References

Agunod M, Yamaguchi N, Lopez R, Luhby AL, Glass GBJ. 1969. Correlative study of hydrochloric acid, pepsin and intrinsic factor secretion in newborns and infants. Am J Dig Dis 14:400-14.

Alavantic D, Sunjevark I, Pecevsk J, Bozin D, Cerovic G. 1988a. In vivo genotoxicity of nitrates and nitrites in germ cells of male mice. I. Evidence for gonadal exposure and lack of heritable effects. Mutat Res 203:689-95.

Alavantic D, Sunjevark I, Cerovic G, Bozin D, Pecevski J. 1988b. In vivo genotxicity of nitrates and nitrites in germ cells of male mice. II. Unscheduled DNA synthesis and sperm abnormality after treatment of spermatids. Mutat Res 204:697-701.

Al-Dabbagh S, Forman D, Dryson D. 1986. Mortality of nitrate fertilizer workers. Br J Indus Med 43:507-15.

Anquela JM, Rodriguez MS, Ruiz LJM, Gimero EE, Sanz MM, Almendral, LML. 1989. Correlacion del riesgo de cancer gastrico en la provincia de soria con el contenido de nitratos en las aquas de bebida. Rev Esp Enf Ap Digest 75:561-65.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 53
Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water References Agunod M, Yamaguchi N, Lopez R, Luhby AL, Glass GBJ. 1969. Correlative study of hydrochloric acid, pepsin and intrinsic factor secretion in newborns and infants. Am J Dig Dis 14:400-14. Alavantic D, Sunjevark I, Pecevsk J, Bozin D, Cerovic G. 1988a. In vivo genotoxicity of nitrates and nitrites in germ cells of male mice. I. Evidence for gonadal exposure and lack of heritable effects. Mutat Res 203:689-95. Alavantic D, Sunjevark I, Cerovic G, Bozin D, Pecevski J. 1988b. In vivo genotxicity of nitrates and nitrites in germ cells of male mice. II. Unscheduled DNA synthesis and sperm abnormality after treatment of spermatids. Mutat Res 204:697-701. Al-Dabbagh S, Forman D, Dryson D. 1986. Mortality of nitrate fertilizer workers. Br J Indus Med 43:507-15. Anquela JM, Rodriguez MS, Ruiz LJM, Gimero EE, Sanz MM, Almendral, LML. 1989. Correlacion del riesgo de cancer gastrico en la provincia de soria con el contenido de nitratos en las aquas de bebida. Rev Esp Enf Ap Digest 75:561-65.

OCR for page 53
Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water Arbuckle TE, Sherman GJ, Corey PN, Walter D, Lu B. 1988. Water nitrates and CNS birth defects: a population-based case-control study. Arch Environ Health 43:162-7. Aschengrau A, Zierler S, Cohen A. 1989. Quality of community drinking water and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. Arch Environ Health 44:283-90. Beresford SA. 1985. Is nitrate in the drinking water associated with the risk of cancer in the urban U.K.? Int J Epidemiol 14:57-63. Billiar TR, Curran RD, Ferrari FK, Williams DL, Simmons RL. 1990. Kupffer cell: hepatocyte cocultures release nitric oxide in response to bacterial endotoxin. J Surg Res 48:349-53.. Bodo T. 1955. Über “alimentäre” Nitrat-methämoglobinämien im frühen Säuglingsalter. Monatsch Kinderheilk 103:8-11. Boeing G, Schlehofer B, Blettner M, Wahrendorf J. 1993. Dietary carcinogens and the risk for glioma and meningioma in Germany. Int J Cancer 53:561-5. Bruning-Fann CS, Kaneene JB. 1993. The effects of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitroso compounds on human health: a review. Vet Human Toxicol 35:521-38. Buiatti E, Palli D, Decarli A, Amadori D, Avellini C, Bianchi S, Bonaguri C, Cipriani F, Cocco P, Giacosa A, and others. 1990. A case-control study of gastric cancer and diet in Italy. II. Association with nutrients. Int J Cancer 45:896-901. Bunin GR, Kuijten RR, Buckley JD, Rorke LB, Meadows AT. 1993. Relation between maternal diet and subsequent primitive neuroectodermal brain tumors in young children. New Engl J Med 329:536-41. Bunin GR, Kuitjen RR, Boesel CP, Buckley JD, Meadows, AT. 1994. Maternal diet and risk of astrocytic glioma in children: a report from the Childrens Cancer Group (United States and Canada). Cancer Causes and Control 5:177-87.

