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PAUL F. LAZARSFELD February 13, 1901-August30, 1976 BY DAVID L. SILLS PAUL FELIX LAZARSFELD was born and raised in Vienna. In 1933 he came to the United States as a Rockefeller Foundation fellow. He remained in America at the enct of his fellowship, became a citizen, and for three decades was a professor of sociology at Columbia University. He diect of cancer in New York City. Although he was trained in mathematics, Lazarsfeld thought of himself as a psychologist; only in midlife clid he identify himself as a sociologist. His major interests were the methodology of social research and the development of in- stitutes for training and research in the social sciences. Be- cause of the originality and diversity of his icleas, his energy and personal magnetism, his unique style of collaboration with colleagues and students, anc! the productivity of the re- search institutes he established, his influence upon sociology and social research both in the United States anc! in Eu- rope-has been profound. In the years since Lazarsfeld's death, a substantial number of appraisals of his life and work have been published. ~ I shall ~ Appraisals up to 1979 are listed in David L. Sills, "Publications About Paul F. Lazarsfeld: A Selected Bibliography," in Qualitative and Quantitative Social Research: Poems in Honor of Paul F. Lazarsfeld, ed. Robert K. Merton, James S. Coleman, and Peter H. Rossi (New York: Free Press, 1979), pp. 389-93. Subsequent publications 251

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252 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS attempt to summarize his rich intellectual legacy in this ar- ticle. But first, let me convey some sense of Lazarsfeld the person by quoting from the writings of his former students Allen H. Barton and David L. Sills, both sociologists, and his son-in-law, the historian Bernard Bailyn. As these witnesses attest, neither Lazarsfeld nor his associates were able to dis- tinguish very clearly between the man and the scholar. Allen Barton's attempt to capture the essence of Lazars- feld's personality is to be found in his dramatic and rather subjective account of the history of one of Lazarsfeld's major inventions: the university-basecl social research institute. Bar- ton notes that the concept of the university-basect social re- search institute "was born in the mind of a social activist stu- dent in the intellectual hothouse of Vienna between the wars," who "created a penniless research center in a near bankrupt society, and found his friends jobs studying un- employment." He calls Lazarsfeld "an intellectual Oclysseus" and "an entrepreneur of intellectual conglomerates," who "brought new meaning to the words 'non-profit' as he used one cleficit-riciclen project to support another, and pyra- mided his intellectual assets from grant to grant." In the end, Barton notes, "the Bureau was demolished and hauled away include: Allen H. Barton, "Paul Lazarsfeld and the Invention of the University Institute for Applied Social Research," in Organizing for Social Research, ed. Burkart Holzoer and Girl Nehnevaisa (Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman, 1982); James S. Cole- man, "Paul F. Lazarsfeld: The Substance and Style of His Work," in Sociological Traditions from Generation to Generation: Glimpses of the American Experience, ed. Robert K. Merton and Matilda White Riley (Norwood, N.l.: Ablex, 1980); James S. Cole- man, "Introduction," in Paul F. Lazarsfeld, The Varied Sociology of Paul F. Lazarsfeld, writings collected and edited by Patricia L. Kendall (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982); Paul Neurath, "Paul F. Lazarsfeld and the Institutionalization of Em- pirical Social Research," in Robert B. Smith, An Introduction to Social Research (Cam- bridge, Mass.: Ballinger, 1983); Paul Neurath, "In Memoriam Paul F. Lazarsfeld: Paul F. Lazarsfeld and the Institutionalization of Empirical Social Research," in Re- alizi,~g Social Science Knowledge, ed. B. Holzner, K. D. Knorr, and H. Strasser (Vienna: Physica-Verlag, 1983); and David L. Sills, "Surrogates, Institutes, and the Search for Convergences: The Research Style of Paul F. Lazarsfeld," Contemporary Sociology, l()(May 1981):351-61.

