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Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water CONTENTS     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1  1   INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND   9  2   HAZARD IDENTIFICATION   13      Methemoglobinemia,   13      Cancer,   15      Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity,   23      Other Effects,   27  3   DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT   29      Methemoglobinemia,   29      Cancer,   31      Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity,   32      Other Effects,   33  4   EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT   35      Exposure from Food and Water,   35      Endogenous Synthesis,   37      Estimated Daily Intake,   37      Biologic Fate,   42  5   RISK CHARACTERIZATION   45      Cancer Risks,   46      Noncancer Risks,   48

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Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water     APPENDIX A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Assessing the Risk of Cancer Associated with Nitrate Exposure   51     REFERENCES   53

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Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water

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