OCR for page 53
Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water Chen F, Cole P, Mi Z, Xing L. 1993. Corn and wheat-flour consumption and mortality from esophageal cancer in Shanzi, China. Int J Cancer 53:902-6. Chen VW, Abu-Elyazeed RR, Zavala DE, Haenszel W, Ktsanes VK, Rice J, Cuello C, Montes G, Correa P. 1990. Risk factors of gastric precancerous lesions in a high-risk Colombian population. II. Nitrate and nitrite. Nutr Cancer 13:67-72. Correa P. 1992. Human gastric carcinogenesis: a multistep and multifactorial process. First American Cancer Society Award Lecture on Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. Cancer Res 52:6735-40. Craun GF, Greathouse DG, Gunderson DH. 1981. Methemoglobin levels in young children consuming high nitrate well water in the United States. Int J Epidemiol 10:309-17. Cuello C, Correa P, Haenszel W, Gordillo G, Brown C, Archer M, Tannenbaum S. 1976. Gastric cancer in Colombia. I. Cancer risk and suspect environmental agents. J Natl Cancer Inst 5:1015-20. Davies JM. 1980. Stomach cancer mortality in Worksop and other Nottinghamshire mining towns. Br J Cancer 41:438-45. Dorsch MM, Scragg RKR, McMichael PA, Baghurst PA, Dyer K.F. 1984. Congenital malformation and maternal drinking water supply in rural south Australia: A case-control study. J Epidemiol 119:473-86. ECETOC (European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre). 1988. Nitrate and drinking water. Technical Report nr. 27. Brussels: ECETOC. Eisenbrand G, Spiegelhalder B, and Preussman R. 1981. Analysis of human biological specimens for nitrosamine content. In: Bruce WR, Correa P, Lipkin M, Tannenbaum SR, Wilkins TD, editors. Gastrointestinal cancer: endogenous factors. Banbury Report nr. 7. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

OCR for page 53
Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Criteria and Standards Division, Office of Drinking Water. 1990a. Drinking water criteria document on nitrate/nitrite. Washington, DC. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1990b. Estimated national occurrence and exposure to nitrate/nitrite in public drinking water supplies. Prepared by Wade Miller Associates, Inc. under EPA contract nr. 68-03-3514. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1991. National primary drinking water regulations; final rule. 40 CFR Parts 141, 142, and 143. Fed Reg 56(20):3526-97. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 1972a. Teratologic evaluation of FDA 71-7 (sodium nitrate). Report nr. FDABF-GRAS-042. Maspeth, NY: Food and Drug Research Laboratories, Inc. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 1972b. Teratologic evaluation of FDA 71-8 (potassium nitrate). Report nr. FDABF-GRAS-041. Maspeth, NY: Food and Drug Research Laboratories, Inc. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 1972c. Teratologic evaluation of FDA 71-10 (potassium nitrite). Report nr. FDABF-GRAS-065. Maspeth, NY: Food and Drug Research Laboratories, Inc. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 1972d. Teratologic evaluation of FDA 71-9 (sodium nitrite). Report nr. FDABF-GRAS-061. Maspeth, NY: Food and Drug Research Laboratories, Inc. Federal Register. 1992. “A Cross-Species Scaling Factor for Carcinogen Risk Assessment Based on Equivalence of mg/kg¾/Day; Notice” (EPA FRL-4139-7). Fed Reg 57:109 (5 June 1992) p 24152-173. Fontham E, Zavala D, Correa P, Rodriquez E, Hunter F, Haenszel W, Tannenbaum SR. 1986. Diet and chronic atrophic gastritis: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 76:621-7.