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PAUL F. LAZARSFELD 253 to make room for a parking lot on Moth Street, while a Cen- ter for the Social Sciences rose on 1 lath Street, proclaiming a set of purposes almost iclentical to Lazarsfeld's recipe for his research institutes in Vienna, Newark, Princeton, and Co- lumbia." 2 Bernard Bailyn tract the good fortune to have been both colleague and son-in-law; here is his recollection of a family . . . . .~ . . . visit by his father-in-law: A visit by Paul was like some wonderfully benign hurricane. There would be premonitory squalls for days in advance. Special delivery letters would begin to arrive long before he got there; telegrams and messages would pile up, occasionally an embarrassed assistant would appear on the doorstep having got the wrong day relayed through secretaries in two uni- versities. The day before he was due there would be a flurry of frantic. Often hilarious telephone calls rescheduling the flight, but then finally he would arrive. The cab would pull up in the driveway and Paul would struggle from the door clutching a briefcase overflowing with manuscripts, books, pipes, cigars, shirts, and some miscellaneous shoes. He would half run to the house in his odd, stiff-kneed, sideways-swinging walk; call gaily to his daughter; shake hands with the male remembers of the family with a slight European bow, heels together; and almost invariably, as soon as he was inside the door, say "The most amazing thing happened!," and ou' would come an extraordinary episode, told with barely suppressed laugh- ter and high suspense some bizarre coincidence and the visit would be properly launched. 3 In a summary sketch of Lazarsfelct's personality, David Sills singled out Lazarsfeld's quite remarkable capacity to carry out his intellectual activities with, and through, other people: Most of his major writings are coauthored, and much of his work day consisted of listening to, talking to, and instructing his students, colleagues, and co-workers: in class, in his office, in taxicabs, in his apartment, in a 18. 9 Barton, "Paul Lazarsfeld and the Invention of the University Institute," pp. 17 3 Bernard Bailyn, "Recollections of PFL," in Merton, Coleman, and Rossi, Quali- tative and Quantitative Social Research, p. 16.

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254 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS succession of summer houses in New Hampshire; at breakfast, at lunch, and at dinner; at the blackboard, or pacing his office with a cigar, or seated in the faculty club with a double Manhattan cocktail in hand, Lazarsfeld seldom was or worked alone, and he was always working. What Allen H. Barton termed "the hectic Lazarsfeldian life style" went on to midnight or later; only then did he work for hours alone.4 THE VIENNA YEARS Lazarsfeld came from a professional family, active in the musical, cultural, and political life of turn-of-the-century Vi- enna. His father, Robert, was a lawyer in private practice, rather unsuccessful financially, who often defendecl young political activists without fee. His mother, Sofie, had been trained in in(liviclual psychology by Alfred Acller. Lazarsfeld had three successive marriages: to Marie Jahoda, Herta Her- zog, and Patricia L. Kenciall all his students, all his cowork- ers, and all accomplished social scientists. His daughter Lotte Bailyn is a social psychologist, his son Robert a mathemati- cian. Socialist Youth. Austrian socialism in the early decacles of the twentieth century was not just another political move- ment, particularly for the Lazarsfelc! family and friends. Long after the Vienna years, Lazarsfelcl's boyhood friend Hans Zeise! recallecI that time anct place and notes! that "for a brief moment in history, the humanist icleals of democratic socialism attained reality in the city of Vienna and gave new dignity and pricle to the working class and the intellectuals who had won it." Socialism was integral to the familial, social, intellectual, and political environment of LazarsfelcI's early years. He once said that he had become a socialist the way he had become a Viennese: by birth, anct without much reflec 4 David L. Sills, "Lazarsfeld, Paul F.," in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sci- ences: Biographical Supplement, vol. 18, ed. David L. Sills (New York: Free Press, 1979), p. 419.

