sodium, (3)287, 372 ADI (acceptable daily intake), (I ) 15- 16, 492, 701; (3); (6) factors in calculating, (1)15 toxicological evaluation standard. (1) 15 (see acceptable daily intake), (3); (6) Adjusted acceptable daily intake (AADI), (6)171 Administered and delivered doses. (8)330. 447-455 Administered dose, (6)261, 262 Adrenal glands, (1) degeneration, ( / )724 necrosis, ( I )724 ADSIM language, (8)232 Adsorbed compounds. chemical changes, (2)323-324 Adsorbents, (2) adsorption efficiency, (2)337-356 chemical degradation, (2)340 physical degradation, (2)340 water treatment, analytical methods, (2)356-365 Adsorption, ( / ); (2) activated carbon, (2)262 absorbents efficiency (2)337-356 catalysis, on clays, ( / ) 141 competition extent, (2)267 equilibrium models, (2)267 humic acid, by anion exchange resins. (2)342 humic substances, (2)277 isotherms, (2)260-267, 342-343, 348 microbial activity reactions, (2)294-299 microorganisms, (2)9 organic compounds on resin adsorbents. (2)350 pathogenic transport, (I ) 13 percent removal data. (2)347 polymeric adsorbents efficiency. (2)347- 353

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CUMULATIVE INDEX 189 water treatment, (2)256 Adult to developmental toxicity, ratio of (A:D ratio), (6)28, 273 Adverse dose response, defined, (1)802 Aerobacter, (4)29 Aerosols, (1) 140 Afferent nerve fibers, (6)107 Aflatoxin, (9)22, 25, 27 Aflatoxin B1, (6)76 AFP (cx-fetoprotein), (6)47 Aged nervous system, (6) 124- 125, 126- 127 Aggregates, disinfection effects, (2)9- 11 Aggressiveness Index, (4) 19 A/C pipe and, (4)20-21, 49-57, 61 A/C pipe degradation and, (4)44-45, 58 adjustment, (4)58 applications of, (4)20-23 Agonists, (6) 121 AHH (aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase), (6)318 Air, (6); (8) excretion into, (8) 142- 143 exposure through, (6)260 PCP concentrations in, (6)384 Air pollution, (1)373; (2) control, (2)270-271, 332-336 interaction with cigarette smoking, (1)50 Alachlor, (1)525, 527-530 dose effects, (1)527-528, 796 toxicity data, (1)529 Alcaligenes, (2)309 Alcohol, (1); (3) ethyl, (see acetaldehyde), (1) interactive effects, (1)50 magnesium depletion effects, (3)274 Aldehydes, (1)553; (2) chlorite reactions, (2) 195 Aldicarb, (1)635, 637-643; (5)9, 10-12; (6)303-309; (9)133, 134, 157-158 acute effects, (5)11 ADI, (5) 12; (6)309, 410 anticholinesterase activity, (5) 10- 12 carcinogenic risk estimate, (6)410 carcinogenicity, (1)641; (5)11; (6)305 chronic effects, (5)11 developmental effects, (6)305 effects in animals, (1)639-640 effects in man, (1)638-639 health aspects in humans, (5)10-11; (6)303_304 health aspects in other species, (6)304 305 metabolism, (5) 10 mutagenicity, (5)11, 99; (6)305 SNARL, (5)12, 98; (6)410 studies needed, (6)409 teratogenicity, (5)11 toxicity data, (1)643 Aldosteronism, magnesium malabsorption, (3)273 Aldrin, (see cyclodienes), (1) Algae, (1)63; (4) growth in reservoirs, (4)98-99, 124, 141 polysaccharides produced by, (4) 113 removal, (1) 185 Alicyclics, (4)247, 251 Aliphatic compounds, (2)222-226; (9)65-67 Alkaline earth, (1) elements, isotopes of, (1)868 metabolism, (1)868 Alkalinity, (I); (4) A/C pipe effect on, (4)51 high pH conditions, (2)86 Alkalosis potassium deficiency, (3)295 Alkanes, (4)247, 251 Alkylation, (9)9, 11, 14-15 cross-linking, (9) 16- 17 hemoglobin, (9)25, 26, 42 protamine, (9)26-27 O6-alkylguanine, (9)16, 20-21 Alkylmercury compounds, (1)274-275, 278 Allometric, (6); (8) equations, (8)66-67 relationships, (6) 193- 194 Allometry, (8)65-78 valid and invalid extrapolations of, (8)141 Allyl chloride, (8) 176- 179 Alpha activity, gross, (1)870 Aluminum, (1)210-212, 218; (3); (4)95, 155-167 chloride, (4) 164 daily intake, (4) 156 fluoride interaction, (3)282 health effects, (4) 158- 166 metabolism, (4) 157- 158 nitrate, (4) 164 phosphorus interaction, (3)278 salts, (4) 156, 163 SNARL, (4) 166 sources in human diet, (4)156 sulfate~ (1) 106; (4) 156, 164 uses, (4) 156, 158 Alveolar, (6); (8) macrophages, (6)207 sacs, (6)205

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190 CUMULATIVE INDEX space mass-balance equation, (8)262 Alveolar Type I cells, (6)205-206 Alveolar Type II cells, (6)205, 206, 207 Alzheimer senile dementia, (4)160, 167; (6) 126 Amberlite polymeric absorbents, (2)340, 343 Amebiasis, (1)113, 120-121; (4)5, 138 Amebic cysts, (1) 113, 185 AMEFF (effective concentration of metabolite), (6) 188, 189 Amercide, (see captan), (1) American Chemical Society, (9) 101 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), (1)230 231; (3)101; (6)105 American Water Works Association, (1)206; (4) on chlorination, (4) 130 specifications for A/C pipe, (4)46 study of asbestos in drinking water, (4)43 Ames salmonella assay, (7)47-49 Amiben, (1)519-521 ADI, (1)520, 796 Amides, (1)525-533 (see also alachlor, butachlor, propachlor, propanil), (1) Amino acids, (7)42-45; (9)25 4-aminobiphenyl, (9)26 Ammonia, (2); (7)14 breakpoint chlorination, (2)20-24, 170 171; (7)28-42 bromine reaction, (2)74, 76, 77 chlorine interaction with, (4)96-97; (7)60-66 chlorine reaction, (2)18-20; (7)28-42 chlorine water treatment process, (2) 167 hypochlorous acid reaction, (2) 19-20 ozone reaction, (2)42 Amosite, (1)144, 151-152, 162, 165 Amperometric methods, (2)23, 54 Amphiboles, (1) 145- 150, 184 Amsterdam, Netherlands, pilot plants, (2)300 Analytical methods, (2)7 (see also individual disinfection methods), (2) Anatomical models, lower respiratory tract, (8)305-307 Ancylostoma duodenale, (1 ) 115 Androgen-binding protein, (6)56 Androgens, (6)46-48 Anemia, (1)238, 249; (3) aplastic, (1)586 hemolytic, (1)682 iron deficiency, (3)309 manganese interaction, (3)336 myelocytic, (1)688 Anesthetic gases, (6)72 Aneuploidy, (6) 142- 143 Angiosarcoma, (1); (8)456-457 hepatic, (1)784 Animal(s), (8); (9) adduct concentration in target tissues, (9)52 anticholinesterases, (9) 149- 151, 170 carcinogenic risk bioassays and estimates, (9)7-8, 9, 27, 99-100, 163, 164 chronic exposure, (9)21 -22, 170 DNA adducts as dosimeters, (9)6, 27 DNA adducts, specific, (9)61-77 extrapolation to humans, (9) 109, 110, 112-114 no-observable-effect levels (NOELs) for, (8)4-5 pharmacokinetic studies in, (8)407-408 polymorphisms in, (8~)146 single-dose exposure, (9)21 tumorigenesis, (9)4, 19-21 Animal data, (6)36 bioassays, (6)5, 151 - 152 concordance of results from human studies and, (6)20-22 dose-response patterns in, (6) 15- 18 extrapolation of, to humans, (6)18-22 health aspects in, (see health aspects in other species), (6) interpretation of, (6)22-28 interspecies extrapolation, (6) 133, 177, 193-201, 264-266 intraspecies extrapolation, (6)264-266 male reproductive toxicity in, (6)57-59 mouse liver model, (6) 145- 147 mouse skin model, (6)143-145 neurotoxicity in, (6) 131 - 133 quality and quantity of, (6)22-25 rat liver model, (6)145-147 rat physiological constants, (6)169 rat pup, vaginal opening time in, (6)88-89 rat sperm production rates, (6)89-90 using, to predict human risk, (6)143-148, 254-255 Animal effects, application to humans, (1)15, 19, 22, 27-39, 52-54, 55-56, 165-168, 490, 791-792 absorption rates, (1)33-34