OCR for page 53
Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water Forman D, Al-Dabbagh S, Doll R. 1985. Nitrates, nitrites, and gastric cancer in Great Britain. Nature 313:620-5. Fraser P, Chilvers C, Goldblatt P. 1982. Census-based mortality study of fertilizer manufacturers. Br J Indus Med 39:323-9. Gilli G, Corrao G, Favilli S. 1984. Concentrations of nitrates in drinking water and incidence of gastric carcinomas: first descriptive study of the Piemonte region, Italy. Sci Tot Environ 34:35-48. González CA, Riboli E, Badosa J, Batiste E, Cardona T, Pita S, Sanz JM, Torrent M, and Agudo A. 1994. Nutritional factors and gastric cancer in Spain. Am J Epid 139:466-73. Green LC, Ruiz de Luzuriaga K, Wagner DA, Rand W, Istfan N, Young VR, Tannenbaum SR. 1981. Nitrate biosynthesis in man. Proc Natl Acad Sci 78:7764-8. Greenblatt M, Mirvish SS. 1972. Dose-response studies with concurrent administration of piperazine and sodium nitrite to strain A mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 49:119-24. Hansson LE, Nyren O, Bergstrom R, Wolk A, Lindgren A, Baron J, Adami HO. 1994. Nutrients and gastric cancer risk: a population-based case-control study in Sweden. Int J Cancer 57:638-44. Hegesh E, Shiloah J. 1982. Blood nitrates and infantile methaemoglobinemia. Clin Chim Acta 125:107-15. Hugot D, Causeret J, Richir C. 1980. The influence of large amounts of sodium nitrite on the reproductive performances in female rats. Ann Nutr Allim 34:1115-24. Hull D, Johnstone DI. 1987. Essential pediatrics. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Hwang H, Dwyer J, Russell RM. 1994. Diet, Helicobacter pylori infection, food preservation and gastric cancer risk: are there new roles for preventative factors? Nutr Rev 52:75-83. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection).

OCR for page 53
Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water 1975. Report of the Task Group on Reference Man. ICRP Publication nr. 23. New York: Pergamon Press. Inui N, Nishi Y, Hasegawa MM, Taketumi M, Yamamoto M, Tanimura A. 1980. Induction of 8-azaguanine-resistant mutation and neoplastic transformaion of hamster embryonic cells by coadministration of sodium nitrite and aminopyrine. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 97:119-28. Isaacson RL, Fahey JM. 1987. Some anatomical and behavioral consequences of acute sodium nitrate administration. Neuroscience Res Comm 1:39-45. Ivankovic S, Preussmann R, Schmähl D, Zeller JW. 1973. Prevention of nitrosamide-induced hydrocephali by ascorbic acid after prenatal administration of ethylurea and nitrite in rats. Z Krebsforsch 79:145-7. Iyengar R, Stuehr DJ, Marletta MA. 1987. Macrophage synthesis of nitrite, nitrate, and N-nitrosamines: precursors and role of the respiratory burst. Proc Natl Acad Sci 84:6369-73. Joint Iran-International Agency for International Research on Cancer Study Group. 1977. Esophageal cancer studies in the Caspian littoral of Iran: results of population studies—a prodrome. J Natl Cancer Inst 59:1127-38. Jones GM. 1992. Food Safety. St. Paul: Eagan Press. Food additives. Juhasz L, Hill MJ, Nagy G. 1980. Possible relationship between nitrate in drinking water and incidence of stomach cancer. International Agency for Research on Cancer Publication nr. 31. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Kamm JJ, Dashman T, Conney AH, Burns JJ. 1975. Effect of ascorbic acid o amine-nitrite toxicity. Ann NY Acad Sci 258:169-74. Kammerer M. 1993. Influence des nitrates sur la reproduction chez les mammifères domestiques. Contracep Fertil Sex 21:642-7.