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PAUL F. LAZARSFELD 255 tion. But he was a socialist all right. When his mother's friend, the socialist leacler Friecirich Adler, was arrested for assassi- nating the prime minister, Count Karl Sturghk, in August ~ 9 ~ 6, Lazarsfeld attended the trial. He was arrested for taking part in a courtroom demonstration when Actler was convicted. He was active as a leacler in socialist student or- ganizations; he created a monthly newspaper for socialist stu- dents; and he helped found a political cabaret that was to play a seminal role in the clevelopment of both the political anc! theatrical history of Vienna. Lazarsfeld's first publica- tion, coauthored with Ludwig Wagner and published when he was twenty-three, is a report on a children's summer camp they tract established according to socialist principles. Although LazarsfelcT often stressed the importance of his early immersion in the socialist movement, his political activ- ism die! not survive his move to the United States. In later life he used to say that he was still a socialist "in my heart," and once he remarkoct that his intense interest in the organization of social research is "a kind of sublimation of my frustrated political instincts-as I can't run for office, I run institutes." His American students ant! colleagues found him to be es- sentially apolitical. Particularly because he stucliec! voting be- havior, he felt strongly that politics and scholarship should be kept apart. The Wirtschaftpsycholog~sche Forschungsstelle. Lazarsfeld re- ceivec! his Ph.D. in applier! mathematics from the University of Vienna in 1925; his dissertation was an application of Ein- stein's theory of gravitation to the movement of the planet Mercury. While a student, he assisted Charlotte BuhIer in her studies of early childhood anc! youth development. In 1925 he establishec! a research institute cleclicatecI to the applica- tion of psychology to social anc! economic problems the Wirtschaftpsychologische Forschungsstelle. Years later, he recallec! that at the time he establishec! the Forschungsstelle,

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256 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS he also created a formula to explain his interest in applied psychology: "a fighting revolution requires economics (Marx); a victorious revolution requires engineers (Russia); a defeatect revolution calls for psychology (Vienna)." Karl BuhIer became the Forschungsstelle's first president; a board, consisting largely of university professors and busi- ness leaders, was recruited; LazarsfelcI became the research director. Scores of small research projects were carried out- chiefly for business firms, but also for trade unions anct city agencies. " j The Forschungsstelle] came to life in 1925," Hans Zeise! later recalled, "anct sustained itself mainly on ideas, all of them more or less Paul's, on the unabated enthusiasm of its members, and on no money worth talking about." As with most of Lazarsfeld's projects, the participants never forgot the experience. Ilse Zeise} (Hans' sister, who had been an employee of the Forschungsstelle in the 1930s) remarked at the time of Lazarsfeld's death that "in the end it is to the Forschungsstelle and to Paul that we owe our existence if not more," a comment that expresses the intense, almost familial relationship that Lazarsfelct had with many of his associates.5 The Forschungsstelle was the first of four university- related, applied social research institutes founded by Lazars- felcT. The others were the Research Center at the University of Newark, the Office of Radio Research at Princeton Uni- versity, and finally the Bureau of Applied Social Research at Columbia University. The Marienthal Study. The Forschungsstelle's most ambi- tious project was a study of Marienthal, a one-inclustry Aus- trian village twenty-four kilometers southeast of Vienna where the labor force was nearly all unemployed as a result of the severe economic depression in the years after World War I. The study was directed by Marie Rhoda, LazarsfelcI, and Hans Zeisel. The methods used were both imaginative 'Useful accounts of Lazarsfeld's Vienna years are contained in the two Neurath articles cited in footnote 1.