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CUMULATIVE INDEX 191 cellular barriers, (1)34 correlating, (1)15, 22 distribution rates, (1)33 excretion rates, (1)33 metabolic differences, (1)30 Animal tests, (1); (3) acrylonitrile, (3)73-76 antimony, (3)78-80 benzene, (3)83-84 benzene hexachloride, (3)87-88 bromodichloromethane, (3) 189 bromoform, (3) 189 cadmium, (3)93-9S carbon tetrachloride, (3)96-97 catechol, (3) 191 - 192 chlorite, (3)194 bis(2-chloroethyl) ether, (3)89 chloroform, (3)203-204 bis(2-chloropropyl) ether, (3)90 design of laboratory experiments, (1)34- 37, 56-57 dibromochloromethane, (3)205 dichlorodifluoromethane, (3) 102- 103 1,2-dichloroethane, (3) 105- 110 epichlorohydrin, (3) 114- 122 ethylene dibromide, (3)99-100 glyoxylic acid, (3)209-210 hexachlorobenzene, (3)211 -214 homogeneity of, (1)30-31 iodine, (3)221-224 lifetime feeding studies, (1)19 lindane, (3)87-88 nonanal, (3)226 number, (1)32 PCB, (3)131-133 PCP in, (6)384 resorcinol, (3)229-230 selecting, (1)34-35 size, (1)31 1,1,1 -trichloroethane, (3) 148- 152 trichloroethylene, (3) 158- 164 trichlorofluoromethane, (3)167 uranium, (3) 176- 177 Anion exchange resins, (2)337, 342 regeneration, (2)345-346 THM studies, (2)344 THMFP studies, (2)344 Anions, inorganic, (1) 138- 140 Anisole, (1) 142 Antabuse (disulfiram), (6)364 Antagonistic, (1); (3) effects in drinking water, (3)27 interactions of water solutes, (1)15 Antagonists, (6) 121 Anthophyllite, (1)144-151, 152 Anthracene, (4)4, 99 Antibodies, (9) immunoassays and, (9)41 monoclonal, (9)23, 40, 41 polyclonal, (9)40, 41, 42 Anticancer therapy, prospective, (8) predictions and validations in, (8)431-440 Anticarie, (see HCB). (1) Anticholinesterase(s), (1); (5); (9)104, 146- 159, 170 compounds, (see aldicarb, carbofuran, methomyl), (5) effects, (1)605 Anticonvulsants? magnesium use, (3)274 Antigens, (9) B(xP-DNA, (9)23, 24 Antimony toxicity, (3)77-80 Antineoplastic agents, (6)3. 44-45 Antiserum, (9)41 Antofagasta, Chile, arsenic in drinking water, (3)338 Aphelenchus species, (I ) 116 Apparent volume of distribution. (8)31 Aqueous chloramine, (2) 174- 181 (see also chloramines), (2) Aqueous chlorine, (2) 145- 149 (see also chlorine), (2) Aqueous chlorine dioxide, (2) hydrocarbons reactions, (2) 198 properties, (2) 190- 194 (see also chlorine dioxide), (2) Area under the rate-of-metabolism curve (AURMC), (6) 175 Area under the target-tissue metabolite- concentration curve (AUTMC), (6)176 Area under the tissue-concentration curve (AUTC), (6) 174- 175; (8) 11 Areas under concentration-time curves (AUCs), (8)256, 471-472 Argyria, (1)290-291 Armitage-Doll multistage model. (6)251; (8)443 Aroclor, (3)131-133 Aromatic amines, (9)22, 25, 38, 42~ 49 Aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum, (4)247 248, 249, 252 Arrhythmias, cardiac, (1)782; (5)75 Arsenic, (1)28, 54, 212, 316-344, 428-430;

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192 CUMULATIVE INDEX (3); (4)95, 167; (5)viii, 1, 7, 118-123; (6); (9)74-75 absorption, (1)319 beneficial effects, (1)340-341 biotransformations, (1)320 carcinogenic risk estimate, (5) 122 carcinogenicity, (1)326-331, 336, 339, 429-430 chemical interactions, (1)340 essentiality, (5) 121, 123 lung cancer, (5) 118 maximum contaminant level, (5)121 mutagenicity, (1)331-333, 339, 429 poisoning, (6)230 teratogenicity, (1)339-340, 429 toxicity, (1)320-326, 333-336, 429 trioxide toxicity, (3)342 Arsenic compounds, (I) arsenates, (1)319-320 arsenic trioxide, (1)319, 328 arsenites, (1)319-321 arsines, (1)321 arsonium, (1)321 Arsenic nutrition, (3)337-345, 374-377 cadmium interaction, (3)344 Arterial blood, (6); (8) blood concentration, (6)183 mass-balance equation (8)262 Arteriosclerotic stroke, risk estimate studies, (3)22 (see also cardiovascular disease), (3) Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), (6)318 Asbestiform, (1) 144 Asbestos, (1) 13 144- 168; (3); (4)6; (5)viii, 1, 7, 123-144 amosite. (5) 127, 130- 131, 142 analysis. (1) 155- 159 animal experiments, (5) 141 - 143 aspect ratio, (5) 125 carcinogenic risk estimate, (5) 126- 144 chrysotile, (5) 130- 131, 137, 141, 142 concentrations in water and air, (1)152- 153.189 Connecticut, (5) 135- 136 Duluth, (5) 124, 134- 135 dust and cancer deaths, (1) 160- 163 emission factors. (1)153 endometrial cancer, (5) 137 exposures, (5) 123, 124- 125 gastrointestinal cancer, (5)7, 123, 138, 140-141, 144 health effects including cancer, (1)160- 168, 189-1; (4)3-4, 43, 150 laryngeal cancer, (5) 127 lung cancer, (5) 123, 126- 127, 129, 137 lung problems, (3)356 mesothelioma, (5) 123, 125, 127, 140- 141, 143-144 mineralogy, (1) 145- 150 minerals, (1) 135 occurrence, (1)151-155, 189 oral cancer, (5) 127 Puget Sound area, (5) 137- 139 redistribution, (1) 152- 155 renal cancer, (5) 127 San Francisco Bay area, (5) 125, 136- 137 serpentine rock, (5) 125, 136 solubility, (1) 150- 151 UICC reference samples, (1) 147, 150, 151 Asbestos fibers, (/) experimental studies. ( I ) 163- 168 sampling and analysis, ( / ) 155- 159 Asbestos-cement pipe, (4)2, 42-61 advantages of, (4)45 city water supplies with asbestos concentration from, (4)54 composition, (4)45-46 corrosion, (4)3? 22-23 deterioration control (4)58-60 dissolution reactions in, (4)23 EPA tests of, (4)48, 52 field tests on, (4)49-58 laboratory tests on, (4)47-79 mechanisms of deterioration of, (4)49 types of, (4)46 uses, (4)32, 44 vinyl-lined, (4)3-4 water quality and, (4)22, 46-47, 49 water quality indexes and, (4)22, 23, 49 Asbestosis, (/)160; (5)127 Ascaris lumbricoides, ( 1 ) 1 15; (2)97 Aspergillus niger, (2)97 Asphalt, (4) 12 linings of' (4)74-75 Astrocytes, (6)111-112 Atherosclerosis, (1)244 Atomic-absorption, (1); (9) analytical method (1)226, 227, 235 spectometry' (9)39 Atrazine. (see triazines)~ (1) Atropine, (5) treatment for aldicarb toxicity' (5) 11 treatment for carbofuran toxicity, (5) 13