OCR for page 53
Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water Kammerer M, Siliart B. 1993. Toxicité à moyen terme des nitrates: évaluation expérimentale des effets sur les fonctions de reproduction chez la lapine. Ann Rech Vet 24:434-44. Knight TM, Leach S, Forman D, Vindigni C, Packer P, Venitt S, Minacci C, Lorenzini L, Tosi P, Frosini G, and others. 1991. N-nitrosoproline excretion in the presence and absence of gastric disease. Eur J Cancer 27:456-61. Knowles RG, Palacios M, Palmer RJM, Moncada S. 1989. Formation of nitric oxide from L-arginine in the central nervous system: a transduction mechanism for stimulation of the soluble guanylate cyclase. Proc Natl Acad Sci 86:5159-62. Lanza E, Jones DY, Block G, Keffler, L. 1987. Dietary fiber intake in the U.S. population. Am J Clin Nutr 46:490-7. Lee K, Greger JL, Consaul JR, Graham KL, Chinn BL. 1986. Nitrate, nitrite balance, and de novo synthesis of nitrate in humans consuming cured meats. Am J Clin Nutr 44:188-94. Markel E, Nyakas C, Ormai S. 1989. Nitrate induced changes in sensorimotor development and learning behavior in rats. Acta Physiol Hung 74:69-75. Massey RC, Key PE, Mallett AK, Rowland IR. 1988. An investigation of the endogenous formation of apparent total N-nitroso compounds in conventional microflora and germ-free rats. Fd Chem Toxicol 26:595-600. McCall TB, Boughton-Smith NK, Palmer RMJ, Whittle BJR, Moncada S. 1989. Synthesis of nitric oxide from L-arginine by neutrophils. Biochem J 261:293-6. Mokhtar NM, el-Aaser AA, el-Bolkainy MN, Ibrahim HA, el-Din NB, Moharram NZ. 1988. Effect of soybean feeding on experimental carcinogenesis. III. Carcinogenicity of nitrite and dibutylamine in mice: a histopathological study. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 24:403-11. NRC (National Research Council). 1981. The health effects of

OCR for page 53
Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Diet and health: implications for reducing chronic disease risk. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Palmer RMJ, Ashton DS, Moncada S. 1988. Vascular endothelial cells synthesize nitric oxide from L-arginine. Nature 333:664-6. Peto R, Gray R, Brantom P, Grasso P. 1984. Nitrosamine carcinogenesis in 5120 rodents: chronic administration of sixteen different concentrations of NDEA, NDMA, NPYR, and NPIP in the water of 4440 inbred rats, with parallel studies on NDEA alone of the effect of age of starting (3, 6 or 20 weeks) and of species (rats, mice or hamsters). International Agency for Research on Cancer Scientific Publ. nr. 57. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Preussman R, Stewart BW. 1984. N-Nitroso carcinogens. Am Chem Soc Mongraphs 182:643-828. Rademacher JJ, Young TB, Kanarek MS. 1992. Gastric cancer mortality and nitrate levels in Wisconsin drinking water. Arch Environ Health 47:292-4. Risch HA, Jain M, Choi NW, Fodor JG, Pfeiffer CJ, Howe GR, Harrison LW, Craib KJP, Miller AB. 1985. Dietary factors and the incidence of cancer of the stomach. Am J Epidemiol 122:947-59. Roth AC, Herkert GE, Berca JP, Smith MK. 1987. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of sodium nitrite in Long-Evans rats. Fund Appl Toxicol 9:668-77. Scragg RKR, Dorsch MM, McMichael AJ, Baghurst PA. 1982. Birth defects and household water supply. Med J Aust 2:577-9. Shepard SE, Schlatter C, Lutz WK. 1987. Assessment of the risk of formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds from dietary precursors in the stomach. Food Chem Toxicol 25:91-108. Simon C, Kay H, Mrowetz G. 1962. Über die bakteriostätische

OCR for page 53
Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water Wirkung von Milch und Zitronensäúre auf nitratspaltende Bakterien in Säúglingsmilchzubereitungen in Hindblick auf eine Prophylaxe der Meth ämoglobinämie. Milchwissenschaft 17:661-8. Simon C, Manzke H, Kay H, Mrowetz G. 1964. Über Vorkommen, Pathogenese und Möglichkeiten zur Prophylaxe der durch Nitrit verursachten Methämoglobinämie. Z Kinderheilk 91:124-38. Sleight SD, Atallah OA. 1968. Reproduction in the guinea pig as affected by chronic administration of potassium nitrate and potassium nitrite. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 12:179-85. Smith RP, Wilcox DE. 1994. Toxicology of selected nitric oxide-donating xenobiotics, with particular reference to azide. Crit Rev Toxicol 24:355-77. Sobala GM, Pignatelli B, Schorah CJ, Bartsch H, Sanderson M, Dixon MF, Shires S, King RFG, Axon ATR. 1991. Levels of nitrite, nitrate, N-nitroso compounds, ascorbic acid and total bile acids in gastric juice of patients with and without precancerous conditions of the stomach. Carcinogenesis 12:193-8. Sollman T. 1957. A manual of pharmacology and its applications to therapeutics and toxicology. 8th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. 1991. A review of vegetables, fruit, and cancer. I. Epidemiology. Cancer Causes Control 2:325-57. Stephany RW, Schuller PL. 1980. Daily dietary intakes of nitrate, nitrite and volatile N-nitrosamines in Netherland during duplicate portion sampling technique. Oncology 73:203-10. Stillwell WG, Glogowski J, Xu HX, Wishnok JS, Zavala D, Montes G, Correa P, Tannenbaum SR. 1991. Urinary excretion of nitrate, N-nitrosoproline, 3-methyladenine, and 7-methylguanine in a Colombian population at high risk for stomach cancer. Cancer Res 51:190-4.