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PAUL F. LAZARSFELD . 257 and eclectic: interviewing, participant observation, life his- tory analysis, and a variety of unobtrusive measures, such as charting the circulation of the socialist party newspaper, which declinect more during the years of wiclespread unem- ployment than clict the circulation of a sports and entertain- ment newspaper. This lack of interest was interpreted as a measure of withclrawal from participation in political affairs. The circulation of books from the workers' library was also examined: although the borrowing fee was abolished during the years 1929-31, the circulation declined by almost half- a clecline that was interpreted as an indication of apathy. The Forschungsstelle carried out a great clear of innova- ive consumer research, and it contributed importantly to the development of this field by making the study of consumer decisions and radio audiences academically respectable. Nevertheless, it is Marienthal, a slim, clearly written volume, that remains the Forschungsstelle's most memorable product ~ tahoda, Lazarsfeld, and Zeise! 19331. The study has im pressect generations of social scientists by its integrated use of quantitative anct qualitative observations. Robert and Helen Lynd, for example, in their Midctletown in Transition (1937), repeatedly refer to the methods and findings of Mar- ienthal. It contributed substantially to the methodology of community studies, and its major fincling, that the prolongect unemployment of workers leads to apathy rather than to rev- olution, foreshadowed the wiclespread lack of resistance to Hitler. Marientha' was banned by the Nazis soon after it was published, and most of the copies were burned, but by 1978 it had become part of the sociology curriculum in German and Austrian universities. In 1979, a group of young Euro- peans undertook a restudy of the vilIage.6 6 See Birgit Flos, Michael Freund, and Janos Marton, "Marienthal 1930-1980," Journal fur Sozialforschung, 23(1):136-49; and Michael Freund, Birgit Flos, and Janos Marton, "The Scars of Unemployment from the 1930s Are Still Visible," Aus- t~ia Todays, 4(1982):49-53.

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258 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS CAREER IN THE UNITED STATES LazarsfelcI first came to the United States in September 1933 as a Rockefeller fellow; he spent the academic year 1933-34 visiting universities, New Deal agencies, ant! market research firms. In most places he tried to learn by attaching himself to one or more research projects. With the enthusi- asm, energy, hard work, and imagination that characterized his entire career, he sent a questionnaire to the eight other European fellows in his group to learn how they had adjusted to life in the United States. At the end of the second year of his fellowship, Lazarsfeld decided to remain in the United States. The deteriorating political situation in Austria following the defeat of the Social Democrats in the civil war of February 1934 had made his return to the University of Vienna impossible; the For- schungsstelle was in the same deficit state he had left it in two years earlier; and his marriage to Marie {ahoda who had remained in Vienna with their daughter hac! ended. So he accepted the job of analyzing some 10,000 questionnaires from young people that had been collected by the New Jersey Relief Administration. Lazarsfelc! soon transformed the proj- ect into the University of Newark Research Center, and be came the director. The Center survived its first year by carrying out studies for the public school system, the Works Progress Aciminis- tration, and the Frankfort Institute for Social Research- then in exile. Located on the fringes of a small university, with only a hancifu} of staff, its abiding meaning is that it was for Lazarsfelc! the American rebirth of his Vienna For schungssteile. The Princeton Radio Project. In 1937 the Rockefeller Foun- dation granted funds to Haclley Cantril, a Princeton psy- chologist, for a lar~e-scale study of the social effects of radio. on tne recommendation of Robert Lyncl, Lazarsfeld was cho

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PAUL F. LAZARSFELD 259 sen to be director. Cantri] and Frank Stanton, then research director, and later president of the Columbia Broadcasting System, were appointed associate directors, and a broact study of radio programming, radio audiences, and the pref- erences of radio listeners was begun. The emphasis was on the secondary analysis of existing survey data; the content analysis of programs; and the use of the Lazarsfelct-Stanton Program Analyzer, a jointly developed crevice for recording the instantaneous likes and dislikes of experimental aucli- ences, following the prototype developed at the Forschungs- stelle in Vienna. The Lazarsfelc! radio research project virtually created the fielcl of mass communications research. It asked why mes- sages are introclucec! into the media and why people attend to them; that is, what gratifications or rewards people get from the media and what functions the media serve in their lives. Herta Herzog's studies of the audiences of daytime ra- clio soap operas and (with HactIey Cantril) of the radio listen- ers who believecl the famous 1938 Orson Welles broadcast of an invasion from Mars are examples, as are the studies of T. W. Aclorno on the social roles of popular and serious mu- sic. Other communications research projects carried out by Lazarsfelcl's associates are Bernard Berelson's study of "What 'Missing the Newspaper' Means," which used the occasion of a 1945 newspaper strike in New York City to ascertain the functions that newspapers serve in the lives of their reaclers, and Leo Lowenthal's 1944 analysis of the biographies of cul- ture heroes published in popular magazines. Lazarsfel(l's own research (1940) on the comparative effects of radio lis- tening and reading was the first serious examination of this important question. His influence on the field outlived him: In 1983 the directors of social research of the nation's three largest networks CBS, ABC, anct NBC were all former students of Lazarsfeld.