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CUMULATIVE INDEX 193 Attapulgite, (1) 137 Attributable risk, (6)241-242 AUCs (areas under concentration-time curves), (8)256, 471-472 Aureobasidium pullulans, (I ) 177 AURMC (area under the rate-of-metabolism curve), (6) 175 Australia, hypertension-salt intake effects, (3)290 AUTC (area under the tissue-concentration curve), (6) 174- 175; (8) 11 AUTMC (area under the target-tissue metabolite-concentration curve), (6) 176 Availability, systemic, (8)453 Average concentration, (8)97 AWWA, (see American Water Works Association), (4) Axial dispersion number, (8)87 Axons, (6)107, 110, 111 degeneration of, (6)122 Azinphosmethyl, (1)604-608 carcinogenicity, (1)606 effects, (1)605-606 toxicity data, (1)608 B Bacillus species, (1)67, 85; (2)93, 309; (7)20 Bacillus anthracis, (2)56-57 Bacillus cereus, (2)45, 84 Bacillus megaterium, (2)45 Bacillus mesentericus, (2)56 Bacillus metiers, (2)76 Bacillus subtilis, (2)75-78, 96, 110; (3)120 Back-flow, (4)1 health risk from, (4)16 prevention of, (4) 15 Background response, (see risk estimation), (3) Back-siphonage and back-flushing, (1)117; (4)1 biological material from, (4) 126, 131 health risk from (4) 16, 147 occurrence, (4) 15 Bacteria, (1)13, 63-64, 66-88, 119-120, 179- 181, 186; (2); (4); (7) biofilms and, (4) 112 coliform count, (1)75-76, 119 controlling in water suppl ies, (1) 119- 120 correlations with viruses, (1)110-111 disease potential estimation, (1)69-70 disinfection, (2)12-17; (7)14 dose required for infection, (1)67-69 enteric, (1)67-68 GAC, (2)309 gastrointestinal tracts (1)33 Gram-negative. (2) 15- 16 Gram-positive (2) 15 iron, (4) 14, 29. 122- 123 microbial activity, (2)306-308 Netherlands, effluent, (2)309 nitrate-reducing, (1)417 observed in water distribution system, (4) 122- 123 polysaccharide compounds produced by, (4)113 resistance to disinfectants, (2)17 sensitivity to disinfectants, (2) 15 species in effluents, (2)308-310 standard plate count, (1)120 sulfate-reducing, (4)14, 28 sulfur-oxidizing, (4)29, 122- 123 wastewater treatment, (2)309, (see also biocidal activity), (2) waterborne disease outbreak and, (4)137; (~15 Bakery goods, potassium additives. (3)293 294 Balan (benefin), (see dinitroanilines), (I) Bank filtration, (2)271 B(a)P (benzo(a)pyrene). (6)149 Barbiturates, (3); (6)49 diuretic effects, (3)290 Baritosis, (1)230 Barium, (1)207-208. 210-212, 218, 220- 221, 229-231, 302-305; (4)95. 167- 170 health effects, (4) 168- 169 maximum allowable concentration reevaluated, (4) 167- 168 recommendation pertaining to, (4)168 SNARL, (4) 170 Base exchange capacity, humic substances, (1)170 Base mispairing, (9) 15- 16 BASIC language, (8)231-232 Bayesian methods. (8) 190 BDPF, (see bile duct-pancreatic fluid flow). (3) Beer, (1); (3) cobalt additive in. (/)248 diet, sodium effects, (3)291

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194 CUMULATIVE INDEX Beggiatoa, (see sulfur-oxidizing bacteria), (4) Behavioral teratogens, (6) 106 Behavioral toxicology, (6) 131 Beidellite, (1) 142 Benefin, (see dinitroanilines), (1) Bennington, Vermont, corrosion field study, (4)39 Benzene (BEN), (1)28, 54, 142, 688-691; (2); (3); (4)250, 252; (6)186, 188, 190- 193; (9) 134, 164 airborne, (6)209 carcinogenic risk estimates, (1)690, 794 effects on animals, (1)689 effects on man, (1)688-689 health effects, (4)253-254 homologs, (2)205 metabolism, (4)253 recommendations relating to, (4)254 SNARL, (4)203, 254-255 toxicity, (3)80-86 Benzene hexachloride, (see BHC), (1); (6)230, 232 Benzidine, (1)731; (9)21 Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), (1)691-694; (4); (6)149; (9)17. 21, 23-25, 52, 63-64 carcinogenic risk estimates. (1)692, 794 effects in animals, (1)691 effects in man, (1)691 toxicity data, (1)694 (see also polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons), (1) Benzoics (1)519-525 (see also amiben. dicamba), (1) Beryllium, (I )211 -212, 218 220, 231 -235, 302-303, 305 beryllosis, (1)234 cancers, (1)234 pulmonary sarcoidosis (1)234 Beta activity gross, (1)870 BHC (benzene hexachloride), (1)583, 585- 594; (3) carcinogenic risk estimates, (1)591, 794 carcinogenicity, (1)588-590 effects in animals. (1)587-588 effects in man, (1)586 toxicity, (3)86-88 toxicity data, (1)593-594 BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), (6)148, 207 Biases, (6)238 Bid idobacterium species, (1)75 Bile, (3); (8) duct mass-balance equation, (8)53 duct-pancreatic fluid flow, (3)97 excretion, (8) 116, 122, 142- 143 Binding, (8); (9)3, 27-28, 47 affinity, (8)14 alkylation and, (9)15, 26 B(a)P and tumorigenesis, (9)21, 23-25 co-valent binding, (9)9, 13, 25-26 cytotoxicity, mutation frequency, BPDE I and, (9)17 drug, (8)88-89 genotoxicity and, (9) 18, 49 glycosyl bonds, (9)16 plasma, (8)90 tissue, (8)90 Bioassays, (1)10, 15, 48, 55, 791; (9)17-18, 125 animal carcinogenesis (9)7-8, 9, 27, 99- 100, 163 DNA adducts, (9)38-42 exposure levels measured, (9)5 in vitro short-term, (9) 17- 18 protein adducts, (9)38, 42 sensitivity and specificity, (9)43-47, 50 (see also immunoassays), (9) Bioavailability, (8) fraction of dose absorbed and, (8) 122 gastrointestinal absorption and, (8)122 skin absorption and, (8) 122- 123 Biochemical interactions, toxicity from chemicals, (3)45-56 Biocidal activities, (2)7-17, 112-119; (7) 14-26 bacteria, (see individual agents), (2) bromine, (2)75-81 chloramines, (see chlorine), (2) chlorine, (2)24-36, 40-41 chlorine dioxide? (2)56-61 dichloramine, (see chlorine), (2) disinfection properties, (2) 11, 24-25 efficacy, (2)7 ferrate, (2)84-85 high pH conditions, (2)87-90 hydrogen peroxide, (2)92-94 iodine, (2)61 -71 ionizing radiation, (2)95-97 mechanism of action, (see individual agents), (2) monochloramine, (see chlorine), (2) organic chloramines, (see chlorine), (2) ozone, (2)44-48, 50

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CUMULATIVE INDEX 195 parasites, (see individual agents), (2) potassium permanganate, (2)99-101 silver, (2) 103- 105 UV light, (2)110-111 viruses, (see individual agents), (2) Biocidal dose, UV light, (2)109 Biofilms, (4)5, 109- 123 chemical composition of, (4) 118 chemical properties of, (4) 115- 117, 118 detachment of, (4) 117, 129 fluid frictional resistance affected by, (4)119 fluid shear forces removal of, (4)129 formation, (4)112- 114 fouling of, (4)109, 117, 118, 126-127 physical properties of, (4)115 reactions with chlorine, (4) 126, 128 thermal conductivity of, (4) 115 transport properties of, (4)115 water quality changes from, (4)112 Biogenic substances, aquatic organic compounds, (1)29; (2)164 Biologic dosimeters, (see dosages and dosimetry), (9) Biological, (1); (4); (6) action, mechanisms of, (6)240-241 biofilm processes and, (4) 109- 112 contamination control from, (4) 126- 131 dispersal growth of, (4) 129- 131 material in water distribution system, (4) 109 quality of water, (4)4-5 receptors, (1)29 sources of, (4) 124- 126 toxins, (6) 129 Biologically effective dose, (6)228 Biosorption, (2)295 Bipyridl, (1)543, 544-546 Birth, (1); (6); (8) defects, (1)389-395; (6)36-37 rate for cells, (8)380 Black water, (4)5, 112, 122 Blackfoot disease, (1)325; (5) 119, 121 Bladder, (7)2; (9)102, 147 cancer, national study, (7)57-58, 196-197 Blastocyst formation, (6) 13 Blood, (4); (5); (7); (8); (9) carboxyhemoglobin, (8) 169 carcinogenesis, (9) 164- 165 cells, (9)22, 52, 69 hemoglobin, (9)25-26, 42, 58 lead concentration in, (4) 179 plasma, (9)26 pool mass balance, (8)46-47 urea nitrogen (BUN), (5)35, 47-48; (7)85-86 (see also methemoglobinemia), (4) Blood pressure, (3); (4); (9)77 barium exposure and, (4) 169, 170 sodium effects, (3)288-289 (see also cardiovascular disease), (3) Bloom's syndrome and cancer incidence, (1)43 Blue Plains, Washington, D.C., sewage effluents, (2)157 Body, (8) clearance, total, (8)108, 115 mass dependent metric, (8)70-73 regions, (8)39-44 size, in pharmacokinetic models, (8)65-78 weight (BW), (8)18-19, 209 Bolus administration, (8)43 Bone cancer, (1); (3) disease, (1)282 and radium, (1)17, 894-896. 898 (see also cancer), (3) Boonton, N.J., chlorine gas equipment, (2)18 Boston, Mass., trace metal concentration in water supply, (4)40-41 BPDE (benzo[a]pyrenediolepoxide), (9) 17- 18 Brain, (1); (6)108; (9) disorders, (1)784 tumors, (9)20 Brainstem, (6)108 Breakpoint chlorination, (2)20-23, 170- 171; (7)82 Rhine River water, (2) 159 (see also chlorination), (2) Breakpoint, defined, (7)82 Breast cancer, (1)50-51 Bromacil, (1)537, 540-543 ADI, (1)541 -542, 796 dose levels, (1)540-541, 543, 796 toxicity, (1)543 Bromamine, (1)109; (2) formation, (2) 183 Bromate toxicity, (3) 181 - 187 Bromide, (2)42, 73; (3) toxicity, (3) 181 - 187 Bromination, (1); (2) model compounds, (2) 189 water, (1) 109