OCR for page 53
Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water Stuehr DJ, Marletta, MA. 1986. The relevance of N-nitroso compounds to human cancer: exposure and mechanisms. International Agency for Research on Cancer Publication nr. 84. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Further studies on murine macrophage synthesis of nitrite and nitrate. Tannenbaum SR, Fett D, Young VR, Land PD, Bruce WR. 1978. Nitrite and nitrate are formed by endogenous synthesis in the human intestine. Science 200:1487-9. Taylor HW, Lijinsky W. 1975. Tumor induction in rats by feeding heptamethyleneimine and nitrite in water. Cancer Res 35:812-5. Teramoto S, Saito R, Shirasu Y. 1980. Teratogenic effects of combined administration of ethylenethiourea and nitrite in mice. Teratology 21:71-8. Thamavit W, Moore MA, Hiasa Y, Ito N. 1988. Generation of high yields of Syrian hamster cholangiocellular carcinomas and hepatocellular nodules by combined nitrite and aminopyrine administration and Opisthorchis viverrini infection. Jpn J Cancer Res 79:909-16. Toussaint VW, Würkert K. 1982. Methämoglobinämie im Säúglingsalter. In: Selenka F, editor. Nitrat-Nitrit-Nitrosamine in Gewassern. Bonn: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Van den Brandt PA, Willett WC, Tannenbaum SR. 1989. Assessment of dietary nitrate intake by a self-administered questionnaire and by overnight urinary measurement. Int J Epidemiol 18:852-7. Viveiros DM, Tondat IM. 1978. Effects of sodium nitrite on DRL performance in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 8:125-7. Wagner DA, Tannenbaum SR. 1982. Enhancement of nitrate biosynthesis by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. In: Magee PN, editor. Nitrosamines and human cancer. Banbury Report nr. 12. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. p. 437-43.

OCR for page 53
Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water Wagner DA, Schultz DS, Deen WM, Young VR, Tannenbaum SR. 1983. Metabolic fate of an oral dose of 15N-labelled nitrate in humans: effect of diet supplementation with ascorbic acid. Cancer Res 43:1921-5. Walker R. 1990. Nitrates, nitrites and N-nitroso compounds: a review of the occurrence in food and diet and the toxicological implications. Fd Add Contam 7:717-68. Walters CL, Smith PLR. 1981. The effect of water-borne nitrate on salivary nitrate. Fd Chem Toxicol 19:297-302. Walton G. 1951. Survey of literature relating to infant methemoglobinemia due to nitrate contaminated water. Am J Pub Health 41:986-96. Würkert K. 1978. Field study of the influences of methemoglobin-forming factors in Rhenihessen: the concentration of methemoglobin in babies during their first three months of life. Zbl Bakt Hyg, I. Abt Orig B 166:361-74. Xu G, Song P, Reed PI. 1992. The relationship between gastric mucosal changes and nitrate intake via drinking water in a high-risk population for gastric cancer in Moping County, China. Eur J Cancer Prev 1:437-43. Yamamoto K, Nakajima A, Eimoto H, Tsutsumi M, Maruyama N, Denda A, Nii H, Mori Y, and Konishi Y. 1989. Carcinogenic activity of endogenously synthesized N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine in rats administered bis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine and sodium nitrite. Carcinogenesis 10:1607-11.

OCR for page 53
Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water This page in the original is blank.