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260 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The Bureau of Applied Social Research. In 1939 the Rocke- feller Foundation radio research grant was renewed but transferred from Princeton to Columbia University, where Lazarsfeld was first appointed a lecturer and in 1940 an as- sociate professor of sociology. In 1944 the Office of Radio Research was renamed the Bureau of Applied Social Re- search. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Bureau expancled its program and grew steaclily in terms of both revenue and staff. By the mid-1970s, its annual budget was more than a million (lolIars, and it employed at any one time more than 100 people, half of them full time. In 1977, however, a year after Lazarsfeld's death, the university withdrew its support, the Bureau closed its doors, and its legacy and library were transferred to a new Center for the Social Sciences, located on the Columbia campus. The Bureau's offices were temporary and makeshift throughout its life span; it never quite became the estab- lishecI, university-based social research institute that Lazars- feld hac! first dreamecl of in Vienna. But it survived for forty years, generally amidst administrative chaos, and with con- spicuously little financial support from the university. The research ideas it fostered, the leacling social scientists who were trained there, the innovative research it sheIterect, and its distinctive organizational structure have greatly influ- encecl the institutionalization of the social sciences through- out the worId.7 Lazarsfelc! remained at Columbia from 1940 until his re- tirement in 1969; in 1962, he was appointed Quetelet Pro- fessor of Social Sciences, a chair that had been created for 7 For historical accounts of the Bureau's activities, see Barton, "Paul Lazarsfeld and the Invention of the University Institute," and Phyllis Sheridan, "The Research Bureau in a University Context: Case Study of a Marginal Institution" (doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 1979). See also: Paul F. Lazarsfeld, "An Episode in the History of Social Research: A Memoir," Perspectives in American History, 2( 1 968): 270-337.

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PAUL F. LAZARSFELD 273 national communications research. His mode! for the insti- tutionalization of training and research in the social sciences is embodied in dozens of thriving research organizations around the world. He was one of the founders of the Center for AcIvanced Stucly in the Behavioral Sciences in Stanford, California. His use of the sample survey as a too! for causal analysis helpecI transform opinion polling into a scientific method, anct his development and use of the pane} method has enormously influenced a wicle range of evaluations of the effect of educational or social reform programs. Marginality. In spite of these achievements, Lazarsfelct felt that he was somehow an outsider in America, a marginal person, never at the center of things. Why diet he fee! this way? He thought that it was the result of his Jewishness, his foreignness, his heavy accent, and his interest in such a low- status activity as market research but these reasons are not fully convincing. He lived his life, as he once put it, like a bicycle rider, always compensating so as not to fall off. He left his marginal position at the University of Vienna for equally marginal positions at Newark, Princeton, and (at least initially) Columbia. He left mathematics because he knew that he wouIct never be in the first rank, but he never quite believect that events had transformed him into a sociologist. He approached every new research topic from a startlingly new direction, and he took pricle in the originality of studies carried out at the Columbia Bureau, in contrast to the more traditional research carries! out at other university centers such as those at Chicago and Michigan. Like an expert skier, who knows that the best snow is generally at the edge of the trail, his genius kept him carefully away from the acceptec! center of most problem areas. "But look," he wouIct say with his hand raised, and then proceed to outline a highly original plan of action.