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196 CUMULATIVE INDEX Bromine, (1)119, 171; (2); (3); (7) ammonia effects, (2)77 analytical methods, (2)75 biocidal activity, (2)75-81 by-products of disinfection, (2) 182. 184- 189 chemistry, (2)72-74, 182- 189 chloride, (2)72-75, 182- 183 comparative efficacy, (7) 12 c t products? (2)70, 76-80 determination, (2)75 disinfection, (2)36, 72-82 in drinking water disinfection, (7) 13 efficacy against bacteria, (2)75-77 efficacy in demand-free system, (7) 11 efficacy against parasites. (2)79-81 efficacy against virus (2)77-79 mechanism of action, (2)81 notpotable waters, (2) 187- 189 production and application, (2)74-75 properties, (2) 182- 184 temperature effects, (2)78 THM formation, (2) 185 toxicity, (3) 181 - 187 UV spectroscopy, (2)75 Bromism, chloride interaction, (3)301 Bromobenzene, (1)693. 694-695, 793 Bromochloroacetonitrile. (see haloacetonitriles). (7) Bromochlorobenzenes, ( I )799 Bromochloromethanes. (2) 151 - 152 Bromodichloromethane, (I )799; (2) 151, 185; (3) toxicity, (3)887-888 Bromoform. (1)695-697; (2) 185, 205: (3); (9)134 toxicity. (3) 189 Bromophenols. (2) 185 Bronchi. constriction of, ( I )782 Bronchial diseases. (I) bronchitis, (1)238 (see also respiratory diseases). (3) Bronchiolar cells. (6)207 Brucite-gibbsite materials. (1) 139 Buccal cavity, (6)211 Burns, chemical. (1)699 Butachlor. (1)525, 527-530 dose effects, ( I )527-528. 796 toxicity data, ( I )529 I-butanol. (see butylalcohol, tert-). (I) Butyl rubber. (4)12 tert-butylalcohol, (1)697-698 Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), (6)148, 207 C C language, (8)231 Cadmium, ( I )207-208, 211 -213, 218, 220 221, 236-241, 302-303, 305-306; (3); (4)95, 170- 174; (6) absorption, calcium effects on. (3)271 arsenic interaction, (3)344 chloride, (6)74 corrosion and. (4)2, 32, 35 I,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, synthesis inhibition, (3)271 health effects, ( I )238-239; (4) 150, 171 172 Itai-Itai disease, ( I )237-239 poisoning, (1)237-239 selenium interaction, (3)328-329 SNARL, (4) 172- 174 toxicity, (3)91-96 zinc interaction, (3)317 Calcitonin, magnesium interaction. (3)274- 275 Calcium, (1); (2); (3); (4) A/C pipe release of. (4)22 hardness. (4)51 hypochlorite, (1)4; water treatment, (2)35 phosphate, manganese interaction, (3)336 Calcium carbonate, (3); (4) dissolution, (4)33, 43 saturation, (4)23-24, 30. 60-61 water hardness measure, (3)21 Calcium nutrition, (3)268-271, 374-375 fluoride interaction, (3)282 lead poisoning susceptibility, (3)270 water hardness relationship, (3)272 zinc interaction, (3)317 California, (9) 134, 135, 157 California Department of Health Services, PVC pipe testing, (4)65 Canada. (3); (9)138 magnesium in water, (3)272 myocardial infarction, accidental death comparisons. (3)22 Canadian asbestos workers and GI cancer. (5)128 Cancer. (/)20. 160; (3); (4); (5); (6); (7); (8); (9) arsenic effects, (3)343 from asbestos, (1) 13

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CUMULATIVE INDEX 197 bladder and chloroform risk studies, (3)6 7, (see bladder cancer), (7) bone, (1)17, 894-896, 898 bone, magnesium malabsorption, (3)273 chemotherapy, (3)29; (9)22 chloroform relationship, (3)5, 7 dose-response models, (1)47-48 endometrium, (5) 137 from fluoridated water, (1)381-389 frequency, (3)5-21 gastric, (1)422, 438 gastrointestinal tract, (1) 162, 165- 167; (5)7, 123, 126-144 hepatic system, (9)8, 9, 20, 21, 22, 25, 27 kidney, (5)127 larynx, (5) 127 liver and kidney studies, (3) 10 lung, (1)288; (5)118, 123, 126-127, 129, 137; (9)23, 38 mechanisms causing radiation-induced, (1)885-889 mesothelioma, (5) 123, 125, 127, 140 141, 143-144 model, two-stage, (6)268-271; (8)21 mortality rates and THM relationship, (3)13-18 Ohio River Valley Basin water quality studies, (3)11 oral cavity, (5) 127 ovaries, (9)22-23 radiation and, (6)238 risk estimates, lifetime, (6)250-293, 410 411 safety factor approach, (3)38-39 skin, (1)43; (5)118-122 specific, estimating, (1)889-894 stomach, (1)387, 422 theories, statistical models, (1)39-47 (see also carcinogenesis, carcinogenic, carcogenicity, carcinogens, dose response, and individual herbicides, insecticides, metals, and somatic effects), (1) (see also carcinogens), (3) (see also carcinogenicity), (4) (see also carcinogenic risk estimates, carcinogenicity, and individual compounds), (5) (see also carcinogenic, carcinogenic risk estimates), (9) Cancer in humans, (3); (6) epidemiological studies, (3)1-2, 5-21 skin, Taiwan, arsenic in well water, (3)343-344; (6)226-249 THM and bladder, relationship, (3)1, 8-9 Cancer incidence, (1)13, 55; (6)230-237 asbestos, (1) 13- 14 fibers, (1)161, 189 radionuclides, (1)16-17, 894-896, 898 rates, (1)40, 49, 55 Candida paraps~los~s, (2) 14, 45 e-caprolactam, (1)698-700 Captan, (1)657, 660-666, 793; (6)75 ADI, (1)796 dose levels, (1)796 effects in animals, (1)662-663 effects in man, (1)661 toxicity data, (1)665-666 Carbamates, (1)635-649; (9)70, 96, 133 136, 140-141, 146-147, 149-150, 170 pesticides? (6)303-314 (see also aldicarb, carbaryl, methomyl), (1) (see also aldicarb, diallate, sulfallate), (6) Carbaryl, (1)642, 644-649, 793; (6)74; (9)133, 135 ADI, (1)796 carcinogenicity, (1)647 dose levels, (1)796 effects in animals, (1)645-646 effects in man, (1)645 toxicity data, (1)649 Carbofuran, (5)9, 12- 15; (9) 135 acute effects, (5)14 anticholinesterase activity, (5) 12- 14 carcinogenicity, (5) 15 chronic effects, (5) 14 human health effects, (5) 13- 14 metabolism, (5) 13 mutagenicity, (5) 14- l S. 99 SNARL, (5) 15 teratogenicity, (5) 15 Carbon, (1); (2); (4); (6); (7); (8) activated, (1)186, 224-224 biofilm, (4) 118 catalytic activity, product release, (2)324 325 catalytic surface, (2)316-320 chloroform extracts, (2)165, 252 dioxide, elevated, (6)75 dioxide mass-balance equation, (8)263 filters, (1) 107 fines, (2)325