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274 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Lazarsfeld's self-perception of marginality was allies! to his conception of his role in the social sciences: to be on the margin is also to be on the frontier. It can also be argued that his marginality contributed to the intellectual traffic between icleas and methods that made him a singularly influential fig- ure in the history of social research. In a memorial article published in Le Monde shortly after Lazarsfeld's death, Ray- moncI Boudon notec! that "his work has attained the most noble form of marginality: many of the ideas which he intro- cluced have become so familiar that hardly anyone bothers to attribute their paternity to him." The Search for Convergences. One consequence of Lazars- felcl's sense of marginality for his intellectual activity was his never-ending search for convergences between different in- tellectual traditions- convergences that couch serve to enrich both traditions. His search for convergences undoubtedly was a result of being Viennese: boIc! syntheses are character- istic intellectual products of Vienna. His collaboration with the theorist Merton is the most obvious of these conver- gences. Other convergences that he encouraged were be- tween disciplines: psychology and sociology; mathematics and sociology; anthropology and media research; and so- ciometry and survey research. He sought both a convergence and a mutual unclerstanding between the critical sociology of the Frankfort school (see especially the writings of T. W. Actorno) ant! the dominant positivistic trend in American so- ciology, as well as between Marxist sociology and mainline European-American sociology. Other convergences he sought were between the social sciences and the humanities. He user! his early studies of ra- clio to build bridges between the social sciences and such fields as literary analysis and music. He sought to relate the philosophy of science and empirical social research, historical analysis anct opinion research, and logic and concept for

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PAUL F. LAZARSFELD 275 mation. While some of his critics were accusing him of mind- less quantification, he was spending time reading and talking with some of the nation's leading humanists, historians, and philosophers. Finally, he sought convergences between different re- search traditions and methods. He made connections be- tween small-group research and the use of sample surveys to study interpersonal influence (Katz and Lazarsfeld 1955) and between the use of fixed-choice questions in surveys and so-called open-ended interviewing. His work on concept for- mation (1966) and index construction (see Lazarsfeld, Pasa- nelIa, and Rosenberg 1972) is a monument to interdiscipli- nary borrowing and to making connections. With Allen Barton, he took a polemic of C. Wright Mills against the de- cline of "craftsmanship" and developed it into a scheme for studying the man-job relationship (Barton and Lazarsfeld ~ 9551. And he encouraged the foremost qualitative re- searcher of the ~ 950s David Riesman to reinterview a sample of the respondents during his study of American so- cial scientists (Lazarsfeld and Thielens 19581. A volume of interdisciplinary essays edited by Mirra Komarovsky, Com- mon Frontiers of the Social Sciences (1957), was inspired by him ~ r. and prepared under his general direction. A modern-day reonarcto cta Croci, he largely ignored the traditional spe- cialization of knowledge and sought to find new truths by . . . . bringing people and ideas together. The convergence in the social sciences that Lazarsfeld tried hardest to effect is that between quantitative and qual- itative research. In almost every field in which he worked, he tried to fuse these two productive modes of inquiry: it was the theme with which he ended his presidential address to the American Sociological Association; the journal Quality and Quantity was founded in 1967 under his direct influence; and for all these reasons the Festschrift in his memory is en

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276 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS titled Qualitative ant! Quantitative Social Researches In the words of James S. Coleman, he was "one of those rare soci- ologists who shaped the direction of the discipline for the succeeding generation." i4 THE AUTHOR IS PARTICULARLY GRATEFUL for the assistance and suggestions of the following friends and associates of Paul F. Lazarsfeld: Albert E. Gollin, Patricia L. Kendall, Robert K. Mer- ton, Paul M. Neurath, and Hans Zeisel. A. '3 See Merton, Coleman, and Rossi, Qualitative and Quantitative Social Research. '4 Coleman, "Paul S. Lazarsfeld," p. 1.