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258 CUMULATIVE INDEX Subchronic toxicology, (1)21 Subfertility, fertility and, (6)63 Substrate concentration, (6)263 Suffolk County, N.Y., diarrhea! disease outbreak, (4) 141, 146 Suggested no-adverse-response level (SNARL), (3)3-4, 70; (4)7, 153-154; (5); (6)10, 257, 396, 410-411; (7)81 acetonitrile, (4)205-206 acute, (5)viii, 2 acute exposure, (3)68-69 aldicarb, (5) 12, 98 aluminum, (4)166 antimony, (3)80 Aroclor, (3) 133- 134 assumptions, (3)69 barium, (4)170 benzene, (3)70, 85-86; (4)203, 254-255 BHC (lindane), (3)70, 88 bromide, (3)70, 186- 187 bromodichloromethane, (3)188 bromoform, (3) 189 cadmium, (3)70, 95-96; (4)172-174 carbon tetrachloride, (3)70, 97-98 catechol, (3)70, 192 chloramines, (3)202 chloramino acids, (3)202 chlorate, (7)110-111 bis(2-chlorethyl)ether, (3)89 chlorinated disinfectants (chlorine dioxide, chlorate, chlorite, and chloramines), (4)177-178 chlorine dioxide, (3)70, 196; (7)90 chlorite, (3)70, 197- 198; (7) 110- 111 chloroform, (3)70, 204; (4)209 chlorophenols, (7) 173 bis(2-chloropropyl)ether, (3)91 chronic, (5)viii, 1-3, 97, 98 chronic exposure, (3)69-70 DBCP, (4)214 DCE, (3)110-111 dibromochloromethane, (3)70, 205-206 o-dichlorobenzene, (5)24-25, 98 p-dichlorobenzene, (5)27, 98 dichlorodifluoromethane, (3)70, 103- 104 1,1-dichloroethylene, (5)39-40, 98 2,4-dichlorophenol, (3)70, 207 dinitrophenol, (4)203, 245 dinoseb, (5)49, 98 DMF, (4)222 ECH, (3)70, 123- 124 estimated, (7)193 ethylene dibromide, (3) 100- 101 glyoxal, (3)210 glyoxylic acid, (3)210 haloacetonitriles, (7) 161 - 162. haloacids, (7)143 HCB, (3)70, 214-215 iodate, (3)224 iodide, (3)70, 224-225 iodine, (3)224 lead, (4)183 methomyl, (5)59-60, 98 methyl glyoxal, (3)210 methylene chloride, (3)70, 127- 128 monochloramine, (7)99 mononitrophenol, (4)203, 244-245 nitrobenzene, (4)203, 229 PAHs, (4)264 PCBs, (3)70, 133- 134 pentachlorophenol, (6)396, 411 picloram, (5)62-63, 98 resorcinol, (3)70, 230-231 rotenone, (5)70, 98 safety, uncertainty factors used, (3)69 silver, (4) 187 strontium, (4)192 tetrachloroethylene, (3)70, 140- 142 toluene, (3)70, 172- 173; (4)254 1,1,1 -trichloroethane, (3)70, 152- 155; (5)78 trichloroethylene, (3)70, 164- 166; (5)85, 98 trichlorofluoromethane, (3)70, 167- 168 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, (4)203, 268 trinitrophenol, (4)203, 245, 247 uncertainty factors used in calculations, (5)2 uranium, (3)70, 177-178; (5)96-97, 98 xylenes, (3)70, 181 Suicide, (8) enzyme inhibition, (8) 173- 175 inhibitors, (8) 137- 139 Sulfallate, (6)312-314; (9)70-71 ADI, 410 carcinogenic risk estimate, (6)313, 314, 412 carcinogenicity, (6)313 developmental effects, (6)314 health aspects in humans, (6)312 health aspects in other species, (6)312 lifetime cancer risk estimate, (6)410 .metabolism, (6)312 mutagenicity, (6)312-313

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CUMULATIVE INDEX 259 SNARL, (6)410 studies needed, (6)412 tumor incidence, (6)313 Sulfate(s), (1)425-428; (3); (4)192 corrosion promotion, (4)30 dietary, (3)329 laxative effect, (1)426 reducing bacteria, (4)14, 28 removal, (1)425 Sulfl~ydryl-arsenic reactions, (1)319, 332 Sulfides, (3); (4)5 molybdenum interaction, (3)363 Sulfur, (3); (9) copper interaction, (3)314 hexafluoride, (9) 141 Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, (4)29, 122- 123 Sultan River, asbestos in drinking water, (5)137 Supernumerary ribs, (6)26 Superoxide ion, (7)68 Surface waters, (1); (2); (3)6-7; (4)10 chlorine, (2) 155- 157 treatment of, (1)206 Surface area adjustment, (8) 17- 19, 160 Sweat, sodium loss, (3)291 Swine, iodine intake, (3)222-223 Swiss Federal Institute for Water Resources and Water Pollution Control (EAWAG), (2)203 Switzerland, pilot plant effluent studies, (2)308 SWMS, (see Seattle Water Metals Survey Committee), (4) Symbols, definitions of, (6)218-219 Sympathetic neurons, (6) 115 Sympathoadrenal system, (6)115 Synergism, (9) 131 anticholinesterases, (9) 152- 159, 170 carcinogens, (9)99- 100 defined, (9) 102, 122 dose-additivity models, (9) 153- 154, 156, 157-158, 169 dose- vs response-additivity models, (9)102-103, 168, 169, 177-181 exposure assessment and, (9)98-99 insecticides, (9)103, 133- 136, 138- 140, 146, 149, 152-156, 159, 170 models, (9) 175- 176 toxic end points, (9) 117, 169 uncertainty factors in model, (9)99, 122- 123, 126, 128-129, 131 Synergistic, (1); (3) effects in drinking water, (3)27 interactions, (1)15, 32, 36 Synthetic, (2) carbonaceous absorbents, (2)338 resins, water treatment, (2)255 Systemic, (6); (8) absorption, (6)257 availability, (8)453 T Table salt, (see sodium chloride), (3) Taconite ore tailings, (1) 154 Taiwan, (3)343, 338; (5) arsenic levels in drinking water, (5)119- 122 Tandem mass spectrometry, (9)39-40 Tapeworms, (1) 115 Target theory, (3)2, 42-43 Target-tissue dose, (6)173 measurement of, (6) 173- 176 Target-tissue metabolite-concentration curve, area under the (AUTMC), (6) 176 Taste and odor, chlorine in water, (2)144 Taste, water, (4) biofilms and, (4) 112 chlorination and, (4) 130 TB (tracheobronchial) liquid lining, (8)357- 361 TCA (trichloroacetic acid), (6)202-203 TCCD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), (6)146-147, 174, 283-284 TCDD (2,3,7,8 -tetrachlorodibenzo- [p] - dioxin), (1)498, 500-513; (3) acceptable daily intake, (1)509, 796 carcinogenicity, (1)506 dose lovers, (1)501-506, 796 mutagenicity, (1)505 teratogenicity, (1)506-508 toxicity, (1)500-509, 5]2 TCE, (see tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethane, trichloroethylene)' (3); (6)186-188, 189 1,2,3-TCP (1,2,3-trichloropropane), (see chloropropanes and chloropropenes), (6) TEAM (Total Exposure Assessment Measurement) study, (6)260 Technetium-99m, (1)865 Teeth, mottled, (1)395-396 Telone II, (see chloropropanes and chloropropenes), (6) Temperature, elevated, (6)75

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260 CUMULATIVE INDEX Terata, defined, (1)23 Teratogen(s), (I)lS, 793; (5); (6)11-12 behavioral, (6)106 definition of, (1)800; (5)6 effect on water supplies, (1)16 embryonic organ susceptibility to, (6)14 neuroteratogens, (6)106, 117 psychoteratogens, (6) 118 Teratogenesis, (1)53; (6)274 carcinogenesis and, (6) 1 S dose, (6~29 effects, (1)16, 53, 897 hazard potential, (6)28, 273 index, relative (RTI), (6)29, 274 lethality and, (6)29 Teratogenicity, (4); (S); (7) aldicarb, (5)11 aluminum, (4) 165- 166 carbofuran, (S) 1 S carbon tetrachloride, (S) 17- 18 chlorine dioxide, (7)88-89 chlorobenzene, (5)22 o-dichlorobenzene, (5)24 p-dichlorobenzene, (5)27 1,2-dichloroethane, (5)31 1,1-dichloroethylene, (5)39 1,2-dichloroethylene, (5)43 dichloromethane, (5)45-46 dinitrophenol, (4)243-244 dinoseb, (5)48-49 DMF, (4)221 haloaldehydes, (7) 151 - 152 hexachlorobenzene, (5)56 lead, (4)181, 182 methomyl, (5)59 monochloramine, (7)97-98 nitrobenzene, (4)227 PAHs, (4)263 picloram, (5)62 rotenone, (5)69 tests for, (5)6-7 tetrachloroethylene, (5)73 1, I,1-trichloroethane, (5)78 1, I, I-trichloroethylene, (5)84-85 uranium, (5)96 vinyl chloride, (5)89-90 Teratology, (6) neuroteratology, (6) l l S- 117 psychoteratology, (6) 118 Terbufos, (9) 136 Terminal half-lives, (8)106 Testes, (6); (9)66 cancer, (9)22-23, 62 dibromochloropropane, (9)65 function, (6)55 histological evaluation of, (6)91-92 1,1,3,3-tetrachloroacetone, (1)799, (see haloketones), (7) Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), (6)146, 147, 174 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, (3)33- 35 1, 1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, (1)765, 767-770, 798 effects in animals, (1)768 effects in man, (1)767-768 Tetrachloroethylene, (1)769-770; (3)134- 139; (4)4; (5)9, 70-74; (6)209 acute effects, (5)72 carcinogenicity, (5)73 chronic effects, (5)72 health effects, (4)150 human health effects, (5)72 metabolism, (5)71 mutagenicity? (5)72-73, 99 teratogenicity, (5)73 Tetrachloromethane, (see carbon tetrachloride), (1) Tetradecanoyl-phorbol- 13-acetate (TPA), (6)264, 283 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), (6)49 Tetrahydrofuran, in plastic pipe joints, (4)64, 66 Thalidomide, (6)21, 68 Thallium, selenium interactions, (3)328-329 Thames River, England, pilot plant resin studies, (2)343 THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), (6)49 Theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC), (6)259 Theoretical models, (3)52-54 Thermoplastic pipe, (4)13, 63 Thiamphenicol, (6) 17 Thimet R. (see phorate), (1) Thiobacillus, (see sulfur-oxidizing bacteria), (4) Thiopental pharmacokinetics model, (8)50- 54 Thiram, (see dithiocarbamates), (1) THM, (see trihalomethanes), (2); (3); (4) THMFP, (see trihalomethane formation potential), (2) Thorium, (1)858, 860; (3)142-144 Th-232, (1)859

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CUMULATIVE INDEX 261 Threadworms, (1)115- 116 Three-compartment model, (8)334, 336, 337 Threshold, (1); (6); (8) actual, (1)42, 46 dose concept, (1)15, 21, 24-25, 27, 37- 47, 54-55, 58, 873 dose and long-term exposure, (1)27 dose-response curves, effects showing, (1)37 effect, (8)435-436 issues concerning, (6)252-253, 283 models, (6)269-271 practical, (1)42 radiation doses, (1)21, 865-872 Threshold limit value (TLV), (3)101; (4); (5); (6)4, 106, 170; (7)82 barium, (4)167, 168 carbon monoxide, (5)44 chlorobenzene, (5)20 1,1-dichloroethylene, (5)32 DMF, (4)215, 216 Thyroid, (1); (3)304 function, decreased, (1)249 gland, (9)62 hormones, (3)302 Thyroiditis, prevalence in Minnesota, (3)306 Thyrotoxicosis, (3)274, 305-306 Thyroxine, iodine content, (3)302 Time, (1); (3); (4); (6); (8) chronological, (8)69, 73 of exposure, influence of, (6)12-15 integral of tissue exposure, (8)10 physiological, (8)69-76 Time-dependent dosing, (8)467-468 Time-dependent exposure, (8)451-455 Time-dependent physiological and metabolic changes, (6)200-201 Time-to-response models of carcinogenesis. (1)48 Time-to-tumor-occurrence models, (3)2, 43- 45 Time-weighted average dose, (8)454 Time-weighted average receptor occupancy, (8)20 Time-weighted average standard, nitrites, (4)203 Tin, (1)221, 292-296, 302-303, 315 Tissue(s), (3); (6); (8); (9) arsenic distribution, (3)339 binding, (8)90 chromium distribution, (3)366 culture systems, (6)277 dose scale-up, (6) 194- 196 dosimetry in risk assessment, (8)8-23 exposure, time integral of, (8) 10 manganese distribution, (3)333, 335 mass balance, (8)48 molybdenum distribution, (3)359-360 nickel distribution, (3)347 partition coefficients, (6) 182; (8)91 perfusion, (8)49 regions, (8)45-47 silicon distribution, (3)355-356 total concentration, (8)49-50 vanadium distribution, (3)352 volume, (8)19 (see histology and histochemistry), (9) Tissue-concentration curve, area under the (AUTC), (6) 174- 175 TLV, (see threshold limit value), (3); (4); (6)4, 106, 170 TMRC (theoretical maximum residue contribution), (6)259 Tobacco, (9)24-25, 69 TOC, (see total organic carbon), (2) TOCI, (see total organic chlorine), (2) Tolerance distribution models, (3)2, 40-41 Tolerated dose, maximum (MTD), (8)6. 432-433, 449, 450 Toluene, (1)770-773; (2); (3)168-172; (4)250, 252, 254 in drinking water, (2) 159 effects in animals, (1)772 effects in man, (1)771-772 Toluene diisocyanate, o-dichlorobenzene used in manufacture, (5)22 Total organic carbon, (2)252, 269-270, 302 Total organic chlorine, (2)158 Total Diet Study, FDA, (3)331, 337-338 Total Exposure Assessment Measurement (TEAM) study, (6)260 Toxaphene, (1)600-604, 796 effects in animals, (1)601-602 effects in man, (1)601 Toxic, (1); (3); (6) chemicals, (3)2-3, 28-29 dose, maternally, (6)25 effects, mechanisms, (1)58-59 metabolites, short-lived, (6)204 substances, criteria for testing suspected, (1)16 Toxicants, genetic, (6)155 Toxicity and toxicology, (1)12, 30, 57-58; (3)3-4, 28-29; (6); (8); (9)

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262 CUMULATIVE INDEX acetylcholinesterase, (9)147-153, 170 acute, (1)29 assessment of, (8)410-425 biochemical interaction, (3)45-56 chronic, (1)22; (9)9- 10, 11- 13, 21-22, 27 classification of substances, (9)96-97, 104-105, 123-129, 146, 168 commonality, (9) 123 =, comparison of human and murine, (8)434- (1) 435 cytotoxicity, (9)17, 68 data bases, (9) 119, 170 data selection criteria, (1)15 definition of, (1)803 detoxification, (9)7-9, 28, 57, 103 developmental, (see developmental toxicity), (6); (9)74, 77 DNA adducts and, (9)1-5, 6, 17-25, 47 52 DNA adducts, specific, (9)61-77 environmental variables affecting, (1)36 extrapolation from animals to man, (1)12, 19, 27-37 genetic, (6) 148- 149 hepatic systems, specific DNA adducts, (9)68, 73, 75, 77 immunotoxicity, pentachlorophenol, (6)390-391 inhalation, (6)6 laboratory studies, (1) 19 maternal, (see maternal toxicity), (6) mechanism of, (8)412-414 mixtures of toxins, (9)95-97, 99-100, 104, 121-131, 170 National Toxicology Program, (9)102, 115-117 neurotoxicity, organophosphorous, (9) 147- 153; carbamates, (9) 153 nonsaturable pathway, (8)266 oocyte, (6)41-42 phosphorus deficiency, (3)278 reproductive, (see reproductive toxicity), (6); (9)74 reversibility, (1)23-27, 53 selected contaminants, (6)294-412 skin, (9)63, 65, 67, 71, 75 sperm, (6)55-56 studies of water, criteria for, (1)12, 16, 19 synergistic, (1)36 testing procedures, (6)36, 83-92 tests, laboratory animal, (1)29-37, 55-56 tests, standardized conditions, (1)30-31 xenobiotic substances, (9)3, 9 (see also neurotoxicity), (6) (see also carcinogenic; DNA adducts, specific; dosages and dosimetry; genetic toxicity; inhalation toxicology), (9) Toxicology Information Network (TOXIN), (8)247-248 Toxicology studies extrapolation to humans acute, (1)21, 29 subchronic, (1)21 Toxification, (1)58 Toxiphors, (8)265 2,4?5-TP (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxypropionic acid), (1)509-519 carcinogenicity, (1)515 dose levels, (1)513-515, 796 mutagenicity, (1)5 15 teratogenicity, (1)515-516 toxicity, (1)513-515, 516-517, 519 TPA (tetradecanoyl-phorbol- 13-acetate), (6)264, 283 Trace elements, (1); (3) concentrations, (1)218, 220 in drinking water (see metals, trace), (1) iodine, (3)216 Trace metal content, (1); (4) Boston, Mass., area, (4)39-40, 41 Chicago, Ill., water treatment system, (4)35, 36 Tracheobronchial (TB) liquid lining, (8)357- 361 Transcription, (9)13 Transfer constant, (8)27 Transforming genes, (6)142 Transition rate, (8)380 Translocations, (6)80 heritable, (6)80-81 Transport, drug, (8)89-90 Treflan, (see dinitroanilines), (1) Tremolite, (1) 144, 151 actinolite mineral series, (1)148-149 Triazines, (1)533, 535-539, 796, 798 ADI, (1)796 dose levels, (1)796 toxicity, (1)535-536 Tribromomethane, (see bromoform), (1); (2)151-152 Trichloramine, (see nitrogen bichloride), (2) Trichlorfon, (6)396, 397, 398-408; (9)68- 69