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PAUL F. LAZARSFELD SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 277 This bibliography contains only a selection of Lazarsfeld's major schol- arly publications. Extensive bibliographies may be found in Paul M. Neu- rath, "The Writings of Paul F. Lazarsfeld: A Topical Bibliography," op. cit.; in Lazarsfeld 1982; in Merton, Coleman, and Rossi, Qualitative and Quan- titative Social Research; op. cit.; and in Sills, "Lazarsfeld, Paul F.," op. cit. 1933 With Marie Rhoda and Hans Zeisel. Die Arbeitslosen von Marienthal: Fin Soziographischer Versuch uber die Wirkungen langdauernder Arbeitslosigkeit. Leipzig: Hirzel. (English trans., Marienthal: The Sociography of an Unemployed Community. Chicago: Aldine, 1971. The 1971 edition contains a new foreword by Lazarsfeld and an afterword by Zeisel entitled "Toward a History of Sociogra- phy.") 1935 The art of asking why. Natl. Market. Rev., 1 :32-43. (Reprinted in Lazarsfeld 1972.) 1937 With Samuel A. StouEer. Research Memorandum on the Family in the Depression. New York: Social Science Research Council. (Re- printed, New York: Arno Press, 1971.) 1939 Ed. Radio research and applied psychology. J. Appl. Psychol., 23: 1- 219. 1940 Radio and the Printed Page: An Introduction to the Study of Radio and Its Role in the Communication of Ideas. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce. (Reprinted, New York: Arno Press, 1971.) 1941 With Frank N. Stanton, eds. Radio Research 1941. New York: Essen- tial Books. 1943 With Robert K. Merton. Studies in radio and film propaganda. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 2d. ser., 6:58-79.

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278 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1944 The controversy over detailed interviews an offer for negotia- tion. Public Opinion Q., 8:38-60. With Bernard Berelson and Hazel Gaudet. The People's Choice: How the Voter Makes Up His Mind in a Presidential Campaign, 3d ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1968. (Also published in German and Spanish.) With Frank N. Stanton, eds. Radio Research 1942-1943. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce. 1950 The obligations of the 1950 pollster to the 1984 historian. Public Opinion Q. 14:618-38. (Also in: Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Qualitative Analysis: Historical and Critical Essays, pp. 278-99. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1 972; Lazarsfeld 1 982.) With Patricia L. Kendall. Problems of survey analysis. In: Conti- nuities in Social Research: Studies in the Scope and Method of "The American Soldier," ed. Paul F. Lazarsfeld and Robert K. Merton, pp. 133-96. New York: Free Press. (Reprinted, New York: Arno Press, 1974.) With Robert K. Merton. A professional school for training in social research. New York: Columbia University, Mimeo. (Also in: Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Qualitative Analysis: Historical and Critical Es- says, pp. 361-91. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1972.) With Robert K. Merton, ed. Continuities in Social Research: Studies in the Scope and Method of "The American Soldier." New York: Free Press. (Reprinted, New York: Arno Press, 1974. 1951 With Allen H. Barton. Qualitative measurement in the social sci- ences: Classification, typologies and indices. In: The Policy Sci- ences: Recent Developments in Scope and Method, ed. Daniel Lerner and Harold D. Lasswell, pp. 155-93. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. (Reprinted in part in Lazarsfeld and Rosen- berg 1955 and in Lazarsfeld 1972.) 1954 Ed. Mathematical Thinking in the Social Sciences, New York: Free Press. (Second ea., rev., New York: Russell, 1969.)

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PAUL F. LAZARSFELD 279 With Bernard Berelson and William N. McPhee. Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. With Robert K. Merton. Friendship as social process: A substantive and methodological analysis. In: Freedom and Control in Modern Society, ed. Morroe Berger, Theodore Abel, and Charles Page, pp. 18-66. New York: Van Nostrand. (Reprinted in Lazarsfeld 1982.) 1955 With Morris Rosenberg, eds. The Language of Social Research: A Reader in the Methodology of Social Research. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press. With Allen H. Barton. Some functions of qualitative analysis in social research. Frank. beitrage zur Soziol., 1:321-61. (Re- printed in Lazarsfeld 1982.) With Elihu Katz. Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow oiMass Communications. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press. 1958 Historical notes on the empirical study of action: An intellectual odyssey. New York: Columbia University, Mimeo. (Also in: Qual- itative Analysis: Historical and Critical Essays, ed. Paul F. Lazars- feld, pp. 53-105. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1972.) With Wagner Thielens, Jr The Academic Mind: Social Scientists in a Time of Crisis. New York: Free Press. (Reprinted, New York: Arno Press, 1977.) 1959 Latent structure analysis. In: Psychology: A Study of a Science, vol. 3, Formulations of the Person and the Social Context, ed. Sigmund Koch, pp. 476-543. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1961 Notes on the history of quantification in sociology trends, sources and problems. In: Quantification: A History of the Meaning of Mea- surement in the Natural and Social Sciences, ed. Harry Woolf, pp. 147-203. Indianapolis and New York: Bobbs-Merrill. (Also in: Isis f 1961], and Lazarsfeld 1982.)