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CUMULATIVE INDEX 263 ADI, (6)408, 411 carcinogenic risk estimate, (6)411 carcinogenicity, (6)405-406 cholinesterase activities, (6)402 developmental effects, (6)406 epidemiological study on, (6)244 health aspects in humans, (6)398-400 health aspects in other species, (6)400- 403 metabolism, (6)397-398 mutagenicity, (6)403-405 neurotoxicity, (6)403 reproductive effects, (6)406-407 SNARL, (6)411 studies needed, (6)412 Trichloroacetaldehyde, (see chloral), (1); (2)165; (7)144 (see also haloaldehydes), (7) Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), (6)202-203; (7)34-35, 37, 39, 40, 133, 145-146 (see also haloacids), (7) 2,2,2-trichloroacetic acid, metabolite of 1, 1,1-trichloroethane, (5)74 1,1-trichloroacetone, (see haloketones), (7) Trichloroacetonitrile, (see haloacetonitriles), (A Trichloroacetyl type chloroform precursors, (7)38 Trichlorobenzene, (1)773-775 1, 1,1-trichloroethane, (3); (5)9, 28, 32, 74- 78; (9) 134 acute effects, (5)75-76 carcinogenic risk estimate, (5)77-78, 98 carcinogenicity, (5)76-78 chronic effects, (5)76 1,2-dichloroethane, (5)28 human health effects, (5)75 metabolism, (5)74-75 mutagenicity, (5)76, 99 SNARL, (5)78, 98 teratogenicity, (5)78 toxicity, (3) 144- 155 tumor incidence, (5)77 1,1,2-trichloroethane, (1)775-777 Trichloroethanol (TCEA), (7) 145- 146 2,2,2-trichloroethanol, metabolite of 1,1,1 - trichloroethane, (5)74 Trichloroethylene (TCE), (1)777-781; (2)287; (3); (5)9, 79-85; (6)186-188, 189; (7)145; (9)134, 171-174 acute effects, (5)81 carcinogenic risk estimate, (1)779-780, 794; (5)83-84, 98 carcinogenicity, (5)82-83 chronic effects, (5)81 effects in animals, (1)778 effects in man, (1)777-778 human health effects, (5)80-81 metabolism, (5)71, 79-80 mutagenicity, (5)81-82, 99 SNARL, (5)85 teratogenicity, (5)84-85 toxicity, (3)155-166 toxicity data. (1)7X I tumor incidence, (5)83 Trichlorofluoromethane, (1)781, 782-783; (3) toxicity, (3) 166- 168 Trichloromethane (chloroform), (1); (7)111 (see also trihalomethanes), (7) Trichloromethyl cyanide, (see haloacetonitriles), (7) Trichloromethylnitrile, (see haloacetonitriles), (7) Trichloronitromethane, (see chloropicrin), (7) 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, (1)799; (4)264-268 health effects. (4)266-267 metabolism, (4)265 SNARL, (4)203, 268 uses, (4)264 Trichlorophenols, (see chlorophenols), (7) 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid), (1)499, 500-513, 796 ADI, (1)509 carcinogenicity, (1)506 dose levels, (1)501-506 esters of, (1)503 mutagenicity, (1)505 teratogenicity, (1)508 toxicity, (1)500-510 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP), (see chloropropanes and chloropropenes), (6) Trichuris trichiura, (I ) 115 Trifluralin, (see dinitroanilines), (1) Trihalomethanes (THMs), (2)140; (3)1, 6-7, 13-18, 19, 55-56; (4)3; (7)1-2, 111- 133; (9)103, 134, 135, 140-141, 142, 143 acute effects, (7) 117- 118 anion exchange resins studies, (2)344 carcinogenicity, (7) 122- 129 chlorination effects, (2)5, 8 chlorophyll reaction, (2) 164

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264 CUMULATIVE INDEX chronic effects, (7) 120- 122 coagulation, (2)9 concentration, (4)97 in CPVC pipe water, (4) 67 formation, (2) 149- 153, 171 - 172, 269 270, 344 formation from chlorine dioxide, (2)S2 formation reactions, (2) 160- 161, 163 GAC, (2)289 health effects in humans, (7) 114- 117 health effects in other species, (7) 117- 129 hypochlorous acid, (2)141 instantaneous, (4)97 metabolism, (7) 112- 114 mutagenicity, (7) 122 NOMS, (2)150-151 nonhaloform products, (2) 153- 154 NORS, (2) 150- 151, 172- 173 potable waters, laboratory studies, (2)186 187 precursors, (2)344-345 production, (2)9 reactions, (4)96 seasonal variation, (2)164 subchronic effects, (7) 118- 120 total, (4)97 U.S. municipal water supplies, (2)150 151 in water supplies, (2) 185- 186 Triiodide, ozone reaction, (2)44 Triiodothyronine, (3)302 Trilobus species, (1) 116 Trimethylbenzene, (1)799 Trinitrophenols, (4) health effects (4)238-239, 240 isomeric forms of, (4)231 metabolism, (4)235 properties of, (4)232 SNARL (4)203, 245, 247 uses? (4)231 Tris, (6)77 Trisomies, (6)70 Tritium, (1)858, 862, 871 Tritox, (see haloacetonitriles), (7) Trivalent arsenic toxicity, (3)339 Trivalent chromium, (3)365, 367 True-positive or true-negative result. (6)235 TTHM (see trihalomethanes, total), (4) Tuberculation, corrosion and, (4)13-14, 28 Tubular cross sections, (6)92 Tumor(s), (1); (6); (8) childhood, (6)14 growth time, (1)40 induction, (6)5 malignant, (1)23 promoters, (8)21 promotion, human, multiple stages in, (6) 148 Tumor incidence data, (5)2; (6) acrylamide, (6)301 chlorobenzene, (5)21 chloropropanes and chloropropenes, (6)336 diallate, (6)311 dibromochloropropane, (6)324 1,2-dichloroethane, (5)31 1,1-dichloroethylene, (5)37-38 di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, (6)349 hexachlorobenzene, (5)54-55 nitrofen, (6)372 sulfallate, (6)313, 314 1, 1,1-trichloroethane, (5)77 trichloroethylene, (5)83 (see also carcinogenicity), (5) Tumorigenesis, (8)5-6; (9)3-4 animal models, (9) 19-21 DNA adduct dosimetry, (9)27 and germ cell mutation, (9)18 Turbidity drinking water standard, (2)10 Turbidity, water, (1)94, 183- 188, 190, 217 causes of, (1)183 measuring, (1) 187- 188 Turbidimetry, (1) 187 TWA, (see time-weighted average standard), (4) Two-compartment model, (8)30-31, 32, 43, 194 Two-hit dose response model of carcinogenesis (1)45 Two-stage carcinogenicity model, (8)21, 273, 274 TYMNET data communications network, (8)247 Typhoid fever. (1)3-4, 6-7, 64, 78, 82-83; (2)18; (7)4 U UICC (Unio Internationale Contra Cancrum), asbestos reference samples, (1)147. 150-151 Ultrafiltration method to recover enteroviruses from water, (1)97

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CUMULATIVE INDEX 265 Ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay (USERIA), (9)23, 41 Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, (1)50; (2); (7)20; (9)13, 40 in drinking water disinfection, (7)13 light disinfection, (2) 106- 112 skin, effects on, (9)38 spectroscopy, (2)75 Unbound, (8) concentration, (8)103, 108 fractions, (8)88-92, 103 Uncertainty(ies), (8) error analysis and, (8) 188- 193 inherent, (8)473 using SIMUSOLV, (8) 185-207 Uncertainty factors, (1), (see safety factor), (1); (6)8, 253 Uniform corrosion, (4)27 Unit risk, (6)255 United Kingdom, (2); (3)22; (9)138 pilot plant effluent studies, (2)308 University of Michigan School of Public Health, plastic pipe studies, (4)64 Unplasticized PVC pipe, (4)63, 65 UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation), (1)857, 858, 859, 861, 878, 886, 889 Unstable metabolites, (8) 119 Upper respiratory tract (URT), (8)303 morphology of, (8)358 uPVC, (see unplasticized PVC pipe), (4) Uracil, (see bromacil), (1) Uranium, (1); (3)173-177; (5)9, 90-97 acute effects, (5)94 chronic effects, (5)94-95 concentrations in water, (1)858 human health effects, (5)93 metabolism, (5)92-93 mutagenicity, (5)96, 99 SNARL, (5)96-97, 98 teratogenicity, (5)96 U-238, (1)859 Urea, (1)142 Urine and urinary system, (8); (9)43, 72, 102 bladder exposure to N-hydroxy arylamines, (8)334-348 excretion into, (8)142-143 metabolism, (8)147 URT, (see upper respiratory tract), (8) U.S. Public Health Service, drinking water standards, (4)64 U.S. asbestos workers and GI cancer, (5)128 Utah, arsenic in drinking water, (5)120-121 Uterine epithelial hypertrophy, (6)89 V Vaccines, oral, (1)101 Vaginal opening time in rat pup, (6)88-89 Validations, (8) of PB-PK models, (8)283, 317-319 prospective, in anticancer therapy, (8)431 440 Valves, distribution system, (4)12 Van de Graaff generator, (2)95-97 Vanadium, (1)210-212, 216, 218, 220-221, 296-298, 302-303, 315 Vanadium nutrition, (3)350-354, 374-375 chromium interaction, (3)368 Vancide 89, (see captan), (1) Vanguard K, (see captan), (1) Vapor hazard index, (7) 165 Variable-threshold model of carcinogenesis, (1)45, 46 Variance of error, (8) 191 - 193 VCM (vinyl chloride monomer), (8)456-458 Vegans, (3)266 Velocity of reaction, minimum, (8)14 Venezuela, selenium intake, (3)321 Venous, (6); (8) blood concentration, (6) 183 blood mass-balance equation, (8)262 equilibration model of organ elimination. (8)83-86 Vermiculite, (1)139, 142 Vessel-poor group (VPG) of organs, (8)447 Vessel-rich group (VRG) of organs, (8)447 Viability index, (6)84 Vial equilibration, (6) 182; (8) 164 Vibrio cholerae, (1)2, 67-68, 70, 73; (2)45 Vincristine, (6) 118 Vinyl chloride, (1)783-787; (4); (5)9, 85 90; (6)72; (8); (9)73, 134, 164, 165 acute effects, (5)86 carcinogenic risk estimates, (1)785-786, 794 carcinogenicity, (4)4, 70; (5)88-89 chronic effects, (5)86 chronic exposure, (5)33-34 1,2-dichloroethane, (5)28 effects in animals, (1)784-785

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266 CUMULATIVE INDEX health effects, (4)150 human health effects, (1)784; (5)86 metabolism, (5)85-86 monomer (VCM), (8)456-458 mutagenicity, (5)86-87, 99 in plastic pipe, (4)63, 67 teratogenicity, (5)89-90 Vinyl cyanide, (see acrylonitrile), (3) Vinyl epoxy, (4)4 Vinyl bichloride, (see trichloroethane), (1) Vinylidene chloride, (see 1,1 dichloroethylene), (5); (6)209 Virtual steady states, (8)98-99 validity of assumption of, (8)105-106 Virtually safe doses (VSD), (8)296-298 Virucidal activity, (see biocidal activity), (2) Viruses, (1)13, 63, 88-111, 120, 179, 181 183, 186; (2); (7)22-24 correlations with bacteria, (1)110-111 detecting waterborne, (1)94-95 disinfection of water, (2) 14- 15 enteric, (see enteroviruses), (1) epidemiology, (1)91-94 health effects in drinking water, (1) 101 104 history of enteric, (1)89-91 ozone for inactivation, (2)47 poliovirus, (2)1, 46, 48 Potomac River, free chlorine tests, (2)31 recovery from water, (1)94-101 resistance to disinfection, (1) 104- 110 water treatment to remove, (1)104-111 Visual system, (6)109 Vitamin D, (3)270, 277 Vitamin E, (3)325, 329; (7) 113 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), (6)168-169; (9)106, 136-137, 142 carcinogenic risk estimation, (9) 162- 166 dose-response curves, (6) 172- 173 drinking water concentrations, (9) 138, 140 groundwater concentrations, (9) 136, 139 140 pharmacokinetic models, (9) 113- 114, 171-174 risk assessment, (9)96 routes of exposure, (6) 171 - 172 solvents, (9)126 standards, (9) 134 volatility, (9) 140- 141, 143 Volatility of contaminants, (9) 139- 141, 143 Volume of distribution, (8)31 VPG (vessel-poor group) of organs, (8)447 VRG (vessel-rich group) of organs, (8)447 VSD (virtually safe doses), (8)296-298 W War, (9)147 Washington County, Md., water quality study, (3)10 Washington State, asbestos in drinking water, (5) 137- 139 Waste disposal, (1)174- 176 Wastewater, (1); (2) ionizing radiation, (2)96 reclamation of, (1)104 Wastewater treatment. (2) bacteria on GAC, (2)309 effluent ozonization, (2)203 microbial activity on GAC, (2)304-306 Water, (1); (2); (3); (7) collection, (7)5-6 distribution systems, (1)65-66, 77, 91; (~6 epidemiological studies, (7)50-60 hardness, (see also soft water), (3)1-2, 21-22, 267, 271; (see also hardness water), (1) intake, (3)266 mutagenicity of, (7)45-46 quality, effects on disinfection, (2)7-17 softening, (2)86 supply disinfection, (2)5-137 toxicity, (7)46-50 treatment practices, (7)6 treatment processes, (2) 167, 255-256 uses, (1)17 (see also epidemiological studies of contaminants, mutagenicity), (7) Water consumption volume, human, (1) 11 Water quality, (2); (3); (4) A/C pipe effect on, (4)49-58 biofilm effect on, (4)112 biological effects on, (4)4-5 chemical effects on, (4)2-3 corrosion and, (4)29-30 effect on A/C pipe performance, (4)46- 47, 49 effects on disinfection, (2)7-17 future THM studies, (3) 13, 17 indexes, (see Aggressiveness Index' Langelier Index, Saturation Index), (4) linings and, (4)3-4, 32-33, 71-92

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CUMULATIVE INDEX 267 Los Angeles County, Calif., cancer study, (3)11 microorganisms effect on, (4)122-123 Mississippi River, La., cancer studies, (3)8 NCTHM concentration, bladder cancer relationship, (3)13 New Jersey cancer study, (3)12 Ohio River cancer studies, (3)8, 11 Pittsburgh, Pa., cancer studies, (3)12 plastic pipe effect on, (4)64 THM concentrations-cancer relationship, (3)13-18 upstate New York cancer study, (3)9-10 Washington County, Md., cancer study, (3)10 (see also biological quality of water, chemical quality of water), (4) Water supplies, (1) inorganic solutes in, (1)205-488 monitoring of, (1)76, 86 organic particulates in, (1)168-179 safety, (1)7 sampling, (1)76-78 on ships and waterborne disease, (1)65-66 U.S. standards, history, (1)6-8 well, (1)93 Water supply systems, (see also public water supply), (1); (2); (3)267; (4) disinfection, (2)5-137; (4)12, 15 individual and waterborne disease, (1)65 municipal and waterborne disease, (1)65 reliability, (4~16 semipublic and waterborne disease, (1)65 source of, (4)9 treatment, (4)3, 10 treatment, Philadelphia, Pa., (2)276 typhoid fever outbreaks, (1)64 (see also distribution system), (4) Water treatment, (1); (2); (3)373; (7) adsorbent unit processes, analytical methods, (2)356-365 adsorption, (2)256 calcium hypochlorite, (2)35 coagulation process, (2)268-271 disinfection effects on, (2)5-137, 255 Federal Republic of Germany, (2)362 filtration process, (2)268-271 history, (1)2-8 hydrous iron oxide, (2)83 indicator organisms in, role of, (1)70-71 microbial action on GAC, (2)296-299 Niagara Falls, N.Y., (2)51 parasite removal, (1)117-118, 120-121 particulates removal, (1)184-186 Philadelphia, Pa., (2)276, 287, 298 practices, (7)6 preozonization, (2)299-302 processes, (2)167, 255-256 sedimentation process, (2)268-271 supply treatment, Philadelphia, Pa., (2)276 THM precursors removal, (2)345 trace metals removal, (1)217. 220-226 transmission of hepatitis A, (1)91 virus removal. (1) 104- 111 Zurich, Switzerland, (2)298 (see also chlorination, coagulation, filtration, sedimentation), (1) Water treatment plants, (2) clarification processes, (2)268-271 Delaware River, (2) 153 disinfection, (2)255 PAC use, (2)274 Waterborne disease, (see epidemiology), (1); (2)5; (see diseases, waterborne), (4); (7)4-5 outbreaks, (7)14-15 Waterborne pathogens. (7)14-24 Water-softening, (see lime softening), (1); (see also soft water, water hardness), (2); (3)21-23, 285 Weaning index, (6)84 Weibull model, (6)269-270 Wells and well water, (4)53; (9)134 Well-stirred model of organ elimination (8)83-86, 113 Whipworms, (1) 115- 116 White-blood-cell (WBC) counts, (7)121 WHO, (see World Health Organization). (3) Wilson's disease, (1)252-253; (see hepatolenticular degeneration), (3) Wisconsin, (7) case-control study using personal interview, (7)56-57 mortality case-control study, (~)53 Women, (3); (see females). (6) iron requirements, (3)310 World Health Organization. (1)78; (3)30 X X chromosomes, (6)78 Xanthomonas, (2)309

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268 CUMULATIVE INDEX Xenobiotic substances, (6)3; (9)3 effect on oogenesis, (6)43-45 tobacco carcinogens, (9)9, 24-25 Xeroderma pigmentosum, (1)43, 51 X-rays, (1); (2)94-95 diffraction, asbestos analysis, (1)159 Xylenes, (1)787, 788-789; (3) toxicity, (3)178-181 Xylenol isomers, (1)730 y Y chromosomes, (6)64 Yeast, pathogenic, (1)63 Yersinia enterocolitica, (1)64, 67 YFF test, (6)63, 64-65 Yusho disease, (1)758 z Zinc, (1)139, 171, 207-208, 211-212, 216, 218, 220-221, 299-304, 316; (4) concentration in Boston, Mass., area water, (4)50 corrosion and, (4)2, 32, 34, 59, 95 health effects, (4) 150 Zinc nutrition, (3)315-321, 374-375 copper interaction, (3)314 iron interaction, (3)311 Zineb, (see dithiocarbamates), (1) Ziram, (see dithiocarbamates), (1) Zona pellucida, (6)40 Zurich, Switzerland, (2) ozonization by-products, (2)203 water treatment, (2)298