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280 BIOGRAPHICAL MEM OIRS With Herbert Menzel. On the relation between individual and col- lective properties. In: Complex Organizations: A Sociological Reader, ed. Amitai Etzioni, pp. 499-516. New York: Holt, Rine- hart, and Winston. (Also in: Continuities in the Language of Social Research, ed. Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Ann K. Pasanella, and Morris Rosenberg, pp. 225-37. New York: Free Press, 1972. Reprinted in Lazarsfeld 1982.) 1962 Interviews with Paul F. Lazarsfeld. In: Oral History (a transcript of interviews on file at the office of the Oral History Project, Co- lumbia University). The sociology of empirical social research. Am. Sociol. Rev., 27: 757-67. (Reprinted in Lazarsfeld 1972b.) 1965 With Anthony Oberschall. Max Weber and empirical social re- search. Am. Sociol. Rev., 30:185-99. 1966 Concept formation and measurement in the behavioral sciences: Some historical observations. In: Concepts, Theory and Explana- tion in the Behavioral Sciences, ed. Gordon l. DiRenzo, pp. 270- 337. New York: Random House. (Rev. ea., Notes on the history of concept formation. In: Qualitative Analysis: Historical and Crit- ical Essays, pp. 5-52. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1972.) With Neil W. Henry, eds. Readings in Mathematical Social Science. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc. 1967 With William H. Sewell and Harold L. Wilensky, eds. The Uses of Sociology. New York: Basic Books. 1968 An episode in the history of social research: A memoir. Perspect. Am. Hist., 2:270-337. (Reprinted in Lazarsfeld 1972 and 1982. Also in: The Intellectual Migration: Europe and America, 1930- 1960, ed. Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969.)

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PAUL F. LAZARSFELD 281 Survey analysis: The analysis of attribute data. In: International En- cyclopedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 15, ed. David L. Sills, pp. 419- 29. New York: Macmillan and Free Press. With Neil W. Henry. Latent Structure Analysis. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. With David Landau. Quetelet, Adolphe. In: International Encyclo- pedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 13, ed. David L. Sills, pp. 247-57. New York: Macmillan and Free Press. 1970 Sociology. In: Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sci- ences, pp. 61-165. Paris and The Hague: Mouton/United Na- tions Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (Re- printed in part in Lazarsfeld 1972.) 1972 Qualitative Analysis: Historical and Critical Essays. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. (Contains essays first published between 1935 and 1972.) With Ann K. Pasanella and Morris Rosenberg, eds. Continuities in the Language of Social Research. New York: Free Press. 1975 Working with Merton. In: The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton, ed. Lewis A. Coser, pp. 35-66. New York: Harcourt. With Jeffrey G. Reitz and Ann K. Pasanella. An Introduction to Ap- plied Sociology. New York: Elsevier. 1982 The Varied Sociology of Paul ~ Lazarsfeld, ed. Patricia L. Kendall. New York: Columbia University Press. (Introduction by James S. Coleman; "An Episode in the History of Social Research: A Memoir" ~1968~; "The Obligations of the 1950 Pollster to the 1984 Historian" ~ 1950~; "Notes on the History of Quantification in Sociology Trends, Sources, and Problems" ~ 1 96 1 i; "Prob- lems in Methodology" ~19594; "The Interpretation of Statistical Relations as a Research Operation" t19554; "On the Relation

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282 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Between Individual and Collective Properties" t1961, with Her- bert Menzel]; "Some Functions of Qualitative Analysis in Social Research" ~1955, with Allen H. Bartoni; "The Use of Panels in Social Research" t1948~; and "Friendship as Social Process: A Substantive and Methodological Analysis" ~1954, with Robert K. Merton].)

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